Paragraph Development

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Prepared by: Ms. JAMAICA OLAZO
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What is a Paragraph
Parts of a Paragraph
Four Essential Elements of a Paragraph
Difference Between a Paragraph and an Essay
Paragraph Development
Types of Paragraph and its Elements
Ways in Developing a Paragraph

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Paragraph Development

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. WORDSmake up a2
  3. 3. PHRASEmakes up3
  4. 4. SENTENCESmake up a4
  5. 5. - a group of sentences organizedaround a central topic.“A solidly written paragraph takes its readerson a clear path, without detours.”5
  6. 6. 6Topic Sentence - tells the reader what the paragraph isgoing to be about.- It also helps the writing under control.- sometimes called the “controlling idea" of a paragraph.12Supporting Sentence – make the topic more interesting orhelp explain it more clearly .- It helps support a topic sentence through providing sensorydetails, facts, or examples that expand upon, explain, or provea paragraph’s main idea or topic sentence.Clincher/Concluding Sentence –provides a logical conclusionbased on the information found in the supporting sentences.-also used to cement the main idea in the reader’s mind.3
  7. 7. My mother is neither tall nor heavy, but she’s thebiggest person in my life. There has been no other personwith a greater influence on me. Most mothersfeed, wash, and clothe their children, and my mother is noexception. But more than this, she made sure that Ireceived the finest education possible. This educationwas not at expensive schools or famous universities, butat home, by her knee, patiently. My mother explained tome the difference between right and wrong; the virtues ofgenerosity, honesty, and hard work; and the importanceof family and social ties. From her I understood who Iwas, where I belonged, and how I should spend myenergy. No matter how big I might grow to be, I hope tobe as great as my mother.7
  8. 8. My mother is neither tall nor heavy, but she’s the biggestperson in my life. There has been no other person with a greaterinfluence on me. Most mothers feed, wash, and clothe theirchildren, and my mother is no exception. But more than this, shemade sure that I received the finest education possible. Thiseducation was not at expensive schools or famousuniversities, but at home, by her knee, patiently. My motherexplained to me the difference between right and wrong; thevirtues of generosity, honesty, and hard work; and theimportance of family and social ties. From her I understood who Iwas, where I belonged, and how I should spend my energy. Nomatter how big I might grow to be, I hope to be as greatas my mother.8Topic SentenceSupporting SentenceClincher
  9. 9. FOURESSENTIALELEMENTSUNITYORDERCOMPLETENESSCOHERENCE9
  10. 10. UNITY• Refers to the extent to which all of the ideascontained within a given paragraph ‘hangtogether’ in a way that is easy for the reader tounderstand.• Unity in a paragraph begins with the topicsentence.10
  11. 11. 11ORDER• Refers to the way you organize yoursupporting sentences.Whether in chronological order, order ofimportance, or another logicalpresentation detail.• Helps the reader grasp the meaning and avoidconfusion
  12. 12. COHERENCE• The quality the makes your writingunderstandable.• Closely related to UNITY.Paragraph need to connect each other and worktogether as a whole.• Uses transition words that show order (firstsecond, third); logic (furthermore, inaddition, in fact)12
  13. 13. 13COMPLETENESS• Completeness means a paragraph is well-developed.• If all sentences clearly and sufficiently supportthe main idea.
  14. 14. Paragraph writing is thefoundation of all essaywriting, whether the form isexpository, persuasive, narrative, etc.14
  15. 15. If you take the parts of a paragraph andexpand them, you can create an essay.ESSAY1. generally muchshorter than anessay2. should be centeredon one idea onlyor write about onlyone topic151. Consists of manyparagraphs2. you could exploremany ideas whiletalking about onegeneral topicPARAGRAPHDIFFERENCE?
  16. 16. PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENTDeveloping paragraphs in a variety of patternsthat reflect your thinking about the material. Asyou write the topic sentence and its supportingsentences, look for ways to structure yourthinking. Where one author advances his or hermaterial by narrating a series of events, anotherundertakes a physical description and anotherundertakes an analysis of the topic.16
  17. 17. ExpositionParagraphClassificationParagraphNarrationParagraphDescriptionParagraphProcessAnalysisParagraphPersuasionParagraphDefinitionParagraph17
  18. 18. NARRATION PARAGRAPH• are most frequently used in fictionand personal statements.• Requires consequently, accountingfor sequential order of events andchronology.• like telling the reader a story.18ELEMENTSProtagonist Setting Goal Climax Resolution
  19. 19. Example of a Narrative ParagraphThe one day I spent in Morocco, Africa was anexperience of a lifetime. When I finally reached Morocco andgot off the bus, there were four little girls standing shoelessin the hot sun. After I swallowed my tears, I could not eventry to picture this in America as it is not something you oftensee in the U.S. Meanwhile my tourist guide instructed me notto give them money as it encouraged the children to beg;however, I was wearing four silver bracelets. As I walked overto the girls, their eyes watched my every move. Then Ikneeled down to their level while I gave each girl a bracelet.They stood there gleaming at me, for they were pleased. I feltcompletely in disbelief that this tiny gesture could mean somuch. Though this experience was upsetting, and a hugeculture shock, it will stay with me forever.19
  20. 20. Narrative ParagraphThe one day I spent in Morocco,Africa was an experience of a lifetime. WhenI finally reached Morocco and got off the bus,there were four little girls standing shoelessin the hot sun. After I swallowed my tears, Icould not even try to picture this in Americaas it is not something you often see in theU.S. Meanwhile my tourist guide instructedme not to give them money as it encouragedthe children to beg; however, I was wearingfour silver bracelets. As I walked over to thegirls, their eyes watched my every move.Then I kneeled down to their level while Igave each girl a bracelet. They stood theregleaming at me, for they were pleased. I feltcompletely in disbelief that this tiny gesturecould mean so much. Though this experiencewas upsetting, and a huge culture shock, itwill stay with me forever.20Setting – Morocco, Africa
  21. 21. EXPOSITION PARAGRAPH• written in order to clarify or explainproblems and phenomena, and requiresstrict focus on evidence and objectivelanguage.• provides essential examples as well ascomparison &contrast, or cause & effectwriting as both facilitate accurateexposition of the subject matter21FormalLanguageEvidence Explanation Background
  22. 22. 22Example of an Exposition ParagraphA disease that causes chronic gastrologicaldisorders, IBD, is envisioned in a spectrum of severities.Cats can vomit heavily, and suffer from continuousdiarrhea. Reasons for the disease are yet unknown.Bacterial infections, gastrological irritation, lack ofvitamins are often quoted as factors contributing to thedevelopment of the disease. Veterinarians, treating IBD incats, usually prescribe medicine and advice on the dietarymanagement as well as make surgical choices. Ifuntreated, IBD, can be fatal for cats. Research - conductedmostly by pet owners - shows that a cat’s diet can becritical. Further research will include inspection of severalvaccines. So far, grain-free, raw meat diet has alreadyproved to be largely beneficial.
  23. 23. Exposition ParagraphA disease that causes chronicgastrological disorders, IBD, is envisionedin a spectrum of severities. Cats can vomitheavily, and suffer from continuousdiarrhea. Reasons for the disease are yetunknown. Bacterialinfections, gastrological irritation, lack ofvitamins are often quoted as factorscontributing to the development of thedisease. Veterinarians, treating IBD incats, usually prescribe medicine andadvice on the dietary management as wellas make surgical choices. Ifuntreated, IBD, can be fatal for cats.Research - conducted mostly by petowners - shows that a cat’s diet can becritical. Further research will includeinspection of several vaccines. Sofar, grain-free, raw meat diet has already23
  24. 24. DEFINITION PARAGRAPH• used in order to explain themeaning, origin and function ofthings. They are used both inacademic writing and fiction.• Serves the purpose of giving areader a complete definition of aconcept, a term or an idea.24ELEMENTSExplanationof MeaningAccountof theOrigin ofThingsMethodExamples andComparisonsCitingVerifiableSources
  25. 25. 25Example of a Definition ParagraphThe IAU has so far recognized five dwarfplanets differentiated from planets by a parameter of“planetary discriminant” which allows estimating thecapacity to dominate orbits. According to NationMaster Encyclopedia dwarf planets follow orbitswhich are not free from other minor celestial bodies.Simultaneously, they always circulate the Sun and notother celestial objects (they are not satellites).Several dwarf planets have already been scrutinizedeffectively. Their physical properties have beencalculated through routine Earth-based observationsas well as advanced image-searching software. Sincecurrent data may not be entirely accurate, furtherexaminations are undertaken by astronomers andphysicists world-wide.
  26. 26. Definition ParagraphThe IAU has so far recognizedfive dwarf planets differentiated fromplanets by a parameter of “planetarydiscriminant” which allows estimatingthe capacity to dominate orbits.According to Nation Master Encyclopediadwarf planets follow orbits which are notfree from other minor celestial bodies.Simultaneously, they always circulate theSun and not other celestial objects (theyare not satellites). Several dwarf planetshave already been scrutinized effectively.Their physical properties have beencalculated through routine Earth-basedobservations as well as advanced image-searching software. Since current datamay not be entirely accurate, furtherexaminations are undertaken byastronomers and physicists world-wide.26
  27. 27. ELEMENTSCLASSIFICATION PARAGRAPH• concentrated on defining as wellas making relevant comparisons.27DefinitionComparisonMultipleContex-tualizationDescriptiveVocabularyPerformed onMultiple Levels:Semantic – comparingdifferent meanings ofthingsLinguistic – usingvocabulary to showcontrast
  28. 28. Example of a Classification ParagraphA first date can end up being categorized assuccessful, a clingy, a boastful or awkward. Successful firstdates include both parties expressing information aboutwhat they like, who they are, and so forth. Usually, thesedates will end in tentative plans for a second one. Clingydates end up with one of the parties practically beggingfor information about the other. However, the non-clingeris not interested. On boastful dates, one member of theduo talks about all of his or her skills, talents, andabilities. The listening end of the pair is never askedabout his or her life. Awkward first dates generally involvelots of silence or one or both of the partners not knowinghow to act appropriately. While many dates occur everyday, they can generally fall into one of these categories.28
  29. 29. Classification ParagraphA first date can end up beingcategorized as successful, a clingy, a boastfulor awkward. Successful first dates includeboth parties expressing information aboutwhat they like, who they are, and so forth.Usually, these dates will end in tentativeplans for a second one. Clingy dates end upwith one of the parties practically beggingfor information about the other.However, the non-clinger is not interested.On boastful dates, one member of the duotalks about all of his or herskills, talents, and abilities. The listening endof the pair is never asked about his or herlife. Awkward first dates generally involvelots of silence or one or both of the partnersnot knowing how to act appropriately.While many dates occur every day, they cangenerally fall into one of these categories.29
  30. 30. ELEMENTSInformation Context DescriptiveLanguage30DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPH• Describing and creating a dominantsensory impression to the readers.• Help the readers to understand a storysetting by creating visual pictures andgiving readers a mental image of a scene.• Should be detailed, clear, and render therepresented reality chronologically.
  31. 31. Example of Description Paragraph“Let’s walk,” she says serenely, slipping her arm inmine and heading into Central Park. As she strollsalong, folks check her out and occasionally point.She is tall, strong, and straight-backed, glowing withvegan health and moving confidently through thecrowds in her all-black ensemble. In videos andphotos, she looks like she has a prominent jaw, butin person it is much softer, as are her other features(Windex-blue eyes, glossy black hair). Her voice isgentle and melodious, and she looks you square inthe eye when she speaks.—from Jancee Dunn’s “The Cole Truth,” RollingStone 786, May, 1998.31
  32. 32. ELEMENTSPROCESS ANALYSIS PARAGRAPH- very concise and uses formal,non-descriptive vocabulary.- It should be written inchronological order accounting forsubsequent actions or events.Chronology Clarity Explanation32
  33. 33. Example of a Process Analysis ParagraphThe problem of hairballs that have alreadyformed in cat’s fur can be solved by proper brushing.In order to brush your cat’s hairballs, you’ll need twokinds of brushes: a wide-teeth wipe and a metallicone. The former will help you dissolveand, partially, remove tightly knotted hairballswithout causing any pain or discomfort to your cat.The latter, used subsequently, will remove excess ofloose puffy hair and decrease the possibility ofreoccurrence the next day. Once brushing isover, make sure to polish your cat’s fur all over hisbody with the help of a clean, cotton, or woolencloth. 33
  34. 34. Process Analysis ParagraphThe problem of hairballs that havealready formed in cat’s fur can be solvedby proper brushing. In order to brush yourcat’s hairballs, you’ll need two kinds ofbrushes: a wide-teeth wipe and a metallicone. The former will help you dissolveand, partially, remove tightly knottedhairballs without causing any pain ordiscomfort to your cat. The latter, usedsubsequently, will remove excess of loosepuffy hair and decrease the possibility ofreoccurrence the next day. Once brushingis over, make sure to polish your cat’s furall over his body with the help of aclean, cotton, or woolen cloth.34Chronology – gives aguide/instruction by wayof telling the reader howto do the treatmentClarity – the informationis clear so as theinstruction givenExplanation – the writerhad explain well aboutthe problem of hairballsin the cat’s fur
  35. 35. PERSUASION PARAGRAPH• require exhortatory and dynamiclanguage.• are aimed at persuading the readerinto taking a particular action oradopting a certain point of view.35
  36. 36. Example of a Persuasion ParagraphPlan ahead before you go camping inFlorida,. Don’t wind up in the wilds when youwant to be near Disney World, and don’t windup on a concrete RV pad when you really wantthe forest primeval. Find out what parks areavailable, and what they are like. Get goodinformation on what to expect, and whatoptions are. This can make all the difference inthe quality of your vacation.36
  37. 37. 1. Creating an Outline• Write down the main points that you wish to discussin the paragraph first. Aim for two or three mainpoints.• Underneath each main point, add a piece ofsupporting evidence from ajournal, novel, poem, etc.• After the evidence, offer a brief explanation.37WAYS IN DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH
  38. 38. 1. Creating an Outline2. Topic Sentence DevelopmentHow to write?It should discuss an idea only in generic termswithout proving too many details.38WAYS IN DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH
  39. 39. 3. Supporting detailsFor example, a piece of support in an essay about drug usagecould read, "Drug usage is becoming an increasing problem inthe United States." After that, introduce a statistic showing therise of drug usage over the last decade.4. Using quotations and evidence5. Analyzing quotations and evidence39WAYS IN DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH
  40. 40. 6. Providing strong, relevant informationImportant facts, textual analysis and all of theinformation must be relevant. Stay focused!7. Using concise languageWords such as "good," "nice" and "bad" are extremelyvague and should not be used in professional writing.Find clearer words - "respectful," "giving" and "selfish,"for example, with which to replace these vague words.40WAYS IN DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH
  41. 41. 8. Using colorful and clear wordsFurthermore, do not use confusing words or words ofwhich you do not know the meaning, because your lackof understanding will translate to the reader.9. Crafting a strong conclusion statementAt the end of one paragraph, suggest that there isanother idea that piggybacks on top of the one thatyou have discussed, or state that there are somedisagreeing ideas in the field.41WAYS IN DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH
  42. 42. 10. Utilizing appropriate transition wordsEx: Order (first,second,last),Spatial Relationships (above, below),Logic (furthermore, in addition, in fact), etc.11. Following proper grammar rulesEnsure that your paper is free of grammar errors.42WAYS IN DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH
  43. 43. 43Thank you!Jam Olazo

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