Expertise Networks


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  • Expertise Networks

    1. 1. A Framework for Intra, Inter and Global Knowledge Sharing in Organizations Toronto Knowledge Workers Joel Alleyne – January 28, 2009
    2. 2. Adjunct Instructor (UT) iSchool Medicine (HPME) KMDI Practitioner in Residence PhD Candidate Consultant Manager Entrepreneur (was) CKO / CIO – large law firm Action Researcher
    3. 3. <ul><li>“ The economic problem of society … is not merely a problem of how to allocate ‘given’ resources – if ‘given’ is taken to mean given to a single mind … It is rather a problem of how to secure the best use of resources known to any of the members of society … a problem of the utilization of knowledge which is not given to anyone in its totality.” </li></ul><ul><li>Hayek, </li></ul><ul><li>The Use of Knowledge in Society, </li></ul><ul><li>American Economic Review , </li></ul><ul><li>No 35 (September, 1945) pp. 1 - 18 </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Expertise researchers can be found across a number of interrelated disciplines, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive science and psychology (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2003), </li></ul><ul><li>Education (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993) and </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology (Evans, 2008) </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Expertise researchers can be found across a number of interrelated disciplines, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy (Selinger & Crease, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine (Groopman, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Management (Stephenson, 2006) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Expertise networks are the social, technical, and organizational networks that connect experts with novices and other experts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A type of analysis (lens) that uses social networks that model the distribution of expertise in a domain and make explicit the level of expertise of the actors with respect to that domain </li></ul></ul>Novice(s) Expert(s) Intermediate(s)
    7. 7. Expertise Networking is central to and supportive of Knowledge Management
    8. 8. <ul><li>Effective problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Sound decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Team collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Market differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation in products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Core to the business </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive </li></ul><ul><li>A “lens” for examining the enterprise and also intra-enterprise opportunities </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Better understanding of expertise networks will facilitate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying and locating experts and expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sharing of knowledge, wisdom, and experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to hidden or tacit knowledge resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The improved networking of a firm’s intellectual (and human) capital assets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An important channel for the acquisition, sharing, trading and distribution of knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Also … leads to optimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When optimized – should pay dividends for an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goes beyond general repository-based approaches to knowledge management </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Expertise Management (Kotlarsky, Oshri, & Fenema, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise Sharing (Ackerman, Pipek, & Wulf, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise Location (Ackerman & McDonald, 1998) </li></ul>(References are examples only)
    13. 14. <ul><li>Expertise Communities / Communities of Experts (Benton & Giovagnoli, 2006; Hakkarainen & European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction., 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Directories / Yellow Pages (Collinson & Parcell, 2001) </li></ul>(References are examples only)
    14. 15. <ul><li>Connected Intelligence (De Kerckhove & Rowland, 1998); </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Mind (Fisher & Fisher, 1998); </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Intelligence (Levy, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemic Communities (Haas, 1992) </li></ul>(References are examples only)
    15. 16. <ul><li>Advice Networks (Stephenson, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated discovery of expertise (search vendors and </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Network/ing (Allee, 2003; Skyrme, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Talent Networks / Talent Management (Bryan & Joyce, 2007); (Cappelli, 2008) </li></ul>(References are examples only)
    16. 17. <ul><li>Expertise mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise markets </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise networking </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Expertise conduits </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise recommenders </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise development </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in context </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise exchange (ask an expert) </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise profiling </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>British Petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Hill and Knowlton </li></ul><ul><li>Morrison & Foerster </li></ul><ul><li>IBM – Beehive </li></ul><ul><li>IBM – Small Blue </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Borden Ladner Gervais LLP </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care – Inter-Professional Care </li></ul><ul><li>School Board </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Co – Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Cubeless (Sabre) </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>Initiatives in several jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to optimize the use of health human capital (expertise) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective, efficient, economical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce fragmentation and lower costs (Retchin, 2008) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>Several (overlapping) terms used in the health care literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-disciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transprofessional </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>This appears to be fertile ground for the examination of expertise networking </li></ul><ul><li>Experts in IPE/IPC cross disciplinary boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Removing / transcending traditional cultural and organizational barriers appear to be a challenge </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>Within the IPC Expertise network </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge practices, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge translation (from research to practice) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration, coordination and communication </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Informatics Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared record keeping – the electronic record (necessary but not sufficient) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-learning, e-cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social / Knowledge Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling and simulation / case based – virtual worlds? Gaming? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directories </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>Research will focus on IPC / IPE (clinical settings) </li></ul><ul><li>Examine existing knowledge practices </li></ul><ul><li>Examine (case) attempts to change behaviours and processes in a care setting </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Develop understanding of the expertise networks and how they function in this setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further develop (inform and expand) theory of expertise networking based upon experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunities (domains) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary care </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>A system for locating experts in the organization ( expert locator ) </li></ul><ul><li>A network of our internal experts ( expert network ) </li></ul><ul><li>A directory to experts ( expert directory ) </li></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>A system that enable one to search for internal expertise ( expertise search system ) </li></ul><ul><li>A system that allows us to discover capabilities existing in ( expert discovery ) </li></ul><ul><li>A system that allows users to ask questions and to receive answers from experts within your organization ( question and answer exchange ) </li></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><li>A system that facilitates collaboration between experts and non-experts ( expert collaboration ) </li></ul><ul><li>A system that hosts a community of internal experts ( expert community ) </li></ul><ul><li>A system that allows experts to share their knowledge ( expert knowledge-sharing ) </li></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><li>A virtual marketplace system that allows experts to swap and trade what they know in response to the demand for knowledge and their ability to supply expertise ( expert marketplace ) </li></ul><ul><li>A system that facilitates the profiling of experts capabilities ( expertise profiling ) </li></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><li>Technology that allows the visual mapping of expertise connections ( expertise mapping ) – e.g. using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social network analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Mapping, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other techniques. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>A system that acts as a pointer to expert know-how ( who knows what ) </li></ul><ul><li>A system that tracks skills and capabilities and therefore can support future workforce planning. ( “workforce value chain” ) </li></ul>
    33. 34. <ul><li>Your input is valued </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>References </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>