Jesse Leraas
E7134 Program Evaluation
        4/3/2010
Recommendation #1:
   KNOW YOUR
  ORGANIZATION
Clear Organizational Goals
                Does the organization have agreed-to, well-defined goals or are goals ill defin...
Recommendation #2:
   FOLLOW THE
    PROCESS
Step 1: Identify the problem
             Define the parameters: identify, categorize, & evaluate


    Step 2: Gather inf...
Recommendation #3:
  CHOOSE A MODEL
 THAT WORKS WITH
YOUR ORGANIZATION
Participant Independence
                 Are members of the organization dependent on each other, able to act
           ...
Bureaucratic

    Political Bargaining

    Participatory Decision Making

    Garbage Can



Giesecke, J. (2001). Practic...
Power is not an issue

    Rules define who can participate

    Data gathered using a standard operating procedure


    ...
Supports diverse interests & multiple (conflicting?) goals

    Multiple participants in the DM process; Interdependent

 ...
Assumes that…
             all participants have the same goal
             individuals understand & accept the decision-m...
Organized anarchy
             Participants are independent agents with conflicting goals


    Problems appear and disapp...
Recommendation #4:
   KNOW YOUR
 DECISION-MAKING
      STYLE
Directive

    Analytic

    Conceptual

    Behavioral



Kinicki, A. & Kreitner, R. (2003). Organizational behavior: Key...
Directive
             Low tolerance for ambiguity
             Oriented toward task and technical concerns
             E...
Conceptual
             High tolerance for ambiguity
             Oriented toward people and social aspects
             C...
Recommendation #5:
  DON’T FORGET
  THE PEOPLE! –
 WORK TO REDUCE
 STRESS IN YOUR
  ORGANIZATION
Communicate!
           Help the organization develop clear, open communication
           Help management develop clear c...
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Assessing on the fly!

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Assessing on the fly!

  1. 1. Jesse Leraas E7134 Program Evaluation 4/3/2010
  2. 2. Recommendation #1: KNOW YOUR ORGANIZATION
  3. 3. Clear Organizational Goals Does the organization have agreed-to, well-defined goals or are goals ill defined or emerging? Participant Understanding of Organizational Goals Do members of the organization know how decisions are made? Structure of the Organization Is the structure less defined, looser, with people behaving independently? Organizational Resources Does the organization have adequate resources? Are there excess resources so people can take on new projects? Are resources scarce so people are always competing for them? Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  4. 4. Recommendation #2: FOLLOW THE PROCESS
  5. 5. Step 1: Identify the problem Define the parameters: identify, categorize, & evaluate Step 2: Gather information Step 3: Generate possible solutions Creative brainstorming; alternative solutions Rank and assess those solutions; weigh consequences Sept 4: Choose a solution Maximizes your goal; minimizes costs and losses Step 5: Communicate the desicion Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  6. 6. Recommendation #3: CHOOSE A MODEL THAT WORKS WITH YOUR ORGANIZATION
  7. 7. Participant Independence Are members of the organization dependent on each other, able to act independently, or are their actions interdependent? Power Distribution within the Organization Is power centralized and controlled? Is it distributed? Information use within the DM Process Is information gathered and used or gathered and ignored? Participant Viewpoints Is the issue important to them, unimportant, or do they simply not care? Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  8. 8. Bureaucratic Political Bargaining Participatory Decision Making Garbage Can Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  9. 9. Power is not an issue Rules define who can participate Data gathered using a standard operating procedure Rules define how decisions are made Changes are incremental/Discourages major change Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  10. 10. Supports diverse interests & multiple (conflicting?) goals Multiple participants in the DM process; Interdependent No clear structure – Participants unsure how decisions are made Uneven distribution of power – Incentive to negotiate Leads to…coalition building, compromising, and bargaining Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  11. 11. Assumes that… all participants have the same goal individuals understand & accept the decision-making process the organization is more important than the individual’s need Rules are created to define who can participate and how the process will be carried out Power MUST be shared; however,… Needs of the organization come first If the process breaks down, political bargaining may occur Information is gathered and shared w/ all participants Leads to consensus on issues; participant commitment Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  12. 12. Organized anarchy Participants are independent agents with conflicting goals Problems appear and disappear without resolution Multiple goals; conflicting and ill-defined Participants have little understanding in regards to organizational processes or how decisions are made Loosely structured; power dispersed Little ability to influence Process is fluid and changing Giesecke, J. (2001). Practical Strategies for Library Managers. Chicago, IL: ALA Publication. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/argosy/Doc?id=10194671
  13. 13. Recommendation #4: KNOW YOUR DECISION-MAKING STYLE
  14. 14. Directive Analytic Conceptual Behavioral Kinicki, A. & Kreitner, R. (2003). Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills, & best practices. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  15. 15. Directive Low tolerance for ambiguity Oriented toward task and technical concerns Efficient, logical, practical, systemic Autocratic: exercise power and control – focus on short run Analytical High tolerance for ambiguity Seek more information than Directives Take longer to make decisions Often autocratic Kinicki, A. & Kreitner, R. (2003). Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills, & best practices. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  16. 16. Conceptual High tolerance for ambiguity Oriented toward people and social aspects Consider a broad perspective; consider many options Rely on intuition and discussion for information gathering Focus on long-term solutions Fosters idealistic and indecisive approach Behavioral Works well in groups; Enjoys social interaction Supportive, receptive, warm, prefer verbal to written Love meetings; avoids conflict May seem “wishy-washy” – hard time saying no, making difficult decisions Kinicki, A. & Kreitner, R. (2003). Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills, & best practices. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  17. 17. Recommendation #5: DON’T FORGET THE PEOPLE! – WORK TO REDUCE STRESS IN YOUR ORGANIZATION
  18. 18. Communicate! Help the organization develop clear, open communication Help management develop clear connections between cause and effect Help management learn how to deal with discussing difficult subjects Empower! Give workers as much control over their jobs and work life as possible Help management deal with their need for control Help workers expand their employment options Support! Educate decision makers about the price they and their workers pay Help employees develop an emotional support system Encourage the organization to invest in employee self-efficacy Train! Encourage the organization to invest in change management training for all employees Encourage the organization to invest in employee resiliency training Teach interpersonal skills to both management and front line workers Lee, D. (2008). Twelve recommendations for reducing stress-related costs to your organization. Retrieved from http://www.humannatureatwork.com/articles/workplace_stress/Workplace-Stress-5.htm
  19. 19. Questions?
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