<ul><li>Chapter 1: Elements of Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>What is Diffusion?  </li></ul><ul><li>“ the process by which an...
<ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or ...
<ul><ul><li>Communication Channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ means by which messages get from one individual to another.” (...
<ul><ul><li>Time  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is involved in diffusion in three ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation-diffu...
<ul><ul><li>Social System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving t...
<ul><li>Continued… </li></ul><ul><li>Three main types of innovation-decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional innovation-d...
<ul><li>The Nine Major Diffusion Research Traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology (ex. Miracle Rice in Bali: The Goddess...
<ul><li>8 Main Types of Diffusion Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Earliness of knowing about innovation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ch...
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Diffusion Of Innovation Chapters 1 and 2

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Diffusion Of Innovation Chapters 1 and 2

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 1: Elements of Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>What is Diffusion? </li></ul><ul><li>“ the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system .” (Rogers, pp. 35) </li></ul><ul><li>A special type of communication which is mainly focused with the spread of messages perceived as new ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, it creates a sense of uncertainty resulting with recognized risks involved in the diffusion process. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining information, however, can reduce the degree of uncertainty because it provides a set of alternatives you can choose from. Furthermore, a better sense of understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Four Main Elements in the Diffusion of Innovations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social System </li></ul></ul>“ Diffusion of Innovation” Chapters 1 & 2 James Ramos Com 499 September 9, 2007
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption.” (Rogers, pp.36) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most innovations discussed in the book are technological ones. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology “is a design for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause-effect relationships involved in achieving a desired outcome.” (Rogers, pp. 36) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Furthermore, technology requires two components: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware- The tool that represents the technology as a material or physical object. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sofware- Consists of the knowledge base for the tool. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Five attributes of innovation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. relative advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. trialability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. observability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Re-invention “is the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in the process of its adoption and implementation.” (Rogers, pp.36) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Communication Channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ means by which messages get from one individual to another.” (Rogers, pp. 36) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media channels are more effective in creating knowledge of innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, interpersonal channels are more effective in structuring and changing attitudes toward a new idea whether it is to reject or adopt it. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people do not evaluate a new idea based on scientific research by experts, but mainly through the subjective evaluation of their peers who have adopted the new idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterophily “is the degree to which two or more individuals who interact are different in certain attributes, such as beliefs, education, social status, and the like.” (Rogers, pp.36) </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, Homophily is “the degree to which two or more individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes.” (Rogers, pp.36) </li></ul><ul><li>Most types of human communication happen between individuals who are homophilous, a situations that is more effective in communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Futhermore, heterophily often occurs in the diffusion of innovation which then leads to problems in achieving effective communication. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is involved in diffusion in three ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation-diffusion process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Five steps are included in this process: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>II. Innovativeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adopting new ideas than other members of a social system.” (Rogers, pp.37) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Five types of adopters on the basis of their innovativeness: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovators </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early adopters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early majority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late majority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laggards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>III. Innovation’s rate of adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system.” (Rogers, pp.37) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Social System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal.” (Rogers, pp.37) </li></ul><ul><li>Every system has a structure, a patterned arrangements of the units in a system. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The social and communication structure of a system facilitates or impedes the diffusion of innovations in the system.” (Rogers, pp.37) </li></ul><ul><li>An important aspect of social structure is norms, which is “the established behavior patterns for the members of a social system.” (Rogers, pp.37) </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion leadership is an “individual able to influence informally other individuals’ attitudes or overt behavior in a desired way with relative frequency.” (Rogers, pp.37-38) </li></ul><ul><li>Change agent is an “individual who attempts to influence clients’ innovation-decisions in a direction that is deemed desirable by a change agency.” (Rogers, pp.38) </li></ul><ul><li>Aide “is a less than fully professional change agent who intensively contacts clients to influence their innovation-decisions.” (Rogers, pp.38) </li></ul><ul><li>Continue on to next slide…. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Continued… </li></ul><ul><li>Three main types of innovation-decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional innovation-decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A choice to adopt or reject a new idea made by an individual independent of the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decisions from other members in the system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective innovation-decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A choice to adopt or reject a new idea made by consensus of the majority in the social system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Authority innovation-decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A choice to adopt or reject a new idea that are made by few individuals in a system who possess power, status, or technical expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>* A fourth type innovative-decision can be considered where it is a combination of two or more of these three types called, Contingent innovation-decisions, which are choices that are either adopted or rejected made only after a prior innovation-decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences are “changes that occur to an individual or a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation.” (Roger, pp.38) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Nine Major Diffusion Research Traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology (ex. Miracle Rice in Bali: The Goddess and the Computer) </li></ul><ul><li>Early sociology (ex. Ham radio) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural sociology (ex. Hybrid corn study in Iowa’s slow adoption) </li></ul><ul><li>Education (ex. Worldwide diffusion of the kindergarten) </li></ul><ul><li>Public health and medical sociology (ex. Declined cigarette use and family planning in </li></ul><ul><li>developing countries “KAP surveys” aka sample surveys of knowledge , attitudes , and </li></ul><ul><li>adoption or practice of family planning innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Communication (ex. Diffusion of news events, diffusion of news of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks) </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and management (Social marketing, Opinion leaders and Maven in the diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>of Electric cars) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Geography (ex. Hagerstrand’s “neighborhood effect”) </li></ul><ul><li>General sociology (ex. Networks in Recruitment to Freedom Summer, Mahatma Gandhi and </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King, Jr. implemented the strategy of peaceful social change) </li></ul><ul><li>*Major types of findings for these research methods include: </li></ul><ul><li>S-shaped diffusion curve adopter </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion leadership in diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Change agent in diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Communication channels by stages in the innovation-decision process </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of adopter categories </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary paradigm is “any given field of scientific research is launched with a major </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthrough or reconceptualization.” (Kuhn, pp.46) </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible college is an “informal network of researchers who form around an intellectual paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>To study common topic.” (Rogers, pp.46) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>8 Main Types of Diffusion Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Earliness of knowing about innovation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Challenger” diffusion of information through radio and/or television </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rate of adoption of different innovations in a social system </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of innovation correlated with farmers values spread more rapidly compared to other types of innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Innovativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of new ideas in public health departments. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Opinion Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>HIV prevention strategies utilized in a gay community. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Diffusion networks </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding that similarity in age, religion, hometown were important in the diffusion of new drugs provided by doctors. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Rate of adoption in different social systems </li></ul><ul><li>Koreans fastest rate of conceptive use with the help of mass media exposure, leaders highly connected to the community, and great number of change agents. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Communication channel usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid seed corn in Iowa </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel ax usage in the Yir Yoront culture. Disruption and negative on the cultures values and roles of men and women and the elders. </li></ul>

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