The Big Presentation on Reward (condensed)

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15 minute version of my 1 hour presentation for Digital Shoreditch 2013.

http://new.livestream.com/digitalshoreditch/events/2104819/videos/19713063

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
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  • So to explore this theory I wanted to use a medium that I’m close with.
  • Child gets candy after throwing a tantrum, child continues to throw a tantrum. Doesn’t learn
  • Skinner Coined this as Operant Conditioning
  • Skinner Coined this as Operant Conditioning
  • Daniel Kahneman
  • Rules that govern when those reinforcers are given out. LEARNING PROCESS
  • Most common in early stages of learning to create a strong associationbetween the behaviour and the response. Once the response is firmly attached, reinforcement is thenswitched to partial reinforcement.
  • Rules that govern when those reinforcers are given out.
  • What is itThe effectAn example
  • lot machines. Slot machines are programmed on VR schedule. The gambler has no way of predicting how many times he must put a coin in the slot and pull the lever to hit a payoff but the more times a coin is inserted the greater the chance of a payout. People who play slot machines are often reluctant to leave them, especially when they have had a large number of unreinforced responses. They are concerned that someone else will win the moment they leave.
  • What is itThe effectAn example
  • A routine which is repeated regularly which often goes unnoticed by the subject exhibiting it. This process tends to occur subconsciously
  • The Big Presentation on Reward (condensed)

    1. 1. GAMES ARE;ENGAGING, REWARDING &FUN
    2. 2. GAMEUSER
    3. 3. GAMEUSERS
    4. 4. WHAT ISREWARD?
    5. 5. A reward orPositive Reinforcementis the return forperformance of a desiredbehaviour.Causing that behaviour to increase in intensityand/or frequency.
    6. 6. PositiveNegative
    7. 7. OPERANTCONDITIONING
    8. 8. OPERANTCONDITIONINGNeutral OperantsReinforcersPunishmentB.F.Skinner
    9. 9. BEHAVIOURALECONOMICSDan Ariely B.J.Fogg Richard Thaler Daniel Kahneman
    10. 10. SchedulesReinforcersYing & Yangof behavioural psychology
    11. 11. ReinforcersStimuli that strengthenor weaken a behaviour
    12. 12. ReinforcersExamples Are As Follows...User smashescrate to receivecoins.User smashesmore crates.User falls down ahole withoutlearning how tojump.User continues tofall down the hole.
    13. 13. Reinforced ResponsesSometimes all responses are reinforcedContinuous ReinforcementReward enforced every single timeReceiving pocket moneyReceiving a life after completing a levelExample
    14. 14. Continuous Reinforcement (CRF)Most common in early stages oflearning to create a strongassociation between the behaviour andthe response. Once the response is firmlyattached, reinforcement is then switchedto partial reinforcement.
    15. 15. TimeRate of reinforcement ExtinctionContinuous ReinforcementSubject adapts to the reinforcementpattern, doesnt find it rewardinganymore.Short lifespan, before hitting extinctionEach hatch mark represents a reinforcer being given.
    16. 16. CLICK FOR 1 MILLION POINTS
    17. 17. AdaptionMore we adapt to the environment the more weincrease our perceptionsYou get a pay raise of 20% (NICE!) but unfortunatelyafter 2 months your boss cuts it back, not to youroriginal salary but only 5%.You count this as a loss. Losses psychologicallyhurt more than gains. Twice as much in fact.You adapted to the 20% going back seems like a bigstep down.
    18. 18. Time InvestedAdaptionAdaption pattern in gamingThe perception of rewardReward Value
    19. 19. Time InvestedAdaptionAdaption pattern in gamingHow it works out most of the timeMasteryGot boredFrustration
    20. 20. Flow of learningWe are built torecognise patterns.Once we graspit, we proceed untilwe master itThen we getbored.We enjoy it!Exhaust the system
    21. 21. Not all responses are reinforcedPartial ReinforcementYou don’t get the reward every time.Getting a bonus at workExampleReinforced Responses
    22. 22. Partial ReinforcementThe response is reinforcedsome of the time.Behaviours are learnt moreslowly however theresponse is more resistantto extinction.
    23. 23. TimeRate of reinforcementPartial ReinforcementLast longer, more resistant to extinctionExtinctionSubject adapts to thereinforcement pattern,doesnt find it rewardinganymore.Each hatch mark represents a reinforcer being given.
    24. 24. Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)
    25. 25. Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)Example
    26. 26. Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)
    27. 27. Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)Example
    28. 28. Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)
    29. 29. Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)Example
    30. 30. Variable Interval Schedule (FI)
    31. 31. Variable Interval Schedule (VI)Example
    32. 32. CHAININGReward early (weighted) FIIncrease intensity of VRGROWTH CURVE
    33. 33. CONTINGENCYA user is clearly educated on what the process forreward is. They know what needs to be done to achieveadvancement, reward etc.
    34. 34. RESPONSEwhen requirements are met, the experience mustprovide clear and consistent messaging of theachievement.
    35. 35. REINFORCEMENTproviding positive reinforcement for users who completedesired actions, pass certain milestones etc. is the finaland third element of a good reward schedule.
    36. 36. james@playgen.com@allsoppja

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