Italy and its unification
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Italy and its unification






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Italy and its unification Italy and its unification Presentation Transcript

    Italy from 1815 to 1846
    Reforms, Revolt and Reaction 1846-1850
  • The Congress of Vienna seeks to restore traditional ways
    A political philosophy bases on the desire to preserve traditions and long-established institutions.
    The reaction against the ideas of the Enlightenment and the radical changes of the French Revolution
  • Liberals call for equality and change
    A political philosophy based on a belief in individual freedom, equality under law and freedom of thought and religion.
    Liberal Ideas
    French Declaration of Rights of Man
    Liberals called for written constitutions, parliamentary government, and the protection of “natural rights”
    American Bill of Rights
  • 19th century liberals
    Middle Class
    Bankers, merchants, lawyers, journalists, university students and intellectuals.
    Giving political power to the common people might threaten both liberty and property.
    Particularly in France, favored a republic in which all citizens, rich and poor, would be able to vote and to hold office.
  • Nationalist feelings emerge in the French Revolution
    devotion to one's national group
    Nationalism had wide appeal in 19th century Europe.
    It developed among people who has strong ties to:
  • The Congress of Vienna
    Czar Alexander of Russia
    King Frederick William III of Prussia
    Emperor Francis I of Austria
    Host- Austrian emperor
  • Prince Klemens von Metternich
    Metternich hated the liberal ideas proclaimed by the French Revolution.
    Despise nationalism, fearing it would cause a war in Europe.
    The spirit of nationalism, Metternich feared, could lead to the break-up of the Austrian Empire.
    The belief that society could be reshaped according to the ideals of liberty and equality had brought 25 years of revolution, terror and war.
  • Prussia and Russia threaten the balance of power
    What must be done with the territories that had been part of Napoleon’s empire?
    It caused series disagreements among the delegates at the Congress of Vienna. One dispute threatened to involve Europe in another war.
    Both Prussia and Russia hoped to gain new lands and agreed to work together to accomplish their goals.
    Prussia wanted to take over the German kingdom of Saxony.
    Czar Alexander by combining the Polish kingdom by combining the Polish lands that Russia held with those taken by Austria and Prussia in the partitions. The new Polish kingdom will be placed under Russian Control
  • Britain and Austria, saw the westward of Russia as a threat to the balance of power in Europe.
    Metternich declared that he had no fought Napoleon only to give way to the czar.
    France gains a voice in the Congress
    Prince Talleyrand of France
    Joined with Metternich and the British delegate, Viscount Castlereagh in an alliance to oppose Prussia and Russia.
    Russia and Prussia backed down and reduced their demands
  • The Congress of Vienna changes European borders.
    The Netherlands became a kingdom that included Belgium
    Switzerland regained its independence.
    Austria received the northern Italian states of Lombardy and Venetia as well as other territory on the Adriatic Sea.
    Prussia received the Rhineland and part of the Saxony.
  • Russia was granted Finland and a large part of the Polish territories, though less than czar had wanted.
    Sweden received Norway.
    Britain obtained the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa and naval bases in the North Sea, the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean.
  • European monarchies are restored
    The Concert of Europe maintains Europe stability.
    1815 Russia, Austria, Prussia and Great Britain agreed to act together in the future to preserve peace in Europe and to maintain the territorial settlement of the Congress of Vienna.
    Quadruple Alliance then it is called Concert of Europe
  • Metternich tries to suppress liberalism and nationalism
    Metternich turned the Concert of Europe into an agreement to protect absolute monarchy by checking liberal ideas and nationalist movements.
    Metternich’s system
    Conservative rules set up spy systems, censored books and newspapers and imprisoned liberals.
  • 1819,student political clubs in German Universities called for
    Carlsbad Decrees
    German unity
    Liberal reforms
    British left the Quadruple Alliance but still look part in European conferences.
  • Revolution from 1820-1830
  • Movements for liberal reform persist
    King Ferdinand VII restored to the throne in 1815, ruled harshly and persecuted liberal reformers
    1820, Spanish army officers revolted and forced the king to restore the constitution of 1812.
    Members of the Quadruple Alliance sent a French army in 1823 to crush the rebellion. The leaders of the revolt were brutally punished and Ferdinand’s repressive continued.
  • Italian reformers seek independence and unity
    Italy 1820
    Hapsburg Austria, the dominant power in Italy, ruled Lombardy and Venetia in the North; and other members of the Hapsburg family ruled Tuscany and Parma.
    In the south, Bourbon king rules the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies which included Sicily and the state of Naples.
    The Papal states in central Italy were governed by the Pope.
    Only the Kingdom of Sardinia the island of Sardinia and the state of Piedmont were ruled by an Italian family, the House of Savoy.
    The pope joined other conservative European rulers and denounced the uprisings.
  • A revolt in Russia fails
    Decembrist uprisings 1825
    Nicholas I, new czar
    To prevent the spread of liberal ideas, Nicholas imposed rigid censorship and established a secret police force to spy on potential troublemakers
    Greece gains independence
    First successful national revolution
    Greek patriots revolted against rule by 1821
    1827 Britain, France and Russia aided and helped the Greeks and independence declared in 1829
  • The people of Paris again rebel
    Louis XVIII had become king in 1814, he recognized that the French people would not accept a return to absolute monarchy.
    Constitutional charter
    Charles X
    He tried to bring back special privileges for the nobility and the clergy.
    In July 1830 he ordered censorship of newspaper and put restrictions on voting that took this right from many wealthy bourgeoisie.
  • Paris revolt
    they hamper the movement of government troops, they built barricades, using paving stones, furniture, tree trunks and wagons.
    Guns in hand they sand the “Marseillaise” the anthem of the French Revolution.
    The king fled to Britain
    Revolts break out in Italy and Belgium
    Louise Philippe “citizen king”
    They named him the new king.
  • Revolts break out in Italy and Belgium
    In 1830 revolution in France touched off revolts in Italy and Belgium
    The Concert of Europe, at the urging of France and Britain, arranged a peace settlement that established a constitutional monarchy in Belgium. The Belgians elected a German prince, Leopold I, as their king.
    Polish rebels are crushed
    The rebels were not united, however, and they lacked the support of the peasants, who wanted land. Russian armies defeated the rebels, and Czar Nicholas I imposed even stricter rule on Poland. Polish nationalist rebellions continued through out the later 1800’s but none succeeded.
  • 1848 is a year of Revolutions
  • Economic problems trouble Europe
    Between 1846 and 1848 Europe suffered an economic crisis.
    • disease ruined the potato crops
    • Drought reduced the grain harvest
    High prices
    Food riots
    Widespread sufferings
  • Lead to severe unemployment
    Blaming their governments for their misery, the common people sought reforms
  • Discontent increases in France
    As in 1830, rebellion in France was the spark that set off other revolutions.
    Louis Philippe’s rule had never satisfied a large section of the people in France.
    Suffered from unemployment and low wages
    Attracted to the new reform called socialism
  • Socialist thinker
    Believed that the government, not private individual should own factories, banks and other business and run them for the whole society.
  • A worker’s revolt follows a moderate revolution
    February 1848
    The Parisians rioted and once again set up barricades for street fighting. Louis abdicated, and the Second Republic was established.
    favored in political liberty but not social reform. They were willing only to give all men the right to vote.
    Louis Blanc urged the new government to make changes that would benefit the workers.
  • As a result of Blanc’s demands
    The cost of the workshop program upset many taxpayers, both peasants and bourgeoisie
    National workshop
  • June 1848
    The government closed the workshop and the Parisian workers rose in revolt over the loss job. Men and women and children again set up barricades in the streets of Paris.
    The assembly changed the constitution to ensure strong government control though it also gave voting rights to all adult males. French voters elected
  • Louis Napoleon’s conservative rule made him very popular. In 1852 the voters overwhelmingly approved his becoming Napoleon III. The second empire replaced the republic created in 1848
  • Nationalism leads to revolt in Austrian lands
    With new pride in their national histories and traditions, Czechs and Hungarians in particular protested against German Domination of the Austrian Empire.
    Writers began to write in their own language instead of Latin, German and French they had been taught to use in school.
  • Rebellions break out in Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary
    Less than a month after the February 1848 revolution in France, German students and workers in the Austrian capital of Vienna revolted.
    They demanded a constitution and an end to feudal practices.
    Emperor dismissed Metternich who had become a symbol of repression.
    They also abolished serfdom and promised a constitution.
  • Czech nationalist in Bohemia revolted against German Dominance.
    Czech language be used on an equal basis with German in the schools and government.
    March 1848 Louis Kossuth a Hungarian patriot led the Hungarians in demanding a greater degree of self-government.
    The constitution ended feudal privileges, guaranteed freedom of religion and of the press, and gave all adult male property owners the right to vote.
  • The Austrian government suppresses the rebellions.
    Hapsburg Austria cleverly took advantage of both its military strength and the differences among the various nationality groups.
    June 1848
    The imperial troops bombarded Prague, the Capital of Bohemia. With the help of the Bohemian Germans, the Czechs were suppresed.
    October 1848
    Austrian soldiers, mostly peasants, attacked students and workers in Vienna. Thousands were killed as the imperial army retook the city.
  • September 1848
    When the Austrians led a Croatian army against the Hungarians, Kosuth’s troops pushed them back.
    April 1849
    The Hungarians proclaimed Hungary an independent republic.
    June 1848
    The new Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph called for help from Czar Nicholas I of Russia.
    A Russian army of 130,000 attacked Hungary from the east and by August the rebels had been defeated
  • Revolts break out in Italy
    Mazzini and Young Italy
    Secret Societies
    • Italian artists, writers, thinkers became interested in celebrating Italy’s cultural traditions
    • Others formed secret societies to work for political change, plotted to overthrow Austrian government in Italy
    Young Italy
    • 1831, popular writer, Giuseppe Mazzini, launched nationalist group called Young Italy to fight for unification of Italian states
    • Mazzini had been exiled but smuggled patriotic pamphlets into Italy
    • Young Italy attracted tens of thousands of Italians to cause of unification
  • Although Italian revolutionaries everywhere were defeated, the aims of the Risorgimento persisted.
    Sardinia was a monarchy, but the new ruler who came to the throne in 1849 kept the liberal constitution won in the revolution. As the only state in Italy with an Italian ruling family as well as a constitution, Sardinia became the focus or revolutionary hopes.
  • Some of the reforms won by the revolutionaries were retained
    the right to vote
    The end of serfdom
    Representative assemblies