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Language Acquisition and Language Development
 

Language Acquisition and Language Development

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    Language Acquisition and Language Development Language Acquisition and Language Development Presentation Transcript

    • Language AcquisitionLanguage Acquisition andand LanguageLanguage DevelopmentDevelopment -2--2-
    • Theories of Child Language AcquisitionTheories of Child Language Acquisition Construction of grammarConstruction of grammar  progressing from simple rules to more complex rulesprogressing from simple rules to more complex rules ReinforcementReinforcement
    • Theories of Child Language AcquisitionTheories of Child Language Acquisition Construction of grammarConstruction of grammar  progressing from simple rules to more complex rules:progressing from simple rules to more complex rules: oo no want some foodno want some food
    • Theories of Child Language AcquisitionTheories of Child Language Acquisition Construction of grammarConstruction of grammar  progressing from simple rules to more complex rules:progressing from simple rules to more complex rules: oo no want some foodno want some food oo I no want some food / I dont want some foodI no want some food / I dont want some food
    • Theories of Child Language AcquisitionTheories of Child Language Acquisition Construction of grammarConstruction of grammar  progressing from simple rules to more complex rules:progressing from simple rules to more complex rules: oo no want some foodno want some food oo I no want some food / I dont want some foodI no want some food / I dont want some food oo I dont want no foodI dont want no food
    • Theories of Child Language AcquisitionTheories of Child Language Acquisition Construction of grammarConstruction of grammar  progressing from simple rules to more complex rules:progressing from simple rules to more complex rules: oo no want some foodno want some food oo I no want some food / I dont want some foodI no want some food / I dont want some food oo I dont want no foodI dont want no food oo I don’t want any food.I don’t want any food.
    • Theories of Child Language AcquisitionTheories of Child Language Acquisition Construction of grammarConstruction of grammar  progressing from simple rules to more complex rules:progressing from simple rules to more complex rules: oo no want some foodno want some food oo I no want some food / I dont want some foodI no want some food / I dont want some food oo I dont want no foodI dont want no food oo I don’t want any food.I don’t want any food. They are not mistakes in the child’s languageThey are not mistakes in the child’s language
    • Theories of Child Language AcquisitionTheories of Child Language Acquisition Construction of grammarConstruction of grammar  progressing from simple rules to more complex rules:progressing from simple rules to more complex rules: oo no want some foodno want some food oo I no want some food / I dont want some foodI no want some food / I dont want some food oo I dont want no foodI dont want no food oo I don’t want any food.I don’t want any food. They are not mistakes in the child’s language; theyThey are not mistakes in the child’s language; they reflect the grammar at a certain stage of development.reflect the grammar at a certain stage of development.
    • Language DevelopmentLanguage Development Unlike animals, whose cries of alarm areUnlike animals, whose cries of alarm are inborn, humans need prolonged post-natalinborn, humans need prolonged post-natal experience before they can produce andexperience before they can produce and decode the sounds that are the basis fordecode the sounds that are the basis for language.language.
    • Language DevelopmentLanguage Development Unlike animals, whose cries of alarm areUnlike animals, whose cries of alarm are inborn, humans needinborn, humans need prolonged post-natalprolonged post-natal experienceexperience before they can produce andbefore they can produce and decode the sounds that are the basis fordecode the sounds that are the basis for language.language.
    • Unlike animals, whose cries of alarm areUnlike animals, whose cries of alarm are inborn, humans need prolonged post-natalinborn, humans need prolonged post-natal experience before they can produce andexperience before they can produce and decode the sounds that are the basis fordecode the sounds that are the basis for language.language. Children can learn a languageChildren can learn a language only if they are exposed to the words ofonly if they are exposed to the words of this language during a limited, criticalthis language during a limited, critical period before puberty.period before puberty. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Unlike animals, whose cries of alarm areUnlike animals, whose cries of alarm are inborn, humans need prolonged post-natalinborn, humans need prolonged post-natal experience before they can produce andexperience before they can produce and decode the sounds that are the basis fordecode the sounds that are the basis for language.language. Children can learn a languageChildren can learn a language only if they are exposed to the words ofonly if they are exposed to the words of this languagethis language during a limited, criticalduring a limited, critical period before puberty.period before puberty. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Unlike animals, whose cries of alarm areUnlike animals, whose cries of alarm are inborn, humans need prolonged post-natalinborn, humans need prolonged post-natal experience before they can produce andexperience before they can produce and decode the sounds that are the basis fordecode the sounds that are the basis for language. Children can learn a languagelanguage. Children can learn a language only if they are exposed to the words ofonly if they are exposed to the words of this language during a limited, criticalthis language during a limited, critical period before puberty.period before puberty. Similar conditionsSimilar conditions of exposure or non-exposure outside thisof exposure or non-exposure outside this critical period, later in adult life, will havecritical period, later in adult life, will have little effect on language acquisition.little effect on language acquisition. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • In addition, the phonetic structure of theIn addition, the phonetic structure of the particular language that someone hearsparticular language that someone hears during the first few years of life willduring the first few years of life will permanently affect the way that personpermanently affect the way that person perceives and produces speech.perceives and produces speech. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • During the first few months of life, infants do not haveDuring the first few months of life, infants do not have any inborn predispositions for the characteristicany inborn predispositions for the characteristic phonemes of any particular language.phonemes of any particular language. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • During the first few months of life, infants do not haveDuring the first few months of life, infants do not have any inborn predispositions for the characteristicany inborn predispositions for the characteristic phonemes of any particular language.phonemes of any particular language. Hence they can perceive and discriminate all theHence they can perceive and discriminate all the sounds of any human language.sounds of any human language. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • During the first few months of life, infants do not haveDuring the first few months of life, infants do not have any inborn predispositions for the characteristicany inborn predispositions for the characteristic phonemes of any particular language.phonemes of any particular language. Hence they can perceive and discriminate all theHence they can perceive and discriminate all the sounds of any human language.sounds of any human language. But eventually, people lose this ability.But eventually, people lose this ability. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • During the first few months of life, infants do not haveDuring the first few months of life, infants do not have any inborn predispositions for the characteristicany inborn predispositions for the characteristic phonemes of any particular language.phonemes of any particular language. Hence they can perceive and discriminate all theHence they can perceive and discriminate all the sounds of any human language.sounds of any human language. But eventually, people lose this ability. For example,But eventually, people lose this ability. For example, adult native speakers of Japanese cannot reliablyadult native speakers of Japanese cannot reliably distinguish the English “R”distinguish the English “R” and “L” sounds, probablyand “L” sounds, probably because this phonetic distinction does not occur inbecause this phonetic distinction does not occur in Japanese.Japanese. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Studies have been conducted to determine upStudies have been conducted to determine up to what age Japanese babies can stillto what age Japanese babies can still discriminate between these two sounds.discriminate between these two sounds. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Studies have been conducted to determine upStudies have been conducted to determine up to what age Japanese babies can stillto what age Japanese babies can still discriminate between these two sounds.discriminate between these two sounds. In these studies, discrimination was measuredIn these studies, discrimination was measured by an increase in the frequency with whichby an increase in the frequency with which the babies engaged in sucking behaviour orthe babies engaged in sucking behaviour or turned their heads away when presented withturned their heads away when presented with one of these sounds after they had habituatedone of these sounds after they had habituated to the other.to the other. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • It was found that at 4 months of age,It was found that at 4 months of age, Japanese babies could distinguish the “R” andJapanese babies could distinguish the “R” and “L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who“L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who were growing up in English-speaking families.were growing up in English-speaking families. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • It was found that at 4 months of age,It was found that at 4 months of age, Japanese babies could distinguish the “R” andJapanese babies could distinguish the “R” and “L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who“L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who were growing up in English-speaking families.were growing up in English-speaking families. But around 6 months of age, the two sets ofBut around 6 months of age, the two sets of babies showed preferences for the phonemes ofbabies showed preferences for the phonemes of their mother tongues.their mother tongues. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • It was found that at 4 months of age,It was found that at 4 months of age, Japanese babies could distinguish the “R” andJapanese babies could distinguish the “R” and “L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who“L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who were growing up in English-speaking families.were growing up in English-speaking families. But around 6 months of age, the two sets ofBut around 6 months of age, the two sets of babies showed preferences for the phonemes ofbabies showed preferences for the phonemes of their mother tongues.their mother tongues. By the time they were 1 year old, the babiesBy the time they were 1 year old, the babies no longer responded at all to the phoneticno longer responded at all to the phonetic elements of a language other than their own.elements of a language other than their own. Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do?Language DevelopmentLanguage DevelopmentLanguage DevelopmentLanguage Development Hearing and Understanding Speaking
    • Language DevelopmentLanguage Development Birth to One YearBirth to One Year Hearing and Understanding Speaking •Startles to loud sounds •Quiets or smiles when spoken to •Seems to recognize your voice and quiets if crying •Increases or decreases sucking behavior in response to sound •Makes pleasure sounds (cooing, gooing) •Cries differently for different needs •Smiles when sees you What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do? (Birth - 3 Months) AAt 4 months of age, Japanese babies could distinguish the “R” andt 4 months of age, Japanese babies could distinguish the “R” and “L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who were growing up in“L” sounds just as well as 4-month-olds who were growing up in English-speaking families.English-speaking families.
    • Birth to One YearBirth to One Year Hearing and Understanding Speaking •Moves eyes in direction of sounds •Responds to changes in tone of your voice •Notices toys that make sounds •Pays attention to music •Babbling sounds more speech-like with many different sounds, including p, b and m •Vocalizes excitement and displeasure •Makes gurgling sounds when left alone and when playing with you What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do?Language DevelopmentLanguage Development (4 - 6 Months) AAround 6 months of age, the two sets of babies showedround 6 months of age, the two sets of babies showed preferences for the phonemes of their mother tongues.preferences for the phonemes of their mother tongues.
    • Birth to One YearBirth to One Year Hearing and Understanding Speaking •Enjoys games like peekaboo and pat-a-cake •Turns and looks in direction of sounds •Listens when spoken to •Recognizes words for common items like "cup", "shoe," or "juice" •Begins to respond to requests (e.g. "Come here" or "Want more?") •Babbling has both long and short groups of sounds such as "tata upup bibibibi" •Uses speech or noncrying sounds to get and keep attention •Imitates different speech sounds •Has one or two words (bye-bye, dada, mama). although they may not be clear What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do?Language DevelopmentLanguage Development (7 Months - 1 Year) By the time they were 1 year old, the babies no longer respondedBy the time they were 1 year old, the babies no longer responded at all to the phonetic elements of a language other than their own.at all to the phonetic elements of a language other than their own.
    • One to Two YearsOne to Two Years Hearing and Understanding Speaking •Points to a few body parts when asked. •Follows simple commands and understands simple questions ("Roll the ball," "Kiss the baby," "Where's your shoe?"). •Listens to simple stories, songs, and rhymes. •Points to pictures in a book when named. •Says more words every month. •Uses some one- or two- word questions ("Where kitty?" "Go bye- bye?" "What's that?"). •Puts two words together ("more cookie," "no juice," "mommy book"). •Uses many different consonant sounds at the beginning of words. What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do?Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Two to Three YearsTwo to Three Years Hearing and Understanding Speaking •Understands differences in meaning ("go-stop," "in-on," "big- little," "up-down"). •Follows two requests ("Get the book and put it on the table"). •Has a word for almost everything. •Uses two- or three- word "sentences" to talk about and ask for things. •Speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time. •Often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them. What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do?Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Three to Four YearsThree to Four Years Hearing and Understanding Speaking •Hears you when you call from another room. •Hears television or radio at the same loudness level as other family members. •Understands simple "wh" (who, what, where,why) questions. •Talks about activities at school or at friends' homes. •Speaks clearly enough that people outside of the family usually understand his or her speech. •Uses a lot of sentences that have four or more words. •Usually talks easily without repeating syllables or words. What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do?Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Four to Five YearsFour to Five Years Hearing and Understanding Speaking •Pays attention to a short story and answers simple questions about it. •Hears and understands most of what is said at home and in school. •Makes voice sounds clear like other children's. •Uses sentences that give lots of details (e.g., "I like to read my books"). •Tells stories that stick to topic. •Communicates easily with other children and adults. •Says most sounds correctly (except perhaps certain ones such as l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, th). •Uses the same grammar as the rest of the family. What should the child be able to do?What should the child be able to do?Language DevelopmentLanguage Development
    • Language AcquisitionLanguage Acquisition andand LanguageLanguage DevelopmentDevelopment to be contiued …to be contiued …