HAVE YOU EVER THOUGHT ABOUT THIS???<br /><ul><li>Whyevery single person can acquirethefirstlanguage (L1) easily?
Whyveryfewpeoplemanagetoacquire a secondlanguage (L2) succesfully?
Why, eventhoughyou try yourbest as a teacher, somelearnershave a hard time acquiring L2.</li></li></ul><li>Do you, as a teacher, feellikethisfrom time to time?<br />EVERYBODY ELSE UNDERSTOOD<br />I DON’T UNDERSTAND<br />WHY “FULANITO” DOESN’T GET ANYTHING?<br />
FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION.<br />Noam Chomsky: <br /> “Languageisinnate.” We are bornwith rules of language in ourheads= Universal grammar<br />JeremyHarmer:<br />“Unlessthereissomethingwrongwiththemmentallyorphysically, allchildrenacquire a language as theydevelop” (Harmer,1988). <br />
FLA stages (l1)<br />TWO-WORD STAGE <br />18-24 months<br />Mini-sentenceswith simple semanticrelations.<br />Examples: More cereal, papa away, no bed, byebye car, dry pants.<br />HOLOPHRASTIC STAGE<br />9-18 months<br />Childrencommunicatewith 1 word, relatingittomany similar things.<br />Theyunderstand more thanthey can produce.<br />
FLA stages (l1)<br />TELEGRAPHIC STAGE <br />24-30 months<br />Word combinations:<br /> Me wantthat<br />Whathername?<br />Chairfalldown!<br />Thesesentences resemble to short messages in a telegram.<br />There are a lot of syntaxerrors.<br />MULTIWORD STAGE<br />30 + months<br />Grammaticalorfunctionalstructures emerge (thesintaxstage).<br />Childrenlanguagebloomsintofluentgrammaticalconversation.<br />
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION<br />Students learning a second language go through five stages: Preproduction, Early Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency, and Advanced Fluency (Krashen & Terrell, 1983). <br />Students already have previous knowledge of language (L1).<br />Speed of progress through the stages depends on level of education, family background, amount of exposure to the target language, among others.<br />
Krashen’s theory of Language acquisition VS. Language learning <br />ACQUISITION<br />Itis natural.<br />Itis informal.<br />Itissubconscious.<br />Notaware of grammar.<br />Itiscommunicative.<br />LEARNING<br />Ithappens in an artificial setting.<br />Itis formal.<br />Itis rule conscious.<br />Thereisawareness of grammar and vocabulary.<br />
Activitiesassociatedwithlearninghavetraditionallybeenused in languageschools and havegoodresults in knowledge “about” language, butnot in fluency. ( Yule, 1955 ). <br />"Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." <br />Stephen Krashen<br />
SLA STAGES (L2)<br />Pre-production (silent period)<br />The learner:<br /> Has minimal comprehension. <br /> Does not speak at all. <br /> Nods "Yes" and "No." <br /> Draws and points. <br /> Uses gesturing.<br />Repeatslike a “parrot” everything<br />Thisstagemaylast up to 6 months. <br />Early production<br />The learner:<br />Has limited comprehension <br />Produces one or two-word responses. <br />Uses present-tense verbs. <br /> Answers yes / no questions.<br /> Benefits from: realia, vocabulary with pictures, listening activities.<br />From 6 monthsto 1 year.<br />
SLA STAGES (L2)<br />Intermediatefluency<br />The learner:<br />Has excellent comprehension. <br />Makes few grammatical errors. <br /> Willing to express opinions and share thoughts.<br />Writing will have errors.<br />From 3 to 5 years<br />Speechemergence<br />The learner:<br />Has good comprehension. <br />Can produce simple sentences. <br />Makes grammar and pronunciation errors. <br />Asks simple questions, that may or may not be grammatically correct, such as: May I go to bathroom?<br />From 1 to 3 years.<br />
Whyveryfewpeoplemanagetoacquire a secondlanguagefluently?<br />Learners are notallowedtohave a silentperiod, they are askedto produce whenthey are notready = Interlanguage<br />Interlanguageisthe mixture of L1 and L2 tobeabletocommunicate =interference.<br />Interference = errors.<br />Fossilization: no furtherlearningappearspossible. Learnerswillhavethesame error despite of anycorrectionorgrammaticalexplanation. <br />CriticalPeriod: Beforetheage of 12, fluencymaybereached. After, thisis no longerpossibleduetothechanges in thebrain.<br />Affectivefilter: Motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety all affect language acquisition.<br />
SLA STAGES (L2)<br />AdvancedFluency<br />The student has a near-native level of speech<br />It takes learners from 5 to 10 years to become fluent.<br />
Whychildrenseemtoacquire l2 betterthanadults?<br />Childrenhaveaccessto Universal Grammar.<br />Adults are more influencedby L1.<br />Children are more motivatedthanadults.<br />Childrenrecieve more imput in thesecondlanguagethanadults do.<br />
The use l1 in the l2 classroom<br />ADVANTAGES<br />Accordingto Paul Seligson:<br />Unavoidableanyway.<br />Reduces affectivefilters.<br />Practicetranslation.<br />Providesfeedback.<br />Discussidioms.<br />
references<br />Yule, George. (2006). The study of language third edition. [on line]. Fourth Worth: Harcourt Brace Janovich College Publishers . Retrieved on October 4, 2009 from: http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=Zw5Y0o0q1bYC&dq=yule+the+study+of+language&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=uo2v8ZcYYa&sig=ixeYmIWXhPglFlSwoqSIAVE_0yc&hl=es&ei=ZmvNSqKeM8XY8AauzaSFBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false<br />Everything English as a Second Language (2000). Everything ESL. [On line]. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.php<br />Luria, H, Seymour D.M, & Smoke, T. (2006). Language and Linguistics in Context. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum associates, Inc. [on line]. Google books. Retrieved October 5, 2009 from http://books.google.com.mx/books <br /> <br />
Pinker, S. Language acquisition. [on line]. Technical Report NIH grant HD 18381 and NSF grant BNS 91-09766. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT Press. Retrieved October 3, 2009, from: http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad/Papers/Py104/pinker.langacq.html.<br /> <br />Society for Research in Child Development (2009, September 21). Children Under Three Can't Learn Action Words From TV -- Unless An Adult Helps. ScienceDaily [on line]. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from: http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/09/090915100947.htm.<br />Schütz, R. (2007, July 2). Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition. [Review of the book Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learningby Stephen Krashen]. Retrieved October 4,2009, from http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html.<br />You tube videos retrieved on October 3, 2009, from: http://www.youtube.com/<br />
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