Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Unit 1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Unit 1

80

Published on

atmosphere and environment

atmosphere and environment

Published in: Science, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
80
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.  THE LAYER OF AIR AROUND US IS CALLED ATMOSPHERE
  • 2.  AIR IS A MIXTURE OF MANY GASES
  • 3. NITROGEN OXYGEN ARGON CARBONDIOXIDE INERT GASES WATER VAPOUR DUST PARTICLES
  • 4.  AIR CONTAINS 78% OF N₂  IT IS AN INACTIVE GAS
  • 5.  AIR CONTAINS 20% OF OXYGEN  IT IS AN ACTIVE GAS  IT IS IMPORTANT FOR RESPIRATION AND COMBUSTION
  • 6.  AIR CONTAINS 0.93% OF ARGON  IT IS THE MOST ABUNDANT INERT GAS PRESENT IN AIR
  • 7.  AIR CONTAINS 0.03% OF CO₂  IT IS USED BY PLANTS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • 8. PHOTHOSYNTHESIS EQUATION
  • 9. INERT GASES
  • 10. WATER VAPOUR  IT IS THE GASEOUS FORM OF WATER
  • 11. DUST PARTICLES
  • 12.  LIQUID AIR IS SEPARATED BY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION METHOD  THE GASES ARE SEPARATED ACCORDING TO THEIR BOILING POINTS  CO₂ AND H₂O ARE SEPARATED IN SOLID FORM  He AND Ne IN LIQUID FORM  THEN THE OTHER GASES ARE SENT INTO THE FRACTIONATING COLUMN  H₂ ,O₂ , Ar , Xe IN GASEOUS FORM
  • 13.  GASES THAT POLLUTES THE AIR ARE CALLED AS AIR POLLUTANTS
  • 14. AIR POLLUTANTS CARBON MONOXIDE CARBON DIOXIDE METHANE SULPHUR DIOXIDE OXIDES OF NITROGEN CHLOROFLUORO COMPOUNDS OZONE
  • 15.  IT IS A VERY POISONOUS GAS  IT IS PRODUCED DUE TO INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION OR LACK OF OXYGEN  IT REACTS WITH HEAMOGLOBIN AND STOPS CARRYING OXYGEN TO THE BLOOD
  • 16. HARMFUL EFFECT OF CO
  • 17.  IT IS A GREEN HOUSE GAS  IT IS PRODUCED BY COMPLETE COMBUSTION  IT CAUSES GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
  • 18.  IT IS ALSO A GREEN HOUSE GAS  IT IS PRODUCED DUE TO ROTTING WASTE  IT ALSO CAUSES GREEN HOUSE EFFECT  NATURAL GAS CONTAINS MORE % OF METHANE
  • 19.  IT IS A CHOKING SMELL POISONOUS GAS  IT IS PRODUCED DUE TO VOLCANIC ERUPTION AND ALSO BY BURNING FOSSIL FUELS  IT CAUSES ACID RAIN
  • 20.  IT IS ALSOMA POISONOUS GAS  AT HIGH TEMP. ATM. O₂ REACTS WITH N₂ TO PRODUCE OXIDES OF NITROGEN  EXHAUST FUMES FROM VEHICLES  POWER STATIONS  LIGHTNING
  • 21.  ITS SYMBOLIS O₃  IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE IT PROTECT US FROM HARMFUL U.V RAYS  U.V.RAYS CAUSES SUN BURN,SKIN CANCER,ETC
  • 22. CHLORO FLUORO COMPOUNDS CFC COMPOUNDS CAUSES OZONE DEPLETION
  • 23.  IN THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE OZONE IT PRODUCES PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG WITH OXIDES OF N₂  IT CAUSES IRRITATION OF EYES , NOSE, BREATHING DIFFICULTIES , ETC
  • 24. GREEN HOUSE GASES
  • 25.  INCREASE IN THE % OF GREEN HOUSE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE WARM UP THE EARTH AND IT CAUSES GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
  • 26. GLOBAL WARMING  WARMING UP OF EARTH BY GREEN HOUSE GASES IS CALLED AS GLOBAL WARMING
  • 27.  INCREASE IN SEA LEVEL  MELTING OF ICE – CAPS  FLOODS IN LOW LYING ISLANDS  CLIMATIC CHANGES  DROUGHT IN SOME PLACES
  • 28. PREVENTION OF GLOBAL WARMING
  • 29.  SO₂ AND NO₂ CAUSES ACID RAIN
  • 30. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN  IT KILLS THE MARINE ORGANISMS  IT DISSOLVES THE LIMESTONE BUILDING  IT CORRODES THE METALS  IT DESTROYS THE STONE WORKS  IT DAMAGES THE CROPS
  • 31. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN EGEE 102 - Pisupati 40
  • 32. EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION
  • 33. THE DISCOVERY  In 1985, using satellites, balloons, and surface stations, a team of researchers had discovered a balding patch of ozone in the upper stratosphere, the size of the United States, over Antarctica. Team who discovered the hole 1985. From left: Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin British Atlantic Survey Research station, Holly Bay, Antarctic coast
  • 34. •Ozone is a triatomic form of oxygen (O3) found in Earth’s upper and lower atmosphere. •The ozone layer, situated in the stratosphere about 15 to 30 km above the earth's surface. •Ozone protects living organisms by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVB) from the sun. •The ozone layer is being destroyed by CFCs and other substances. • Ozone depletion progressing globally except in the tropical zone. The ozone layer www.epcc.pref.osaka.jp/apec/ eng/earth/ozone_layer_depletion/susumu.html
  • 35. TOO MUCH ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT CAN RESULT IN:  Skin cancer  Eye damage such as cataracts  Immune system damage  Reduction in phytoplankton  Damage to the DNA in various life-forms  this has been as observed in Antarctic ice-fish that lack pigments to shield them from the ultra-violet light (they've never needed them before)  Possibly other things too that we don't know about at the moment
  • 36. OVER EXPOSURE dermis.multimedica.de/.../ en/13007/image.htm
  • 37.  IT IS USED TO CONVERT THE HARMFUL GASES THAT COMES FROM EXHAUST FUMES OF MOTOR VEHICLES INTO HARMLESS GASES
  • 38. REACTIONS IN CATALYTIC CONVERTOR  IT CONVERTS HARMFUL GASES CO, OXIDES OF N₂ AND UNBURNT HYDROCARBON INTO HARMLESS GASES LIKE CO₂ , H₂O AND N₂
  • 39. WHAT IS COMBUSTION REACTION?
  • 40. WHAT ARE SOME REAL-LIFE EXAMPLES OF COMBUSTION REACTIONS?  When people are or a candle.  Or burn wood to make a fire.
  • 41. HOW ARE COMBUSTION REACTIONS USED IN OUR DAILY LIVES?  People use fire everyday to  People burning paper.  Burning trash
  • 42. 2 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS!!!  Complete  Clean combustion with a hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water  Incomplete  Dirty combustion with a hydrocarbon produces carbon or carbon monoxide also carbon dioxide.
  • 43. • Carbon is the key element of life, thus its cycle is the most fundamental biogeochemical cycle • CO2 is the most important greenhouse gases (or called trace gases) Why Study the Carbon Cycle?
  • 44. • Carbon has two stable isotopes: 12C (98.9%), 13C (1.1%); one unstable isotope: 14C • Carbon Cycle is the process by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere of the Earth. What Is the Carbon Cycle?
  • 45. Diagram of the Carbon Cycle Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle4.html
  • 46.  78% OF OUR EARTH IS COVERED BY WATER
  • 47. WATER USE AND MANAGEMENT Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  • 48. INTRODUCTION  The water is a chemical substance with the formula H2O.  The water is very important for life, because it is vital. The animals or humans drink water because the body needs 75% water to do exercise for example: walk.  Water covers 70% of the Earth. Like two thirds parts of the earth.
  • 49. WATER RESOURCES  Water, liquid and solid, covers more than 70% of world’s surface.  More than 370 billion billion gallons. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  • 50. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  • 51. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed. Sources of water Surface fresh water: 3% of liquid water, which is 13% of fresh water, which is 2.4% of water
  • 52. THE IMPORTANCES OF THE WATER  Human uses the water in: - Agriculture: The most important for the agriculture is for irrigation. - For drinking: Because the body need 75% of water to do exercise. - Washing: Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. - Fire extinction: One of the important use of the water is the fire extinction. - Recreation: For example swimming, waterskiing, boating, surfing and diving. - Industrial applications: Water is used in power generation.
  • 53. PHOTOS OF HUMAN USES
  • 54. GROUNDWATER  Second largest reservoir of fresh water.  Infiltration - Process of water percolating through the soil and into fractures and permeable rocks.  Zone of Saturation - Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water.  Water Table - Top of Zone of Sat. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  • 55. INDUSTRIAL USE  For processing, washing, and cooling  Most water is returned to the system, however we need to concerned about the quality: industrial pollution and heat pollution
  • 56. THERMOELECTRIC POWER  Water used in the generation of electricty from fossil fuels, nuclear and geothermal sources  About 98% of the water is returned to system, but it is hotter than it should be
  • 57. THE IMPORTANCES OF THE WATER FOR THE ANIMALS  In the animal life the water is essential to life.  The animals uses are: - Temperature regulation: The temperature of the animals should be between a specific range. - Digestion: Water also serves for the lining to the acid in the stomach.
  • 58. PHOTOS OF THE ANIMAL USES
  • 59. WATER ON THE EARTH · Water cycle: Water cycle consist in this three process:  Evaporation: from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air.  Precipitation: from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean.  Runoff: from the land usually reaching the sea.
  • 60.  SUBSTANCES THAT POLLUTES THE WATER ARE CALLED WATER POLLUTANTS
  • 61. WATER POLLUTANTS FERTILIZERS OIL SEWAGE ACID RAIN HEAVY METAL IONS FROM INDUSTRIES PESTICIDES
  • 62. FERTILIZERS  NPK FERTILIZERS ARE USEFUL FOR PLANTS GROWTH
  • 63. USES OF FERTILIZERS
  • 64. Pollutant Harmful effects Acid marine life cannot survive in low PH water, low pH water results in poor growth of vegetation Nitrates and phosphates causes eutrophication, Sewage health problem Oil kill marine life as the oxygen passes into water is sealed off Heavy metal ions poisonous to mankind
  • 65. Eutrophication : a major issue
  • 66. Eutrophication is a process whereby water bodies, such as lakes, estuaries, or slow-moving streams receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth (algae, periphyton attached algae, and nuisance plants weeds). This enhanced plant growth, often called an algal bloom, reduces dissolved oxygen in the water when dead plant material decomposes and can cause other organisms to die.
  • 67. Step by step eutrophication process
  • 68. Oligotrophic lake with a low level of nutrients.
  • 69. Artificial input of nutrients from run-off and discharge of effluent.
  • 70. Eutrophic lake with a high level of nutrients. Phosphorus is usually the bio-limiting element in freshwater lakes.
  • 71. Rapid growth of algae and other biomass resulting in a decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen.
  • 72. Turbidity (cloudiness) of water increases as does rate of sedimentation.
  • 73. Increased growth of rooted plants such as reeds.
  • 74. Algal blooms during the Summer months. Note that dissolved oxygen levels are at their lowest at night when plants respire rather than photosynthesis.
  • 75. Development of anoxic conditions and release of noxious gases such as hydrogen sulphide, thioalcohols and ammonia. Eutrophication process, the movie summary
  • 76. Effects on water quality, treatment costs, compliance and recreational activities
  • 77. • Bad taste and odor : some of the algal species that "bloom" produce toxins (geosmin, MIB), water taste and odor deteriorates. • Oxygen depletion: penetration of light into the water is diminished. This occurs because the algae forms mats as a result of being produced faster than they are consumed. Diminished light penetration decreases the productivity of plants living in the deeper waters and hence their production of oxygen. • DBP precursors : As the water becomes depleted in oxygen, the abundant algae and fish die and decompose, further oxygen is consumed by this process. • Under anoxic conditions iron, manganese, ammonia and phosphorous are released into the water column, anaerobic bacteria flourish, producing hydrogen sulfide. Effects on water quality
  • 78. Effects on treatment costs and compliance • Bad taste, odor, and high organics increase operational costs • Compliance with local and federal regulations becomes more difficult to achieve
  • 79. • Recreation : Lowered oxygen results in the death of fish that need high levels of dissolved oxygen "DO"), such as trout, salmon and other desirable sport fish. The community composition of the water body changes, with fish that can tolerate low DO, such as carp predominating. • Changes in fish communities have ramifications for the rest of the aquatic ecosystem like the explosion of mosquitoes. Effects on recreational activities
  • 80. ALGAE PLANT
  • 81.  IT BLOCKS THE SUNLIGHT AND OXYGEN NEEDED FOR THE MARINE ORGANISMS
  • 82.  IT CAUSES HEALTH PROBLEM TO MANKIND
  • 83.  IT KILLS THE MARINE ORGANISMS BY REDUCING THE PH OF THE WATER
  • 84.  INSOLUBLE IMPURITIES ARE REMOVED BY FILTRATION  ALUMINIUM SULPHATE TO CLUMP SMALLER CLAY PARTICLES TOGETHER
  • 85.  CARBON TO REMOVE UNWANTED TASTE & ODOUR  CHLORINE TO KILL GERMS  FLUORINE TO PREVENT TOOTH DECAY
  • 86.  NaOH TO REMOVE ACIDITY DUE TO EXCESS Cl₂  Ca(OH)₂ TO REMOVE HARDNESS OF THE H₂O

×