Diffusion Of  Innovation  Chapters 1 and 2
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Diffusion Of  Innovation  Chapters 1 and 2 Diffusion Of Innovation Chapters 1 and 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 1: Elements of Diffusion
    • What is Diffusion?
    • “ the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system .” (Rogers, pp. 35)
    • A special type of communication which is mainly focused with the spread of messages perceived as new ideas.
    • Moreover, it creates a sense of uncertainty resulting with recognized risks involved in the diffusion process.
    • Obtaining information, however, can reduce the degree of uncertainty because it provides a set of alternatives you can choose from. Furthermore, a better sense of understanding.
    • Four Main Elements in the Diffusion of Innovations:
      • Innovation
      • Communication Channels
      • Time
      • Social System
    “ Diffusion of Innovation” Chapters 1 & 2 James Ramos Com 499 September 9, 2007
      • Innovation
        • “ an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption.” (Rogers, pp.36)
        • Most innovations discussed in the book are technological ones.
        • Technology “is a design for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause-effect relationships involved in achieving a desired outcome.” (Rogers, pp. 36)
        • Furthermore, technology requires two components:
          • Hardware- The tool that represents the technology as a material or physical object.
          • Sofware- Consists of the knowledge base for the tool.
    • Five attributes of innovation:
      • 1. relative advantage
      • 2. compatibility
      • 3. complexity
      • 4. trialability
      • 5. observability
    • Re-invention “is the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in the process of its adoption and implementation.” (Rogers, pp.36)
      • Communication Channels
    • “ means by which messages get from one individual to another.” (Rogers, pp. 36)
    • Mass media channels are more effective in creating knowledge of innovations.
    • In contrast, interpersonal channels are more effective in structuring and changing attitudes toward a new idea whether it is to reject or adopt it.
    • Most people do not evaluate a new idea based on scientific research by experts, but mainly through the subjective evaluation of their peers who have adopted the new idea.
    • Heterophily “is the degree to which two or more individuals who interact are different in certain attributes, such as beliefs, education, social status, and the like.” (Rogers, pp.36)
    • In contrast, Homophily is “the degree to which two or more individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes.” (Rogers, pp.36)
    • Most types of human communication happen between individuals who are homophilous, a situations that is more effective in communication.
    • Futhermore, heterophily often occurs in the diffusion of innovation which then leads to problems in achieving effective communication.
      • Time
    • It is involved in diffusion in three ways:
      • Innovation-diffusion process:
        • Five steps are included in this process:
          • Knowledge
          • Persuasion
          • Decision
          • Implementation
          • Confirmation
      • II. Innovativeness
            • “ the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in
            • adopting new ideas than other members of a social system.” (Rogers, pp.37)
            • Five types of adopters on the basis of their innovativeness:
          • Innovators
          • Early adopters
          • Early majority
          • Late majority
          • Laggards
      • III. Innovation’s rate of adoption
    • “ the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system.” (Rogers, pp.37)
      • Social System
    • “ a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal.” (Rogers, pp.37)
    • Every system has a structure, a patterned arrangements of the units in a system.
    • “ The social and communication structure of a system facilitates or impedes the diffusion of innovations in the system.” (Rogers, pp.37)
    • An important aspect of social structure is norms, which is “the established behavior patterns for the members of a social system.” (Rogers, pp.37)
    • Opinion leadership is an “individual able to influence informally other individuals’ attitudes or overt behavior in a desired way with relative frequency.” (Rogers, pp.37-38)
    • Change agent is an “individual who attempts to influence clients’ innovation-decisions in a direction that is deemed desirable by a change agency.” (Rogers, pp.38)
    • Aide “is a less than fully professional change agent who intensively contacts clients to influence their innovation-decisions.” (Rogers, pp.38)
    • Continue on to next slide….
    • Continued…
    • Three main types of innovation-decisions:
      • Optional innovation-decisions
        • A choice to adopt or reject a new idea made by an individual independent of the
        • decisions from other members in the system.
      • Collective innovation-decisions
    • A choice to adopt or reject a new idea made by consensus of the majority in the social system.
      • 3.Authority innovation-decisions
    • A choice to adopt or reject a new idea that are made by few individuals in a system who possess power, status, or technical expertise.
    • * A fourth type innovative-decision can be considered where it is a combination of two or more of these three types called, Contingent innovation-decisions, which are choices that are either adopted or rejected made only after a prior innovation-decision.
    • Consequences are “changes that occur to an individual or a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation.” (Roger, pp.38)
    • The Nine Major Diffusion Research Traditions
    • Anthropology (ex. Miracle Rice in Bali: The Goddess and the Computer)
    • Early sociology (ex. Ham radio)
    • Rural sociology (ex. Hybrid corn study in Iowa’s slow adoption)
    • Education (ex. Worldwide diffusion of the kindergarten)
    • Public health and medical sociology (ex. Declined cigarette use and family planning in
    • developing countries “KAP surveys” aka sample surveys of knowledge , attitudes , and
    • adoption or practice of family planning innovation.
    • 6. Communication (ex. Diffusion of news events, diffusion of news of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks)
    • Marketing and management (Social marketing, Opinion leaders and Maven in the diffusion
    • of Electric cars)
    • 8. Geography (ex. Hagerstrand’s “neighborhood effect”)
    • General sociology (ex. Networks in Recruitment to Freedom Summer, Mahatma Gandhi and
    • Martin Luther King, Jr. implemented the strategy of peaceful social change)
    • *Major types of findings for these research methods include:
    • S-shaped diffusion curve adopter
    • Opinion leadership in diffusion
    • Change agent in diffusion
    • Communication channels by stages in the innovation-decision process
    • Characteristics of adopter categories
    • Revolutionary paradigm is “any given field of scientific research is launched with a major
    • Breakthrough or reconceptualization.” (Kuhn, pp.46)
    • Invisible college is an “informal network of researchers who form around an intellectual paradigm
    • To study common topic.” (Rogers, pp.46)
    • 8 Main Types of Diffusion Research:
    • Earliness of knowing about innovation
    • “ Challenger” diffusion of information through radio and/or television
    • 2. Rate of adoption of different innovations in a social system
    • Adoption of innovation correlated with farmers values spread more rapidly compared to other types of innovation.
    • 3. Innovativeness
    • Adoption of new ideas in public health departments.
    • 4. Opinion Leadership
    • HIV prevention strategies utilized in a gay community.
    • 5. Diffusion networks
    • Understanding that similarity in age, religion, hometown were important in the diffusion of new drugs provided by doctors.
    • 6. Rate of adoption in different social systems
    • Koreans fastest rate of conceptive use with the help of mass media exposure, leaders highly connected to the community, and great number of change agents.
    • 7. Communication channel usage.
    • Hybrid seed corn in Iowa
    • Consequences of innovation.
    • Steel ax usage in the Yir Yoront culture. Disruption and negative on the cultures values and roles of men and women and the elders.