PLANNING TEACHING SESSIONS ShameenaTamachi PAL Manchester
Learning Objectives To review the strengths, challenges and common problems associated with clinical teaching To gain an awareness of how doctors teach and how students learn To understand the importance of planning To learn techniques for creating effective teaching sessions
Reflecting on past experiences Describe a teaching session which you found to be particularly effective. Describe any problems you’ve had in a teaching session and why you found this session to be problematic. What do you think makes for a well-planned teaching session?
How doctors teach All doctors are involved in teaching activities Most undertake teaching conscientiously and enthusiastically However, few receive any formal training Assumption that if person has in-depth of a particular subject, they will be able to teach it Effective clinical teachers use several, perhaps overlapping, forms of knowledge
How students learn Understanding the learning process will help clinical teachers to be more effective Several theories of learning are relevant: Learning is an active process Cognitive theories state that learning involves information processing through interplay between existing knowledge and new knowledge Knowledge will be more easily retrieved if learning takes place in context it will be used
How Cognitive Learning Theory is used in clinical teaching Help students to identify what they already know Activate prior knowledge through brainstorming Help students to elaborate their knowledge Use clinical examples, comparisons, analogies Debrief students afterwards Promote discussion and reflection Provide relevant contexts for learning
Experiential Learning Theory Learning is most effective when based on experience A cyclical process linking concrete experience with abstract conceptualisation through reflection and planning
The learning cycle provides a useful framework for planning teaching sessions
Planning involves anticipating application of new theories and skills
Reflection means standing back and thinking about experience
Case Study – using Experiential Learning Theory in a clinical teaching session Setting – 6 third year medical students doing an introductory clinical skills course Topic – physical examination of patients with musculoskeletal problems. 3 patients with signs of RA are recruited from the community
Case Study – using Experiential Learning Theory in a clinical teaching session How is the session executed? Planning – brainstorming activates prior knowledge Experience – students examine patients in pairs under supervision of tutor Reflection – feedback and discussion provides opportunities to elaborate knowledge Theory – didactic input from teacher links practice with theory Planning – “what have I learned?” and “how will I approach a patient next time?”
Case Study 2 – learning to apply Experiential Learning Theory Setting – 4 medical students from different clinical years wish to practice clinical skills for OSCE Topic – physical examination of simulated patient with hyperthyroidism
Case Study 2 – learning to apply Experiential Learning Theory Devise a teaching session Planning – create framework and structure for task by asking students to brainstorm signs and symptoms of thyroid disease Experience – students do focused neck examination under supervision of tutor Reflection – generate discussion and give feedback Theory – tutor gives clinical information about hyperthyroidism, linking theory with practice Planning – prepare students for next encounter and enable evaluation of session
The 6 Ps “Proper planning prevents poor performance.” Resources What level to pitch at? Time Environment Dialogue
Creating teaching materials It is important to create effective teaching materials because… they have a substantial effect on the educational experience teaching materials can often distract learners Common avoidable problems include: overcrowded or illegible slides Irrelevant or badly prepared handouts
“LIGHT” = 5 basic principles of creating teaching materials Links – obvious and direct to your talk Intelligibility – easy to understand General style – be consistent Highlighting – emphasise important points Targeting – find out which knowledge and skills your students already have
Summary Understanding the learning process will help clinical teachers to be effective. Planning provides structure and context for both teacher and students, as well as a framework for reflection and evaluation. Following the 5 basic principles of creating teaching materials will help in avoiding common problems with presentations.
Any final questions? Thank you for your attention.