In this book it explains how culture is expressed using the figure of Sto. Niño. Dr. Bautista in his book did not explain about our religion rather it provide us information in relation to our fragmented identity as a Filipino.
He was born in Cebu and raised with Catholic values. His Family migrated in Australia and probably based his interest on the place where he find more familiar and interesting ideas.
Natives were amazed by Magellan’s words of wisdom about Christianity.
Figuring Catholicism- Dr. Bautista
Julius J. BautistaPresented by:Shiella H. Nacorda
Julius Bautista is an anthropologist and cultural historian who earned a PhD in Southeast Asian Studies from the Centre for Asian Societies and Histories at the Australian National University. His teaching and research interests include: Catholicism in the Philippines Comparative World Religions The material culture of Southeast Asia religious ritual
What is it all about?• Understand more issues of fragmented identity;• Cultural identity through Filipinos faith on the figure Sto. Niño.• Expresses knowledge on how culture is interrelated to Catholicism and vice versa.
Describes the ironies that existsinside and outside the Basilica.
INSIDE THE BASILICA Nick Joaquin pointed out that there are some intriguing questions on the image.
The idea of acceptance was in relation of the image as being a deity. The intense sense of devotion is due to antiquity of the figure itself. The image was considered an instrument of taking the Philippines out of the “Dark Age” of paganism and into the light of Christianity.
THE FIGURE AS A DOMINANT SYMBOLWhich means that it is where we associated the moral and social orders of the principles of social organizations.TURNER’S THEORIZATION OF DOMINANT SYMBOL Victor Turner
In Mexico this figure of our Lady of Guadalupe is considered as a dominant symbol.It is considered as the most important religious symbol. -Eric R. Wolf-
SENSORY POLE IDEOLOGICAL POLE Emotional responses towards Norms and values depict are innocence and purity which on inherent in the structures a more adult incarnation of relationships of Catholic Christ, would not be otherwise worships felt (Bautista, ) DOMINANT SYMBOLS ARE APPRECIATED IN ITS TOTALITY AS A UNITY OF BOTH POLES “TRANSFORMATIVE POWER”
TRANSFORMATIVE POWER The transformative power of dominant symbols occur when ritual “brings the ethical, jural norms of society. p. 30 The symbols are believed to be charged with power from unknown.
What are official forms of devotion?October 1958 by Rev. Restituto Suarez started a novena.This form of devotion transforms Cebu into a Little Jerusalem.Filipinos assume that the image in Cebu is “more Holy”
OFFICIAL FORMS OF DEVOTIONPilgrims bringing their own image believing that there is a sense of renewed aura of sanctity or a recharge of its divine powers.
OFFICIAL FORMS OF DEVOTION The popularity of the Santo The created congregacion is Niño as a symbol of official engages upon delimiting of the Catholicism is partly the result specific boundaries of what is of historical commitment of its “acceptable “ as far as caretakers to promote certain worshipping the Santo Niño is modes of devotion p. 33 concerned.
OFFICIAL FORMS OF DEVOTION MODES OF DEVOTION Sensationalism is not The structured viewing of the accepted rather being figure. conservative should be The ritualized ceremony. expressed as a form of Significations of its devotion. paraphernalia. ---- Un-organized Spontaneous Simple Omnipresent
OUTSIDE THE BASILICA The idea of sensationalism is The Tindera Sinulog is an expressed by the following expression of Folk scenarios outside the basilica: Catholicism. Sensationalize in the sense Candle vendors outside the that instead of experiencing Basilica. God through logical or Private and Public venues intellectual dictates of doctrine Jeepneys (public vehicle), Cebuanos have a lot of these Offices, ideas which means “touch God Different establishments through symbols”
CORE IDEAS Present ideas or effects between the 1st and second discovery. Interpretations that may have existed from the 44 years of unguided principles of Catholicism (Lost Chapter).
FIRST DISCOVERY SECOND DISCOVERY Ferdinand Magellan Miguel Lopez de Legazpi 1521 1565 Pigafetta’s diary provided as In this historical event Miguel not only a traveller’s account Lopez de Legazpi had to re- of the expedition but also a establish ideas of Catholicism detailed ethnography of the again. Peoples they encountered.
FERDINAND MAGELLANPigafetta on this event was told Alexandrine Bulls of 1493 that he was able to ask Rajah Humabon about their religion/ Codified Imperial Spain’s duty to faith. convert natives to Christianity. Natives were described as by Pigafetta as having an animistic form of religion.Spanish missionaries find it an obligation to convert the natives into Christians.
ANTONIO PIGAFETTA A NOBLE CAPTAIN: MAGELLAN Christian conversion is depicted as explicitly associated not only with spiritual but also material benefit. p.53
The baptism was manifested as a kind of “wiping the slate clean” Humabon’s baptism was both religious and political.
LOST CHAPTER Magellan’s death is interesting because of the series of events that lead up to it. The 44 years gap. A period of limbo. Cebuanos had to exist without the guidance of the people who baptized them. It was believed that Cebuanos developed a cult around the image. p.62
LOST CHAPTERS:MIGUEL LOPEZ DE LEGAZPI Nick Joaquin describes the figure as “pagan god”. He emphasize that the Santo Niño was accepted not in the way Magellan had intended but on “native”/ animist/ pagan terms p. 61 He describes that the image supplied the justification for putting an end to Cebuano animism. “greatest of our pagan gods” It was the figure that placed natives once again on to the path of re- Christianization.
MIGUEL LOPEZ DE LEGAZPI “They saw white men kneel in prayer before it, the natives were impressed…” p. 61 It was a period of re- christianization. Legazpi’s mission was to expand the commercial interest of the Spanish empire and to continue the Christianizing mission that Magellan had earlier set in motion.
CORE IDEAS THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN The Santo Niño and the Clash of Christianities; Describe the religious climate during the American Regime; Events that occur during the period of transition. Re-christianizing.
CATHOLICISM AND PROTESTANTISM Americans ignored the fact Filipino Catholics were not real that Filipinos were converted Christians. Americans to christians for over 300 described it as Spanish years. Catholicism. Re-Christianized the Filipinos served as a White Man’s burden. Protestant missionaries
1. What was the status of the Dr. Bautista studied historical symbol during the american facts and clearly proven that period/ protestant conversion? the devotion of the icon was actively conducted.
RE-THINKING FILIPINO ROMAN CATHOLICISM 2. Why Roman Catholicism This is one of the reasons why able to withstand despite of Roman Catholicism was able strong attempts of protestant to withstand the onslaught of conversion from Americans? Protestant Missionization. Because Roman Catholic icons were so well integrated into the cultural fabric of Filipino life.” p.35
Narrates decisions or actions “The Santo Niño became not created by the church during just a symbol of Cebu but also the fourth centennial of the a national icon. p. 98 Christianization of the Philippines in 1965 Cebu portrayed as the super- national “cradle of Christianity,”. .
COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT SYNCRETIC BELIEFS Animism and Roman Catholicism The subject here is the official figure of Catholicism capacity of the church as an and a “peoples figure”. institution to authorize some Asiannes religious practices as “truthful” Orthodox of the scriptures and and others as “false”. the orthopraxy of the believer. The acts of tolerating and accommodating.
FILIPINO CATHOLICISM Is a picture of animism and Roman Catholicism. Anitismo is a term used to describe pre-Hispanic belief. The “ tinderas” who perform before the the Santo Nino consider their dancing as continuing a tradition of devotion that had been practiced since before the arrival of the Spaniards.
SYNCRETISM AS A DISCOURSE OF “TOLERANCE Roman Catholicism and Sinulog was the elevation of animisn coexists because they pagan performance into an fulfill certain discrete functions. official religious activity Roman Catholicism is for sanctified by the archdiocese. ultimate (metaphysical/ divine) An indicative of syncretism concerns and anitismo is for Filipino catholic belief. everyday (ordinary experience) concerns p. 132 Complementary…
ASIANNESS DICHOTOMITIZATION Describes as a person who Fully Asian and being Catholic maintains a commitment to implies a sense of conflict. indigenous life worlds. Declaration of this dichotomy Including localized religious need not be discouraged, inclinations that may not provided that the divinity of necessarily correspond to Christ is recognized p. 146. catholic doctrine p. 146
REBELLION The discursive politics of use and the misuse of religious iconography. Nationalism ideas Holy revolutions. People Power Katipunan
The role of the icon in the literary and historiography. Pinpoint the Santo Niño “figuring” in crosscutting Creating an discourses of identity in the Philippines. Identity How the Santo Niño itself become used as the symbol of the erasure of foreign affiliations.