Creative routes to regeneration - Melanie Smith and James Kennell
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  • 1. Creative Routes to Regeneration: Are we on the right track? Dr Melanie Smith & James Kennell Budapest Business School & University of Greenwich Business School Email: Melanie.Smith@kvifk.bgf.hu
  • 2. All we need is a Modern Art Museum……
  • 3. All we need is a Waterfront Development…..
  • 4. All we need is a big Sporting Event….
  • 5. All we need is a Capital of Culture......
  • 6. All we need is a ‘Starchitect’......
  • 7. All we need is some Public Art….
  • 8. We think that we wanted all of this.....But are we sure we wanted what we got......??
  • 9. Maybe what we really need is this..... More „grass-roots‟, bottom-up, community-led initiatives More focus on intangible elements of culture More emphasis on alternative or fringe culture Increased promotion of everyday life The creation of „playful‟, interactive, experiential spaces Some ad hoc, organic development outside planning „The word citizen has to do with cities, More visitor freedom & creativity to be a co-creator and the ideal city is organized around citizenship -- around participation in public life.” (Rebecca Solnit, 2001)
  • 10. And maybe all we can afford is.... Bottom-up cultural activity Small-scale approaches Community-led development Entrepreneur-led development? (Kennell 2013)
  • 11. But what do tourists want?
  • 12. The Shift from Culturalto Creative Key Elements of Creativity Visitor Experience of Creativity Creative people/class Creative process/activities  From passive to active and Creative products/attractions interactive experiences Creative environments/clusters (Smith, 2009) (Richards, 2011)  „Experiential‟ and „existential‟ Everyday Creativity dimensions of creativity Craft (Nelson & Rawlings, 2009) Cultural refinement  Cultural creatives in Western Self-expressive creativity Society also looking for Interpersonal creativity „green‟ experiences Sophisticated media consumption (Ray & Anderson, 2000) (Ivcevic & Mayer, 2009)
  • 13. Creative Tourism But also:„Creativity can either be the centralmotivation for tourism, as with themore formalised provision, or else a  „Exploring and expressingmore peripheral experience in which one‟s creative potential whilstthe creativity of people and places on holiday. The activities andadds „atmosphere‟ and animation to the relationship to the self arethe general tourist experience of the primary focus. Context orplaces” setting is secondary” (Richards, 2012)  „Enjoying attractions andCreative tourism as activities which are linked to theauthentic, educational, participative creative industries, and whichengagement with local people & tend to be interactive orplaces experiential in nature” (Smith, 2009) (Richards & Raymond, 2000;
  • 14. The Creative VisitorEconomy Experiences can be  Need for customization, spontaneous not only tailoring, uniqueness designed & paid for!  Visitors as co-creators of Visitors are more their own experience demanding, sophisticated,  „Tactical tourists‟ want to experienced actively engage in real Visitors cannot easily be activities with local people typologised (but we may still need to understand  Visitors as indistinguishable differences between Gen X, from locals Y & Z & different nationality groups etc)
  • 15. Creative tourism and economicdevelopment Small scale  Draws on local – Limited growth resources potential  Can add – Specialist market uniqueness to the Often off-radar visitor offer
  • 16. Next steps for creative tourismand economic development Networking  Joint promotional Mapping activity Fine grained policy  Advocacy approaches  Creative tourism as Business finance part of the local key issue economic mix
  • 17. Are we too late? “Harnessing the creative energies of the consumer becomes increasingly important as some of the existing spaces developed for heritage or cultural tourism seem to be losing their competitive edge. These problems are particularly acute in the UK…” (Richards and Wilson, 2006).