Citation And Style Mannuals

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  • 1. Citation and Style Jameela P. M. Phil. Scholar Dept. of Library and Information Science University of Calicut
  • 2. Introduction
  • 3. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN RESEARCH WORK Reference Bibliography Citation
  • 4. Reference? An organised listing of works cited in the text, placed at the end of the document.  What we quoted in the text consists of author name, title and pages of sources, publication details,  A reference list should be provided at the end of the article. All cited works should be included, anno un-cited works should be included. References should be arranged alphabetically by author. Works by the same author should be arranged by second author, then by date. Works by the same authors in the same year should be cited as “(2010a)” and “(2010b)”. In-text citations are given in brackets in the text, for example (Smith and Jones, 2010; Marshall, 2003).
  • 5. Bibliography?  Bibliography is the full listing of all material consulted in relation to the research, including any source material not directly cited in the text, placed at the end of the document.  In the context of academic research, a list of books or references toIn the context of academic research, a list of books or references to sources cited, for further reading, usually printed at the end of ansources cited, for further reading, usually printed at the end of an article or in the back matter of a book includes author name, title,article or in the back matter of a book includes author name, title, year, place of publication, publisher.year, place of publication, publisher.
  • 6. Citation ?  In academic research we read works by other people and collect information to act as a foundation for our own work. When we use this information we give credit to the original author. This process is called citation.  A citation is both a signpost and an acknowledgement. As a signpost, it signals the location of your source. As an acknowledgement, it reveals that you are indebted to that source.  A citation can appear in different formats: within the text (in-text citation) at the bottom of the page (footnotes ), or at the end of the paper (endnotes).
  • 7. You Need To Cite When You…  Use or refer other's words or Idea.  Gain information by interviewing another person.  Copy the exact words or unique phrase  Copy the pictures, Diagram, illustration, charts, video, music etc.
  • 8. You Don’t Need to Cite When You…  Write from your own experiences, observations, insights, thoughts, conclusions about a subject  Use “common knowledge”--shared information in your field of study  Compile generally accepted facts  Write up your own experimental results
  • 9. Why should you acknowledge your sources?  By citing sources, you demonstrate your integrity and skill as a responsible participant in the conversation of scholarship.  Citations are a courtesy to the reader, who may share your interest in a particular area of scholarship.  Citations reflect the careful and thorough work you have put into locating and exploring your sources.  Failure to provide adequate citations constitutes plagiarism.
  • 10. Plagiarism? Plagiarism is representing someone else's work as your own. It's plagiarism whether you use  a whole document  a paragraph  a single sentence  a distinctive phrase  a specialized term  specific data  a graphic element of any kind
  • 11. Using Knowledge Use your own words, your own voice, your own ideas AND/OR Paraphrase or quote, and cite Paraphrase: restate information, giving the meaning in another form Quote: to repeat wording exactly using quotes (“”) Cite: to give credit to original author of material; to provide full source information of original material (author, title, publisher, date, etc.)
  • 12. When Researching... Writing Process:  Mark everything that is someone else’s words with a big Q (for quote) or with big quotation marks  Indicate in your notes which ideas are taken from sources (S) and which are your own insights (ME)  Record all of the relevant documentation information in your notes Appearance on final product:  Proofread and check with your notes (or photocopies of sources) to make sure that anything taken from your notes is acknowledged in some combination of the ways: In-text citation, footnotes, bibliography, quotation marks, indirect quotations
  • 13. When Paraphrasing and Summarizing Writing Process:  First, write your paraphrase and summary without looking at the original text, so you rely only on your memory.  Next, check your version with the original for content, accuracy, and mistakenly borrowed phrases Appearance on final product:  Begin your summary with a statement giving credit to the source: According to Jonathan Kozol, ...  Put any unique words or phrases that you cannot change, or do not want to change, in quotation marks:  "savage inequalities" exist throughout our educational system.1
  • 14. When Quoting Directly  Keep the person’s name near the quote in your notes, and in your paper  Select those direct quotes that make the most impact in your paper -- too many direct quotes may lessen your credibility and interfere with your style Writing Process: Appearance on final product:  Put quotation marks around the text that you are quoting  Optional with quotes: Mention the person’s name before or after the quote
  • 15. When Quoting Indirectly  Keep the person’s name near the text in your notes, and in your paper  Rewrite the key ideas using different words and sentence structures than the original text  Mention the person’s name either at the beginning of the information, or in the middle, or at that end  Double check to make sure that your words and sentence structures are different than the original text Writing Process: Appearance on final product:
  • 16. How to Cite  Footnote  Use automatic footnoting in Word  Footnotes can be delegated to bottom of page or end of document  According to Langacker,1  In-Text Citation  According to Langacker (1973) − With an indirect quote, don’t need page number  “…and often are." (Langacker, 1973, p. 60) − With a direct quote, cite page number 1 Ronald Langacker, Language and Its Structure, 2nd ed., NY: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1973, p. 60
  • 17.  Quote  Summarize  Paraphrase Use parenthetical citationsUse parenthetical citations when youwhen you
  • 18. Parenthetical citations should be:Parenthetical citations should be:  Brief  Give only enough information to identify the source on your Works Cited page
  • 19. Complete Citation Information  Many styles, but information must include  Author  Title of work  Where it appeared (journal, newspaper, Internet) − Name of publication  Date of work, date of publication  Page number  For book: Name of publisher, City of publication
  • 20. Style Manuals?  … that illustrate how to correctly format and record information. They are most frequently consulted for information on formatting citations, but they also include a variety of other information that is useful for research, including where to find information for other bibliography, general rules for punctuation, formatting footnotes, spacing, indention, form of author's name, etc.  There are several different styles used in research with style manuals for each style. Only three of the styles are shown here.  MLA  APA  Chicago Manual of Styles
  • 21. Why do we need to Style Manuals?  To avoid plagiarism  To provide a clear, uniform style for references  To organize your paper so it is less confusing for the reader
  • 22. MLA Style Manual  Modern Language AssociationModern Language Association  MLA Style sheet was established in 1951 by ModernMLA Style sheet was established in 1951 by Modern Language Association; the first MLA handbook wasLanguage Association; the first MLA handbook was established in 1977established in 1977  Style provides guidelines for publication in Liberal ArtsStyle provides guidelines for publication in Liberal Arts & Humanity Journals, especially Language and& Humanity Journals, especially Language and Literature JournalsLiterature Journals Gibaldi, Joseph.Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.. New York: MLA Association of America, 2003.. New York: MLA Association of America, 2003.
  • 23. MLA Style Manual Citing Books Book citations in MLA generally require the author name, work ti tle, publication city, publisher, year published, and an indica tion of the publication medium, such as print or web.  Author's Name: Reverse the Author's name. Franke, Damon.  Title of the Books: Full title of the book including any Subtitle. Library Administration: theory and practice.  Publication Information: Place, Name and Year of Publication. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964.
  • 24. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Books  General Book-Format Author (Inverted). Title: subtitle. Place of Publication: Name of the Publisher, Year of Publication. Publication Medium. Mittal, R. L. Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964. Print.
  • 25. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Books  Single Author Mittal, R. L. Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964. Print.  Two or Three Author Tripathi, S. M., C.Lal, and K. Kumar. Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964. Print.  More than Three Author Tripathi, S. et al..Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964. Print.
  • 26. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Books  Corporate/ organization as Author National research Council. Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the world's Population. Washington: Natl. Acad., 2000.Print.  An article in a Reference book “Japan.” The Encyclopedia Americana. 2004 ed. Print. Allen, Anitha L. “Privacy in Health-care” Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Ed. Stephen G. 3rd ed. Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan-Thomson, 2004.Print.
  • 27. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Books  Author with an editor Posten, Ted. A Draft of History. Ed. Katheleen A. Hauke. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.  Author with a translator Posten, Ted. A Draft of History. Trans. Katheleen A. Hauke. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.  Editor with no author A Draft of History. Ed. Katheleen A. Hauke. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.
  • 28. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Books  Multi-volume Work Blacano, Richard L. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2Nd ed. 2 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. print. Blacano, Richard L. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2Nd ed. 1 vol. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. print.
  • 29. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Books  A Book without Publication information or Pagination  No Place n.p.: U of Gotham P, 2008.  No Publisher New York: n.p., 2008.  No Date New York: U of Gotham P, n.d.  No Pagination New York: U of Gotham P, 2008. N. pag.
  • 30. ...MLA Style Manual Citing Periodicals 1. Author's Name 2. Title of the Article 3. Name of the Periodical 4. Series number or name 5. Volume number 6. Issue Number 7. Date of publication 8. Inclusive Page numbers 9. Medium Of Publication
  • 31. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Periodical  Article in a scholarly Journal Piper, Andrew. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and the Book of Everything.” PMLA 121.1 (2006): 124-38. Print. Piper, Andrew, and Michael Hutcheon. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and the Book of Everything.” PMLA 121.1 (2006): 124-38. Print. Piper, Andrew, et al. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe and the Book of Everything.” PMLA 121.1 (2006): 124-38. Print.
  • 32. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing Periodical  Article in a Newspaper Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the World Does Goliath a Favour.” New York Times 13 July 2002, New England ed.: Print.  Article in a Magazine Weintrab, Dermot. “Little Books, Big Success.” Publishers Weekly 30 Oct. 2006: 26-28. Print.
  • 33. ...MLA Style Manual Citing Web Publications 1. Name of the Author 2. Title of the Work 3. Title of the Overall Web site 4. Edition Used 5. Publisher or Sponsor of the site, if not available, use N.p. 6. Date of Publication (Day, Month, and Year); if nothing is available , use n.d. 7. Medium of publication 8. Date of Access (Day, Month, and Year)
  • 34. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing web Publications  General Format Author. Title of the site. Sponsor, Date Created. Medium. Date Accessed  Entire Website United States Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Wa ter Standards. EPA, 8 July 2004. Web. 24 Jan. 2006  Page from Website Shiva, Vandana. “Bioethics: A Third World Issue.” Native web. Nativeweb, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2006.
  • 35. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing web Publications  Article in a Web Magazine Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” The Journal of Higher Education 30.3 (1959): 140-145. Web. 5 Dec. 2008.  Article in an Online Journal Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” The J ournal of Higher Education 30.3 (1959): 140- 145. Web. 5 Dec. 2008.  Periodical Publication in an Online Database Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” The J ournal of Higher Education 30.3 (1959): 140-145. Project Muse. Web. 5 Dec. 2008.
  • 36. ...MLA Style Manual ...Citing web Publications  E-mail Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." Message to the author. 15 Nov. 2000. E-mail.  Dissertation Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaries in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” Diss. University of Chicago, 2008. We b.
  • 37. APA Style Manual  American Psychological Association  In 1929, the APA published a manual with instructions for authors on how to prepare manuscripts for publication in psychology journals.  This format is widely used for course papers and journal articles in Psychology and also in the social sciences, education, engineering, and business.
  • 38. ...APA Style Manual Citing Books  General Book-Format Author (Year). Title: subtitle. Place of Publication: Name of the Publisher. Publication Medium. Pollan, M.(1964) Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book.  Note:- Use Pollan, M. instead of Pollan, Michael.
  • 39. ...APA Style Manual ...Citing Books  Single Author Mittal, R. L.(1964) Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book.  Two or Three Author Tripathi, S. M.,Lal, C. & Kumar, K. (1964) Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book.  More than Three Author up to Seven Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1964) Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book.  More than seven Author Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., Bach, J. S... Last Author's Name (1964) Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book.
  • 40. ...APA Style Manual ...Citing Books  Author with an editor Poston, T. (2000). A draft of history. K.A. Hauke, (Ed.). Metropolitan Book.  Author with a translator Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York: Norton, 2001.  Editor with no author Duncan, G. J., & BrooksGunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Norton, 2001.
  • 41. ...APA Style Manual ...Citing Books  Multi-volume Work Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1‐ 4). New York: Oxford UP, 2002. print.  Encyclopedia/ Dictionary Posner, R. (1987). Romance Languages. In The encyclopedia Brit annica: macropedia (15th ed.). New York: Oxford UP, 2002. print.
  • 42. ...APA Style Manual Citing Periodicals  Author.(Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume Number. Page. Poniewozik, J. (2000, November). TV makes a too‐ close call. Time, 20, 70 71.‐ Poniewozik, J. (2000, November). TV makes a too‐ close call. Time ( 20.1)( 20.1), 70 71.‐
  • 43. ...APA Style Manual Citing Web Publications  Generally cites author, date, page title, site title, availa ble page numbers, and a URL or DOI.  If a DOI is available, it is used in place of a URL.
  • 44. ...APA Style Manual ...Citing web Publications  General Format Author. (Year [use n.d. if not given]). Article or page title. Site Title , volume or issue number. Retrieved from http://url address  Shiva, V. (2006, February). Bioethics: A third world issue. Nativ eweb. Retrieved from http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shi va.html  Article in a journal Bent, H. (1959). Professionalization of the Ph.D. degree. The Jour nal of Higher Education, 30.3, 140- 145. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1978286.
  • 45. ...APA Style Manual ...Citing web Publications  Dissertation Choi, M. (2008). Contesting imaginaries in death rituals during the northern song dynasty (Doctoral dissertation). Available fromPr oQuest database. (AAT 3300426).
  • 46. Chicago Manual of Style  The Chicago Manual of Style, also often called “Turabian Style”  Chicago Style established in 1906  Turabian created in 1937 when Kate L. Turabian assembled a guideline for students at the University of Chicago  Style provides guidelines for publication in some of the social sciences and natural & physical sciences, but most commonly in the humanities—literature, history, and the arts
  • 47. ...Chicago Manual of Style Citing Books  Book citations in CMS style generally require the author name, work title, publication city, publisher, and publication year. Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. New York: Penguin Gr oup, 2006.
  • 48. ...Chicago Manual of Style ...Citing Books  Single Author Mittal, R. L. Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964.  Two or Three Author Tripathi, S. M., C.Lal, and K. Kumar. Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964.  More than Three Author Tripathi, S and others. Library Administration: theory and practice. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book, 1964.
  • 49. ...Chicago Manual of Style ...Citing Books  Author with an editor Posten, Ted. A Draft of History. Edited by Katheleen A. Hauke. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.  Author with a translator Posten, Ted. A Draft of History. Translated by Katheleen A. Hauke. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.  Editor with no author Katheleen A. Hauke. ed. A Draft of History. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.
  • 50. ...Chicago Manual of Style ...Citing Books  Multi-volume Work Blacano, Richard L. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2Nd ed. 2 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. print.
  • 51. ...Chicago Manual of Style Citing Periodicals  CMS periodical citations include author name, article title, public ation title, publication date, and issue information. CMS also req uires citation of a URL if the journal was accessed online. Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Su baltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Wo men’s Literature 15.1 (1996): 41 50.‐
  • 52. ...Chicago Manual of Style Citing Web Publications  Author.  Document Title.  URL or DOI.  General Format Author. Document Title. URL or DOI. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water Stan dards. http://water.epa.gov/drink.
  • 53. ...Chicago Manual of Style ...Citing web Publications  Page from Website Shiva, Vandana. “Bioethics: A Third World Issue.” Native web. http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shiva.html.  Dissertation Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaries in Death Rituals d uring the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., Universit y of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest (A AT 3300426).
  • 54. …. For complete and thorough information about using these styles, go straight to the source.