Bloom’s Taxonomy (complete)

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Definition of Taxonomy
Benjamin Samuel Bloom
History of Bloom's Taxonomy
Three Domains
Six Levels of Cognitive Domain
Appropriate Verbs
Products and Model Questions

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Bloom’s Taxonomy (complete)

  1. 1. • comes from the Greek word “taxis=arrangement” and “nomos=science” • Science of arrangements • means 'a set of classification principles', or 'structure', and Domain simply means 'category'. TAXONOMY 2https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  2. 2. - was a Jewish-American educational psychologist. Contributions: 1. Classification of Educational Objectives 2. Theory of Mastery-Learning (Feb. 1913 – Sep. 1999) Who is BENJAMIN BLOOM? BENJAMIN SAMUEL BLOOM 3 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  3. 3. THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING • Mental Skills (KNOWLEDGE) Cognitive Domain (Knowing/Head) • Manual or physical skills (SKILLS) Psychomotor Domain (Doing/Hand) • Growth in feelings or emotional areas (ATTITUDE) Affective Domain (Feeling/Heart) 4https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  4. 4. COGNITIVE DOMAIN Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation PSYCHOMOTO R DOMAIN AFFECTIVE DOMAIN Reflex Movements Basic Fundamental Movements Perceptual Abilities Physical Abilities Skilled Movements Non-Discursive Movements Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization 5
  5. 5. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge The Cognitive Domain 1956 6https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
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  7. 7. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering The Cognitive Domain 2001(Revised) 8 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
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  9. 9. 10 ORIGINAL TAXONOMY (1956) ---> REVISED TAXONOMY (2001) • Knowledge • Comprehension • Analysis • Application • Synthesis • Evaluation  Remember (I know)  Understand (I comprehend)  Apply (I can use it)  Analyze (I can be logical)  Evaluate (I can judge)  Create ( I can plan)
  10. 10. • REMEMBERING - Recall previous learned information. - Recalling relevant knowledge from long term memory. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy R E M E M B E R I N G LOW ORDER THINKING SKILLS TO HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS 11 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  11. 11. • UNDERSTANDING - Comprehending the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy LOW ORDER THINKING SKILLS TO HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS U N D E R S T A N D I N G 12 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  12. 12. • APPLYING - Breaking the concept into parts and understand how each part is related to one another. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy LOW ORDER THINKING SKILLS TO HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS A P P L Y I N G 13 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  13. 13. • ANALYZING - Breaking the concept into parts and understand how each part is related to one another. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy LOW ORDER THINKING SKILLS TO HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS A N A L Y Z I N G 14 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  14. 14. • EVALUATING - Making judgments based on a set of guidelines and the value of ideas or materials. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy LOW ORDER THINKING SKILLS TO HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS E V A L U A T I N G 15 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  15. 15. • CREATING - Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. - Putting information together in an innovative way. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy C R E A T I N G 16 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
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  17. 17. 18 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  18. 18. Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER APPROPRIATE VERBS Choose, describe, define, identify, label, list, locate, match, memorize, name, omit, recite, recognize, select, state, underline 19 I KNOW https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  19. 19.  PRODUCTS Chart, model, worksheet, draw a map, picture, demonstrate, graphs 20 Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER I KNOW https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  20. 20. 21 MODEL QUESTIONS • Who? Where? Which One? What? How? • What is the best one? Why? How much? When? • What does it mean? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Highlighting • Rehearsal • Memorizing • Mnemonics Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER I KNOW https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  21. 21. 22  APPROPRIATE VERBS Classify, defend, communicate, demonstrate, distinguish, explain, express extend, give example, illustrate, indicate, interrelate, report, interpret, infer, judge, match, paraphrase, represent, restate, rewrite, select, interpret Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND I comprehend https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  22. 22. PRODUCTS Chart, model, making a film strip, worksheet, draw a map, picture, demonstrate, timeline, diorama, game, report, diagram Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND 23 I comprehend https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  23. 23. 24 MODEL QUESTIONS • State in your own words. Which are facts? • What does this mean? Is this the same as. . .? Give an example. • Select the best definition. • State in one word . . . Explain what is happening. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Key examples • Emphasize connections • Elaborate concepts • Summarize Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND I comprehend https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  24. 24. Cognitive Domain: APPLY 25 APPROPRIATE VERBS Apply, choose, practice, solve, illustrate, conduct, classify, employ, dramatize, explain, generalize, judge, organize, paint, prepare, produce, select, show, sketch, solve, use, construct, investigate, restructure, manipulate I can use it https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  25. 25. PRODUCTS Survey, diary, scrapbook, photograph, cartoon, learning center, illustration, construction, sculpture 26 Cognitive Domain: APPLY I can use it
  26. 26. 27  MODEL QUESTIONS • Predict what would happen if… Choose the best statements that apply… • Judge the effects… • What would result… • Tell what would happen… • Tell how, when, where, why Tell how much change there would be… • Identify the results of…  INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Modeling • Cognitive apprenticeships “Mindful” practice – NOT just a “routine” practice • Part and whole sequencing • Authentic situations “Coached” practice Case studies Simulations Algorithms Cognitive Domain: APPLY I can use it https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  27. 27. Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE 28  APPROPRIATE VERBS • Analyze, categorize, classify, compare, differentiate, question, distinguish, identify, • Infer, point out, select, subdivide, survey, contrast, categorize, debate, examine, deduce I can be logical https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  28. 28. PRODUCTS Graph, survey, family tree, timeline, questionnaire, commercial, diagram, chart, report, fact file 29 Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE I can be logical https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  29. 29. 30  MODEL QUESTIONS • What is the function of . . .? What's fact? Opinion? What assumptions. . .? • What statement is relevant? What motive is there? • Related to, extraneous to, not applicable. • What conclusions? • What does the author believe? What does the author assume? • Make a distinction.  INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Models of thinking • Challenging assumptions • Retrospective analysis • Reflection through journaling Debates • Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision- making situations Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE I can be logical https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  30. 30. Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE 31 APPROPRIATE VERBS • Appraise, judge, criticize, defend, estimate, compare, measure, verify, justify, select, decide, choose, recommend, assess, critique, revise, validate, standardize, argue, rate, measure I can judge https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  31. 31. PRODUCTS Self evaluation, survey, editorial, experiment, panel evaluation, recommendation, conclusion, court trial, essay, letter 32 Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE I can judge https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  32. 32. 33 MODEL QUESTIONS • What fallacies, consistencies, inconsistencies appear? • Which is more important, moral, better, logical, valid, appropriate? • Find the errors. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Challenging assumptions • Journaling • Debates • Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision-making situations Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE I can judge https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  33. 33. Cognitive Domain: CREATE 34 APPROPRIATE VERBS • Choose, combine, compose, construct, create, design, manage, develop, do, improve, formulate, hypothesize, invent, make up, originate, organize, plan, imagine, produce, role play, tell I can plan https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  34. 34. PRODUCTS Story, poem, play, radio show, puppet show, news article, invention, dance, mural, comic strip, recipe, pantomime, travelogue 35 Cognitive Domain: CREATE I can plan https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  35. 35. 36 MODEL QUESTIONS • How would you test…? • Propose an alternative. • Solve the following. • How else would you...? • State a rule.  INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Modeling • Challenging assumptions Reflection through journaling Debates • Discussions and other • collaborating learning activities • Design • Decision-making situations Cognitive Domain: CREATE I can plan https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
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  37. 37. 38 HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER- ORDER QUESTIONS? 1. Avoid literal-level questions in favor of those requiring higher-order thinking. 2. Use questions requiring higher-order thinking. 3. Classify questions according to the kinds of thinking required for students to respond. – Use Bloom’s Taxonomy of Thinking – Teachers should make sure their questions can be classified as APPLICATION, ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS and/or EVALUATION. https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  38. 38. HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER- ORDER QUESTIONS? 39 4. Use verbs associated with higher-order thinking tasks. - verbs representing cognitive tasks in Bloom’s Taxonomy 5. Consider the learning products associated with higher-order thinking tasks. - Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
  39. 39. EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES 1. Pose the question first before asking a student to respond. 2. Allow plenty of “think time” by waiting at least 7-10 seconds before expecting the student to respond. 3. Make sure you give all students the opportunity to respond rather than relying on volunteers. 4. Hold students accountable by expecting, requiring, and facilitating their participation and contributions. 5. Establish a safe atmosphere for risk taking by guiding students. 40 https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

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