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Planning Teaching Sessions
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Planning Teaching Sessions


Seminar by Shameena Tamachi given at the Fastbleep Clinical Teacher event.

Seminar by Shameena Tamachi given at the Fastbleep Clinical Teacher event.

Published in Education
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    PAL Manchester
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    To review the strengths, challenges and common problems associated with clinical teaching
    To gain an awareness of how doctors teach and how students learn
    To understand the importance of planning
    To learn techniques for creating effective teaching sessions
  • 3. Reflecting on past experiences
    Describe a teaching session which you found to be particularly effective.
    Describe any problems you’ve had in a teaching session and why you found this session to be problematic.
    What do you think makes for a well-planned teaching session?
  • 4. Strengths of clinical teaching
    • Focus on real problems
    • 5. Learners are motivated by its relevance and through active participation
    • 6. Professional thinking, behaviour and attitudes are modelled by teachers
    • 7. Only setting in which history-taking, physical examination, clinical reasoning, decision-making, empathy and professionalism can be taught and learned as an integrated whole
  • Challenges of clinical teaching
    Time pressures
    Competing demands
    Often opportunistic
    Increasing numbers of students
    Fewer patients
    Clinical environment often not “teacher friendly”
  • 8. Common problems with clinical teaching
    • Lack of clear objectives and expectations
    • 9. Focus on recall rather than on development of problem-solving and attitudes
    • 10. Teaching pitched at wrong level – often too high
    • 11. Passive observation vs. active participation
    • 12. Little opportunity for discussion and reflection
    • 13. “Teaching by humiliation”
    • 14. Lack of congruence with curriculum
  • How doctors teach
    All doctors are involved in teaching activities
    Most undertake teaching conscientiously and enthusiastically
    However, few receive any formal training
    Assumption that if person has in-depth of a particular subject, they will be able to teach it
    Effective clinical teachers use several, perhaps overlapping, forms of knowledge
  • 15. How students learn
    Understanding the learning process will help clinical teachers to be more effective
    Several theories of learning are relevant:
    Learning is an active process
    Cognitive theories state that learning involves information processing through interplay between existing knowledge and new knowledge
    Knowledge will be more easily retrieved if learning takes place in context it will be used
  • 16. How Cognitive Learning Theory is used in clinical teaching
    Help students to identify what they already know
    Activate prior knowledge through brainstorming
    Help students to elaborate their knowledge
    Use clinical examples, comparisons, analogies
    Debrief students afterwards
    Promote discussion and reflection
    Provide relevant contexts for learning
  • 17. Experiential Learning Theory
    Learning is most effective when based on experience
    A cyclical process linking concrete experience with abstract conceptualisation through reflection and planning
  • 18. Experiential Learning Cycle
    (Kolb 1984)
    • The learning cycle provides a useful framework for planning teaching sessions
    • 19. Planning involves anticipating application of new theories and skills
    • 20. Reflection means standing back and thinking about experience
  • Case Study – using Experiential Learning Theory in a clinical teaching session
    Setting – 6 third year medical students doing an introductory clinical skills course
    Topic – physical examination of patients with musculoskeletal problems. 3 patients with signs of RA are recruited from the community
  • 21. Case Study – using Experiential Learning Theory in a clinical teaching session
    How is the session executed?
    Planning – brainstorming activates prior knowledge
    Experience – students examine patients in pairs under supervision of tutor
    Reflection – feedback and discussion provides opportunities to elaborate knowledge
    Theory – didactic input from teacher links practice with theory
    Planning – “what have I learned?” and “how will I approach a patient next time?”
  • 22. Case Study 2 – learning to apply Experiential Learning Theory
    Setting – 4 medical students from different clinical years wish to practice clinical skills for OSCE
    Topic – physical examination of simulated patient with hyperthyroidism
  • 23. Case Study 2 – learning to apply Experiential Learning Theory
    Devise a teaching session
    Planning – create framework and structure for task by asking students to brainstorm signs and symptoms of thyroid disease
    Experience – students do focused neck examination under supervision of tutor
    Reflection – generate discussion and give feedback
    Theory – tutor gives clinical information about hyperthyroidism, linking theory with practice
    Planning – prepare students for next encounter and enable evaluation of session
  • 24. The 6 Ps
    “Proper planning prevents poor performance.”
    What level to pitch at?
  • 25. Creating teaching materials
    It is important to create effective teaching materials because…
    they have a substantial effect on the educational experience
    teaching materials can often distract learners
    Common avoidable problems include:
    overcrowded or illegible slides
    Irrelevant or badly prepared handouts
  • 26. “LIGHT” = 5 basic principles of creating teaching materials
    Links – obvious and direct to your talk
    Intelligibility – easy to understand
    General style – be consistent
    Highlighting – emphasise important points
    Targeting – find out which knowledge and skills your students already have
  • 27. Summary
    Understanding the learning process will help clinical teachers to be effective.
    Planning provides structure and context for both teacher and students, as well as a framework for reflection and evaluation.
    Following the 5 basic principles of creating teaching materials will help in avoiding common problems with presentations.
  • 28. Any final questions?
    Thank you for your attention.