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Respiration, Circulation and Excretion
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Respiration, Circulation and Excretion






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Respiration, Circulation and Excretion Respiration, Circulation and Excretion Presentation Transcript

    • Respiration
    • Transport (circulation)
    • Excretion
  • Breathing and respiration
  • Breathing
    Everyone needs oxygen to live.
    You inhale (meaning breathe in) to get oxygen into your body.
    You exhale (meaning breathe out) to remove carbondioxide produced from your body
  • Definition of breathing:
    Breathing is the process by which air containing oxygen is inhaled
    and air containing carbon dioxide is exhaled.
  • Respiration
    Just breathing in oxygen is not enough to be alive
    you need energy to carry out various life processes and activities.
    Energy comes from the food that you eat,
    and it is through the process of respiration that your body breaks down the food and get the energy.
  • Definition of respiration:
    Respiration is the process by which oxygen is used to
    break down digested food to
    release energy.
  • Equation for respiration
    food + oxygen  energy + carbon dioxide + water
    Respiration happens all the time: no matter when you are walking, eating, reading, or just sleeping!
  • The respiratory system
    Breathing is carried out by the respiratory system. The main parts in human respiratory system are:
    nasal cavity (= nose)
    trachea (= windpipe)
  • The respiratory system
    Nasal cavity
    Trachea (windpipe)
  • Hair in the nose and trachea
  • Air sacs in the lungs
    Upper pic: breathing in
    Lower pic: breathing out
  • What happens during inhaling (breathing in):
    Air enters through the mouth or nose.
    As air passes through the nasal cavity, it is cleaned, warmed and moistened.
    Air then passes through the trachea (= windpipe), where dusts, smoke, bacteria and other harmful particles are filtered out.
    Air then passes into the lungs, where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs.
  • Quiz yourself!
    • What is breathing?
    • What is respiration?
    • Respiration can be represented by:
    food + ?  energy + ?? + ???
  • Quiz yourself – label the parts!
    Which 2 parts of the respiratory system clean up the air we breathe in?
    In which part does oxygen come into our body and carbon dioxide goes out?
    Nasal cavity
    Trachea (windpipe)
  • Circulation system
    Transport in human
  • The circulatory system
    We need usefulsubstances like digested food and oxygen to live.
    We also need to remove waste or harmful substances like carbon dioxide from our body to live and be healthy.
    The circulatory system (which includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood) helps to transport the useful and harmful substances around the body.
    The heart has very strong muscle walls, and it is divided into two sides.
    Four major blood vessels are connected to the heart. Two of them bring blood to the heart, while the other two bring blood away from the heart.
    The blood contains red blood cells, which give the blood its red colour. They can “load up” and “unload” oxygen gas.
    Blood rich in oxygen is called oxygenated blood.
    Blood poor in oxygen is called deoxygenated blood.
    Almost every part of our body has blood vessels. Some are big, such as the ones from major organs like heart, lungs and liver.
    Some are small, like the tiny blood vessels at the surface of your eyeballs.
    They all supply blood to our body parts.
  • How to see a heart diagram
    This is the right side of the heart.
    This is the left side of the heart.
  • What happens in circulation?
    Step 1:
    The left side pumps oxygenated blood (which is rich in oxygen) from the heart to the rest of the body.
    The blood supplies all cells with oxygen and nutrients from digested food.
  • What happens in circulation?
    Step 2:
    When the blood travels through the rest of the body, carbon dioxide is transferred from the cells into the blood, and it is to be eventually removed in the lungs.
  • What happens in circulation?
    Step 3:
    Blood arrives back at the right side of the heart.
    It is very poor in oxygen now, so we call it deoxygenated blood.
    This blood gets pumped from the heart to the lungs
  • What happens in circulation?
    Step 4:
    Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide happens here in the lungs (remember respiration?)
    The blood is once again rich in oxygen, and this oxygenated blood is pumped back into the left side of the heart.
    The cycle repeats!
  • Food for thought:
    Why does your heart pump faster and more forcefully when you are running?
  • When you exercise..
    Your body needs more oxygen and nutrient, therefore
    Your heart rate increases (heart pumps faster)
    Your heart also pumps more forcefully (more blood per pump)
  • Further question:
    Do you think an athlete will have a lower or higher heart rate compared to a physically unfit person, if they do the same workout?
  • Excretion
  • Excretion
    Many life processes produce harmful or useless waste products that need to be removed from the body, such as
    carbon dioxide,
    water vapourand
    If they are not removed, they will accumulate in the blood and damage your body.
  • Excretion
    The body gets rid of these through a process called excretion.
    This process is carried out by the urinary system, which includes
  • Excretion
    NOTE: excretion does NOT include removing faecesfrom the body,
    because faecesis basically undigested food, and is NOT involved in any life processes.
    There’s another name for it..
  • Functions of each component
    Kidneys: to remove waste products from blood, forming urine.
  • Kidneys
  • Functions of each component
    Ureters: to transport urine from kidneys to bladder.
    Bladder: to store urine temporarily until discharged out of body.
    Urethra: to transport urine out the body during discharge.
  • The excretion process
    Blood containing wasteproducts passes into the kidneys.
    The kidneysremove the waste products from the blood, such as urea, excess salts and excess water, forming urine.
    “Cleaned” blood passes out of the kidneys.
    Urine is transported out of kidneys via the ureters and passes to the bladder.
    The bladder stores urine temporarily.
    Urine is excreted out of the body via urethra.
  • Question for thought:
    If a person’s kidneys fail, what treatment is needed to keep his body cleaned of waste products? (Hint: it’s available at the National Kidney Foundation or NKF).
    The treatment is called dialysis, done by dialysis machines.
  • How does dialysis work
  • Quiz yourself!
  • Quiz yourself!
    Exretion or NOT excretion?
    Carbon dioxide is removed from our bodies during breathing out.
    Salts and water are removed from our bodies during sweating.
    Faeces is removed from our bodies during egestion.
    Urine is removed from our bodies during urination.
    Dead skin layers are removed from our bodies when we scrub ourselves in shower.
    NOT excretion!
    NOT excretion!