Planning Teaching Sessions


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Seminar by Shameena Tamachi given at the Fastbleep Clinical Teacher event.

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Planning Teaching Sessions

  1. 1. PLANNING TEACHING SESSIONS<br />ShameenaTamachi<br />PAL Manchester<br />
  2. 2. Learning Objectives<br />To review the strengths, challenges and common problems associated with clinical teaching<br />To gain an awareness of how doctors teach and how students learn<br />To understand the importance of planning<br />To learn techniques for creating effective teaching sessions<br />
  3. 3. Reflecting on past experiences<br />Describe a teaching session which you found to be particularly effective.<br />Describe any problems you’ve had in a teaching session and why you found this session to be problematic.<br />What do you think makes for a well-planned teaching session?<br />
  4. 4. Strengths of clinical teaching<br /><ul><li>Focus on real problems
  5. 5. Learners are motivated by its relevance and through active participation
  6. 6. Professional thinking, behaviour and attitudes are modelled by teachers
  7. 7. Only setting in which history-taking, physical examination, clinical reasoning, decision-making, empathy and professionalism can be taught and learned as an integrated whole</li></li></ul><li>Challenges of clinical teaching<br />Time pressures<br />Competing demands<br />Often opportunistic<br />Increasing numbers of students<br />Fewer patients<br />Clinical environment often not “teacher friendly”<br />
  8. 8. Common problems with clinical teaching<br /><ul><li>Lack of clear objectives and expectations
  9. 9. Focus on recall rather than on development of problem-solving and attitudes
  10. 10. Teaching pitched at wrong level – often too high
  11. 11. Passive observation vs. active participation
  12. 12. Little opportunity for discussion and reflection
  13. 13. “Teaching by humiliation”
  14. 14. Lack of congruence with curriculum</li></li></ul><li>How doctors teach<br />All doctors are involved in teaching activities<br />Most undertake teaching conscientiously and enthusiastically<br />However, few receive any formal training<br />Assumption that if person has in-depth of a particular subject, they will be able to teach it<br />Effective clinical teachers use several, perhaps overlapping, forms of knowledge<br />
  15. 15. How students learn<br />Understanding the learning process will help clinical teachers to be more effective<br />Several theories of learning are relevant:<br />Learning is an active process<br />Cognitive theories state that learning involves information processing through interplay between existing knowledge and new knowledge<br />Knowledge will be more easily retrieved if learning takes place in context it will be used<br />
  16. 16. How Cognitive Learning Theory is used in clinical teaching<br />Help students to identify what they already know<br />Activate prior knowledge through brainstorming<br />Help students to elaborate their knowledge<br />Use clinical examples, comparisons, analogies<br />Debrief students afterwards<br />Promote discussion and reflection<br />Provide relevant contexts for learning<br />
  17. 17. Experiential Learning Theory<br />Learning is most effective when based on experience<br />A cyclical process linking concrete experience with abstract conceptualisation through reflection and planning<br />
  18. 18. Experiential Learning Cycle <br />(Kolb 1984)<br /><ul><li>The learning cycle provides a useful framework for planning teaching sessions
  19. 19. Planning involves anticipating application of new theories and skills
  20. 20. Reflection means standing back and thinking about experience</li></li></ul><li>Case Study – using Experiential Learning Theory in a clinical teaching session<br />Setting – 6 third year medical students doing an introductory clinical skills course<br />Topic – physical examination of patients with musculoskeletal problems. 3 patients with signs of RA are recruited from the community<br />
  21. 21. Case Study – using Experiential Learning Theory in a clinical teaching session<br />How is the session executed?<br />Planning – brainstorming activates prior knowledge<br />Experience – students examine patients in pairs under supervision of tutor<br />Reflection – feedback and discussion provides opportunities to elaborate knowledge<br />Theory – didactic input from teacher links practice with theory<br />Planning – “what have I learned?” and “how will I approach a patient next time?”<br />
  22. 22. Case Study 2 – learning to apply Experiential Learning Theory<br />Setting – 4 medical students from different clinical years wish to practice clinical skills for OSCE<br />Topic – physical examination of simulated patient with hyperthyroidism <br />
  23. 23. Case Study 2 – learning to apply Experiential Learning Theory<br />Devise a teaching session<br />Planning – create framework and structure for task by asking students to brainstorm signs and symptoms of thyroid disease<br />Experience – students do focused neck examination under supervision of tutor<br />Reflection – generate discussion and give feedback<br />Theory – tutor gives clinical information about hyperthyroidism, linking theory with practice<br />Planning – prepare students for next encounter and enable evaluation of session<br />
  24. 24. The 6 Ps<br />“Proper planning prevents poor performance.”<br />Resources<br />What level to pitch at?<br />Time<br />Environment<br />Dialogue<br />
  25. 25. Creating teaching materials<br />It is important to create effective teaching materials because…<br />they have a substantial effect on the educational experience<br />teaching materials can often distract learners<br />Common avoidable problems include:<br />overcrowded or illegible slides<br />Irrelevant or badly prepared handouts<br />
  26. 26. “LIGHT” = 5 basic principles of creating teaching materials<br />Links – obvious and direct to your talk<br />Intelligibility – easy to understand<br />General style – be consistent<br />Highlighting – emphasise important points<br />Targeting – find out which knowledge and skills your students already have<br />
  27. 27. Summary<br />Understanding the learning process will help clinical teachers to be effective.<br />Planning provides structure and context for both teacher and students, as well as a framework for reflection and evaluation.<br />Following the 5 basic principles of creating teaching materials will help in avoiding common problems with presentations.<br />
  28. 28. Any final questions?<br />Thank you for your attention.<br />