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NATURAL HARBOURS: A harbor, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather.
SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR: Same as natural but harbour needs some artificial and man made construction
ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR: Harbour having no natural protection but artificial arrangement are made to protect the harbour from storm and wind.
REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD HARBOR: › The depth of a harbor should be sufficient for every type of visiting ships. › The bottom of harbor should provide secured anchorage to hold the ships against high winds. › To prevent destructive wave action, break water are provided. › The entrance of a harbor should be wide enough to provide the easy passage of ships.
DEFECTS IN HARBOR: › Depth of water is found insufficient for different ships. › The size of harbor is found insufficient to accommodate the increased traffic. › Obstruction › These defects can easily be avoided at the time of planning and designing.
SIZE OF A HARBOUR Size depends upon: # of ships length:275m-300m width:30m
HARBOUR PLANNING It should be carried out after collecting necessary information of the existing features at the proposed site. Following important facts should be studied.
A thorough survey of the neighborhood including the foreshore & depths of water is necessary Nature of a harbor wether sheltered or not, be studied The existance of sea insects & various animals residing at site.
Natural phenomena’s concerning planning of a harbour are: Storms Rainfall Range of tides Maximum & minimum temperatures Direction & intensity of wind etc
SITE SELECTION: Following factors play a great role in the choice of site of a harbour. 1.Availability of cheap land & contruction material. 2.Natural protection from waves & winds 3.transport & communication facilities 4.industrial development of the locality
5.Sea bed,sub soil & foundation conditions 6.Avaibility of electrical energy 7.Defence & strategic aspects 8.trafic potentiality of harbour
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION: 1. HARBOR OF REFUGE 2. COMMERCIAL HARBOR 3. FISHRY HARBOR 4. MILLITARY HARBOR OR NAVEL BASE
HARBOR OF REFUGE: The harbor used for ships in storms or emergency condition. good anchorage and safe and easy access from the sea. e.g: DOVER IN ENGLAND
COMMERCIAL HARBOR: Facilities for loading and unloading of cargo are provided. The may be: 1. Part of bigger complex harbor 2. Independent unit or single commodity harbor. 3. Terminal as oil terminal, coal port.
FISHRY HARBOR: Provided for fishing crafts and trawlers.
MILLITARY HARBOR: This harbor is meant for accommodating naval crafts and serves as a supply deport. The layout of this type of harbor is greatly influenced by its location.
FEATURES OF A HARBOR: 1. Entrance Channels 2. Berthing Basin 3. Break Water 4. Turning Basin 5. Pier Head 6. Wharves 7. Jetties
ENTRANCE CHANNEL: › Depth and width are kept more at entrance › Width depends upon density of traffic and no: of entrances
BERTHING AND TURNING BASINS: › Berthing basins are used for the parking of ships › While turning for the turning of ships
BREAK WATER: › The structure constructed to protect harbor from storm waves › They are generally stone masonry
PIER HEAD: › The structure provided at the tip of break water › Such as light house
WHARVES: › The structure constructed parallel to the shore or break water, having wide plate form at the top › Function is to permit berthing of vessel along side for cargo working
JETTIES: › Same as wharves › Used for loading and unloading of cargo › Made usually from shore towards sea water to prevent silting and dredging to allow free flow of tidal currents
DOCK: › A dock is dug out and usually has gates so that the water level is kept up even though the tide has gone out. › A dock is for mooring ships for cargo or passenger exchange, or sometimes repair.
HARBOR: › A harbour may be natural or partly dug out, or even made with floating materials. It doesnt have gates, but may have a narrow entrance. › Provides safe anchoring or mooring for ships
PORTS: › A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.