The Evolution of criminal Investigation and Criminalistics

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The presentation has some of Sir Robert Peel principles on this topic.

The presentation has some of Sir Robert Peel principles on this topic.

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  • 1. Criminal Investigation eighth edition ONE The Evolution of Criminal Investigation and Criminalistics Swanson • Chamelin • TerritoMcGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Explain the importance of the Bow Street Runners • Discuss the contribution of Sir Robert Peel’s reform to early policing in the United States • Explain the history and function of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency • Highlight the first major federal investigative agencies and their responsibilities • Explain the impact of Supreme Courts "due process revolution" and its impact on policing • Discuss Bertillon’s method of anthropometry • Summarize the historical development of fingerprint identification • Explain the concept and practice of DNA typing • Outline the milestones in the development of firearms identificationMcGraw-Hill 1-1 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. THE BOW STREET RUNNERS • Small group of volunteers/non-uniformed homeowners • Established in 1750 by Henry Fielding/called "Take Thieves" • Hurry to scene of crime and begin investigation • First modern detective forceMcGraw-Hill 1-2 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. SIR ROBERT PEEL • His efforts led to the establishment of a Metropolitan police force for London • Peel is considered the father of modern policing • Many of his reforms are part of policing today in America • Peel was considered a skillful administrator with visionMcGraw-Hill 1-3 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. PEEL’S PRINCIPLES 1. The police must be stable, efficient, organized along military lines. 2. The police must be under government control. 3. The absence of crime best proves efficiency of police. 4. The distribution of crime news is essential. 5. The deployment of police strength over time and area is essential. 6. No quality is more indispensable to a police officer than a perfect command of temper.McGraw-Hill 1-4(a) © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. PEEL’S PRINCIPLES (contd) 7. Good appearance commands respect. 8. Securing and training proper people is the root of efficiency. 9. Public security demands every police officer be given a number. 10. Police headquarters should be centrally located/easily accessible. 11. Police should be hired on a probationary basis. 12. Police records are necessary to the correctly distribute police strength.McGraw-Hill 1-4(b) © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. DETECTIVES IN THE U.S. EVOLVED IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR • Graft/corruption common in big city police departments • Municipal police jurisdictions were limited. • Little communication between police departments in different cities. • Offenders could flee from one jurisdiction to another • Private sector detectives like Pinkerton’s developedMcGraw-Hill 1-5 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. PINKERTON AT WORK • Protected President- elect Lincoln • Operated an intelligence service for the union army • Pursued bank and railroad robbers • Created extensive criminal records • Provided a good model for government detectives (Courtesy Pinkerton’s Archives)McGraw-Hill 1-6 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. EARLY FEDERAL INVESTIGATIVE AGENCIES 1865 Secret Service created to combat counterfeiting 1903 After assassination of McKinley responsibility for presidential protection was added 1908 Bureau of Investigation became F.B.I. 1924/Hover 1920 Internal Revenue responsible for Prohibition enforcementMcGraw-Hill 1-7 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. DUE PROCESS REVOLUTION • Cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, 1961-1966 • Known as due process revolution • Active in cases involving rights of suspects/defendants • Miranda, Mapp v. Ohio, Terry decisions impact policeMcGraw-Hill 1-8 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. NYPD ROGUES’ GALLERY • N.Y.P.D. established Rogues Gallery in 1857 • Photographs of known offenders were included • Photos were arranged by their criminal specialty and height • Used by detectives to recognize criminals on the street (Courtesy Library of Congress)McGraw-Hill 1-9 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. ANTHROPOMETRY • First method of criminal identification thought to be reliable; based on a criteria of body measurements • Developed by Bertillon (1853-1916)/father of criminal identification • After 1883 the system was adopted throughout Europe • System was abandoned because dactylography (fingerprint identification) simpler, more reliableMcGraw-Hill 1-10 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. HENRY BERTILLON AND A BERTILLON MEASUREMENT (Courtesy Jacques Ganthial) (Courtesy Library of Congress)McGraw-Hill 1-11 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DACTYLOGRAPHY 1684 England’s Dr. Grew observes pores and ridges in hands and feet 1823 Perkinje develops nine standard fingerprint patterns and classification system 1892 Galton publishes “Fingerprints,” first definitive book on dactylography 1894 Vucetich publishes “Dictiloscopia Comparada”, outlining his systemMcGraw-Hill 1-12(a) © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DACTYLOGRAPHY (Cont.) 1900 The Henry system was adopted in England 1901 Henry publishes “Classification and Use of Fingerprints,” outlining his system of fingerprint classification 1903 The Will West/William West case demonstrates the superiority of dactylography to anthropometryMcGraw-Hill 1-12(b) © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. DNA • Deoxyribonucleic Acid, chemical blueprint which determines everything from our hair color to our disease vulnerabilities; with the exception of identical twins, each person has a unique DNA makeup • DNA is unique to individuals • The human sources of DNA are: blood and tissue; spermatozoa; bone marrow, tooth pulp and hair root cellsMcGraw-Hill 1-13 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. DNA TYPING • DNA is a chemical blueprint • The Enderby cases were the first use DNA typing in England in 1987 • The Orlando cases were the first used in the U.S. in1986 • The FBI crime lab was the first public lab to use DNA analysis in 1988McGraw-Hill 1-14 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. MILESTONES IN FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION 1835 Henry Goddard First successful murderer identification from bullet removed from victim’s body 1889 Professor Lacassagne identified grooves on a removed bullet removed from a corpse and matched it to a suspect’s weapon 1898 Jeserich took microphotographs of fatal and test bullets He testified the defendant’s revolver fired the fatal bullet 1926 Calvin Goddard was most responsible for raising firearm identification to a scienceMcGraw-Hill 1-15 © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.