Diffusion Of Innovation Ch. 6Presentation Transcript
Attributes of Innovations and Their Rate of Adoption
“ Rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system.” (Rogers, pp. 221)
Considered to be a “numerical indicator” for any adoption of innovation.
Five perceived attributes of an innovation:
Additional variables to consider:
Type of innovation decision
The types of communication channels used when diffusing the innovation at different periods of the innovation-decision process.
The nature of the social system in which the innovation is diffusing.
The extent of change agents’ promotion efforts in diffusing the innovation, affect an innovation’s rate of adoption.
(Rogers, pp. 221)
Individual-optional innovation-decisions (a small group of people) usually adopt new ideas more quick versus one being adopted by an organization. As a result, “the more persons involved in making an innovation-decision, the slower the rate of adoption.” (Rogers, pp. 221)
Measuring the attributes of Innovation
Examples: Farming and educational innovation. Different innovative methods and technologies of improving those areas were researched upon while determining the rate of adoption of each one.
James Ramos Communication 499 September 18, 2007
Helpful prediction methods used to determine the rate of adoption into the future:
“ Extrapolation from the rate of adoption of past innovations into the future for other similar innovations.”
“ Describing a hypothetical innovation to its potential adopters, and determining its perceived attributes, so as to predict its forthcoming rate of adoption.”
“ Investigating the acceptability of an innovation in its prediffusion stages, such as when it is being test-marketed and evaluated in trials.” (Rogers, pp. 227)
*None of these methods are guaranteed ways for predicting the future rate of adoption.
Example: Failure of agricultural N-Trak soil testing kit diffusion.
The Five Perceiving Attributes of Innovation:
Relative Advantage “is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes.” (Rogers, pp. 229)
Usually expressed as economic profitability, convey social status, and etc.
From an economic view, the initial cost of an innovation may affect its rate of innovation. However, when the prices of the new product decreases dramatically during its diffusion process, a rapid rate of adoption is encouraged.
Another reason certain individuals adopt innovation is the desire to gain social status and recognition.
“ Overadoption is the adoption of an innovation by an individual when experts feel that he/she should reject.”
Usually, overadoption occurs when there is insufficient knowledge about the innovation, an inability to predict the consequences, and/or the status-conferring aspect of a new idea.
Relative advantage is positively related to its rate of adoption.
Preventive innovation “ is a new idea that an individual adopts now in order to lower the probability of some unwanted future event.”
Effects of Incentives
Incentives can be implemented in a variety of different forms:
Adopter VS diffuser incentives
Individual VS system incentives
Positive VS negative incentives
Monetary VS nonmonetary incentives
Immediate VS delayed incentives
“ Incentives increase the rate of adoption of an innovation”
“ Adopter incentives lead to adoption of an innovation by individuals different from those who would otherwise adopt.”
“ Although incentives increase the quantity of adopters of an innovation, the quality of such adoption decisions may be relatively low, thus limiting the intended consequence of adoption.”
Mandates of Adoption
Providing incentives, especially from a higher lever of an organization or government can highly impact the behaviors of individual members of the system.
Example: China’s one child policy. (Rogers, pp.230-240)
Compatibility “is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.” (Rogers, pp.240)
Incompatibility with cultural values will only block its adoption.
Example: India villagers left hand rule.
Compatibility of an innovation with a preceding idea can either speed up or retard its rate of adoption.
Changes agents must identify the needs of their clients and then recommend innovation.
Example: Africa’s multi-purpose machine “The Daughter-in-Law who Doesn’t Speak”
Technology clusters “consists of one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being interrelated.” (Rogers, pp.249)
Providing the name of an innovation is imperative to the compatibility and determines rate of adoption.
“ Positioning of an innovation rests on accurately measuring its compatibility with previous ideas.”
An “ideal niche is determined by the new idea’s perceived position relative to 1. previous ideas and 2. characteristics of the new idea that make it similar to, and different from, existing ideas.” (Rogers, pp. 252)
Acceptability research an “investigation of the perceived attributes of an ideal innovation in order to guide R&D so as to create such an innovation.” (Rogers, pp. 253)
Complexity “is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use.” (Rogers, pp.257)
It is usually negatively viewed to its rate of adoption.
Example: Early computer adoption
Trialability “is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with in a limited basis.” (Rogers, pp. 258)
It is positively viewed to its rate of adoption.
Example: Apple Iphone
Observability “is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. (Rogers, pp. 258)
It is positively viewed to its rate of adoption.
Example: Cellular phones
Rogers, M. R. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5 th ed.). New York: Free Press.