Play

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Here I explore the functions of play and how children experience it.

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  1. 1. Play―Man is fully human when he is at play.‖ Schiller
  2. 2. Why do we play?
  3. 3. Some of the reasons we play: to learn to create to feel challenged to pass time to calm and focus ourselves to compete to cooperate to connect to enjoy yourselves and others to have fun to refresh our minds and body
  4. 4. Play is:netaineylbaonjaecriiintnstaoluyvnreontsanpouslelfiexbnfu
  5. 5. Play is:Innate - we are born with it!Enjoyable – there is pleasureIntrinsic – no goalsVoluntary – we can´t be forcedSpontaneous – just happensFlexible – no rulesFun – ooooooooooooooohhh yes!Cognition and affectivity fuel each other!
  6. 6. When children play: They test their developing ideas with objects, people, and situations—the key ability for academic learning. They develop many kinds of skills together—physical, social, emotional, thinking, and language They are doing things they are interested in, so they have a natural motivation to learn They develop concepts and skills together. Children are more likely to remember skills and concepts they have learned by doing things that are meaningful to them They learn from other children and develop social skills by playing together
  7. 7. PlayPlay is learning about themselves, others and the environment. Children activelymake models of the real world. Children repeat activities over and over as theyinvestigates and verify information from the environment.Play relates to and relies upon past experiences and upon previous explorations ofan object. During play, children assume a non literal orientation to the object. Noton what the object can do, but on what they can do with the object. The rulesof play, made by children, are unique to each imaginative situation.Play only occurs when children do not feel anxious or threatened, and after theyhave become familiar with objects through exploration. Children can not be forcedto play, neither do they need to be taught to do so. When at play children activelyuse their hands, head and heart.Play provides opportunity for adults to share the child´s inner world on the child´sterms at the child´s pace.Play is not a break from learning—it’s the way young children learn.
  8. 8. While playing, childrenChange Combine DescribeDesign Compare CommunicateQuestion Criticize IdentifyOrganize Evaluate ListenIntegrate Explain OrderSimplify Define MatchUnderstand Collect ClassifyPenalize ChooseWhen playing, children enter an altered state.
  9. 9. Play and thinkingPlay makes the brain grow.The simpler the toy, the more complex the play.Play permits children to do something with their thoughts. How children play is linked to how children think.Play and languagePlay is also important for the development of childrens language skills.Children experiment with language during play and use words to express theirthoughts and ideas. As children become more sophisticated in their play skills,their language development becomes equally sophisticated. Children uselanguage during play to solve problems and to communicate their desires.
  10. 10. Feelings We Experience in Play (Flow State)Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes play as a flow state that requires just the right balance ofchallenge and opportunity. Involvement Complete focus and concentration, either due to innate curiosity or as the result of training. Delight A sense of bliss and positive detachment from everyday reality. Clarity Great inner clarity and a built-in understanding about the state of affairs. Confidence An innate sense that the activity is doable and that your skills are adequate to the task. Additionally, you don‘t feel anxious or bored. Serenity A sense of peace and an absence of worries about self. Timeliness Thorough focus on the present and a lack of attention to the passing of time. Motivation Intrinsic understanding about what needs to be done and a desire to keep the moment of play moving.
  11. 11. Types of play Functional play: manipulate objects, repeat actions, imitate actions as they explore. Constructive play: begin to create things with those objects. Dramatic play: aware of the relationship of play and the real world. Substitute objects, actions and language for realistic props. Interact socially and verbally with other players, starting to negotiate participation rules. Games with rules: learn to accept and adjust with prearranged rules.
  12. 12. Functions of dramatic play ① Imitate adults ② Play out real life roles in an intense way ③ Reflect upon relationships and experiences ④ Express pressing needs ⑤ Release socially unacceptable impulses ⑥ Reverse usually taken roles ⑦ Change attitudes and adjust to reality ⑧ Work out problems and try many solutions
  13. 13. Categories of social participation Non-social interactions1) Unoccupied behavior (2 to 3 years old): children watch, look, study the situation, and play with their body.2) Onlooker( 2.5 to 3 years old): children observe, comment, but do not enter.3) Solitary play ( 2.5 years old): children play alone, regardless of other children. It contributes to cognitive development and the child may have chosen to be alone, which is fine.
  14. 14. Categories of social participationSocial interactions4) Parallel play (2 years old): children play independently with the same toy in the same space and assess the situation to which they are close. Most common.5) Associative play (4 years old): children play similar activities and try to control others.6) Cooperative play (4.5 years old): one or two members direct the activities of others
  15. 15. Moments during playDefinition of a situation: Let´s play house.Assignment of roles: I´ll be the daddy and you will be the son.Defining location: This is the kitchen.Specifying the action plan: I´ll fix supper and you wait.Assigning props: This is my pan.Correcting operating procedures and fixing the script: Daddy doesn´t cook like this.Directing other´s performance: This is the way to do it.Invoking rules related to real X pretend context: You don´t really have to do it.Termination/ transition: Okay, supper finished.Commenting interpersonal climate: We are playing, so we are friends, right?
  16. 16. Videos about playThe importance of playhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_-1O_rBLPU&feature=relatedStages of playhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nhF6E7zHqWI&feature=related
  17. 17. Language play is: 􀂙 universal 􀂙 natural 􀂙 a source of enjoyment 􀂙 infectious 􀂙 spontaneous 􀂙 often unpredictable 􀂙 exploratory (and therefore risky) 􀂙 occasional and idiosyncratic 􀂙 going beyond the norm – clearly distinct from the ―normal‖ use of language
  18. 18. Children playing with languageGibberishJabberwockyTongue twistersRiddlesRhymesPoemsJokesSongsCatch phrasesImitationI see, I seeCrosswordsWordfindHangmanChildren invent languages!
  19. 19. Some types of language play for adultsAlliteration – words beginning with the same sound/letterAcrostic – a series or words or lines arranged so that the initial letters make up a messageLipogram – avoiding the use of a particular letterPangram – constructing a meaningful sentence containing every letter of the alphabet, using each letter only oncePalindrome – word/sentence which reads the same way in both directionsAnagram – reordering letters in a word/phrase to find another word or phrase;Homoliteral text: each word must have at least one letter in common with the previous wordHeteroliteral text: no two consecutive words can have any letter in common 􀂙Word-chain: the final letter of a word must be the same as the first letter of the following wordRhopalic: each word of the sentence contains one letter or one syllablemore than the previous wordTranspositional poetry: take someone‘s poem and reshuffle all the wordsto make a new poem
  20. 20. Play signallingHow do children know we are playing?Exaggerated actionsCyclical repetitionPlay faceMore smilingSmiling after own actionLook more to the child than to the taskHigher repetition of wordsHigher you and me languageMore comment noisesSing-songy quality in one´s voiceTiming is odd when compared to real tasks Laughter !
  21. 21. Laughter brings people closer! Laughter has a powerful effect on your health and well-being. A good laugh relieves tension and stress, elevates mood, enhances creativity and problem-solving ability, and provides a quick energy boost. But even more importantly, laughter brings people together. Mutual laughter and play are an essential component of strong, healthy relationships.
  22. 22. PCIT( Parent child interactive therapy) Do: Praise – Parent : I love how you are using such nice manners. Reflection – Child: My favorite is Play Dough. Parent: Your favorite is Play Dough, I like it too. Imitation – Do the same thing actions the child is doing. Description – Parent: you are feeding the baby chickens. Enthusiasm – What a great play doh you made! Avoid: Questions – what do you think we should play now? Commands – Let´s color now. Criticism – you know that grass isn´t black, grass should be green.
  23. 23. Teachers can:Let children master toys by making materials available for frequent and longer periods of timeProvide playthings that kids can use in a variety of ways: blocks, paper and crayons, dolls and toy animals, balls, playdough, etc.Encourage kids to play with ordinary household objects like pots and pans and outdoor materials like sticks and grass.Provide simple playthings that encourage children to be active and use their imaginations, not to watch while the toy does tricks.Create an environment where children feel safe to try new things and where they feel they have the support of adults.Respond to play: A teacher sees a child playing and builds vocabulary by providing new words.Extend play:a teacher observes a child pretending a chair is a car and ―driving.‖ She encourages imagination by asking ―Where are you going? What do you see along the way?‖Guide play: One week a teacher turns the dress-up area into a shoe store. Children practice language and social skills by acting out ―customers‖ and ―sales people.Observe the child’s activities: Seeing a child line up toy dinosaurs by size shows her understanding of size comparisons and putting things in order..Take photos: A series of photos of a child‘s block structures over time shows that she is learning more about spatial relations.
  24. 24. ―We don‘t stop playing because we grow old; we grow old because we stop playing.‖ George Bernard Shaw
  25. 25. The Play Types Devised by Bob Hughes, in ‗A playworker‘s Taxonomy of Play Types‘ • Symbolic Play – play which allows control, gradual exploration and increased understanding without the risk of being out of one‘s depth. • Rough and Tumble Play – close encounter play which is less to do with fighting and more to do with touching, tickling, gauging relative strength. Discovering physical flexibility and the exhilaration of display. • Socio-dramatic Play – the enactment of real and potential experiences of an intense personal, social, domestic or interpersonal nature. • Social Play – play during which the rules and criteria for social engagement and interaction can be revealed, explored and amended. • Creative Play – play which allows a new response, the transformation of information, awareness of new connections, with an element of surprise. • Communication Play – play using words, nuances or gestures for example, mime, jokes, play acting, mickey taking, singing, debate, poetry. • Dramatic Play – play which dramatizes events in which the child is not a direct participator. • Deep Play – play which allows the child to encounter risky or even potentially life threatening experiences, to develop survival skills and conquer fear. • Exploratory Play – play to access factual information consisting of manipulative behaviours such as handling, throwing, banging or mouthing objects. • Fantasy Play – play which rearranges the world in the child‘s way, a way which is unlikely to occur. • Imaginative Play – play where the conventional rules, which govern the physical world, do not apply. • Locomotor Play – movement in any or every direction for its own sake. • Mastery Play – control of the physical and affective ingredients of the environments. • Object Play – play which uses infinite and interesting sequences of hand-eyen manipulations and movements. • Role Play – play exploring ways of being, although not normally of an intense personal, social, domestic or interpersonal nature. • Recapitulative Play – play that allows the child to explore ancestry, history, rituals, stories, rhymes, fire and darkness. Enables children to access play of earlier human evolutionary stages.

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