Unit 1

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Unit 1

  1. 1.  THE LAYER OF AIR AROUND US IS CALLED ATMOSPHERE
  2. 2.  AIR IS A MIXTURE OF MANY GASES
  3. 3. NITROGEN OXYGEN ARGON CARBONDIOXIDE INERT GASES WATER VAPOUR DUST PARTICLES
  4. 4.  AIR CONTAINS 78% OF N₂  IT IS AN INACTIVE GAS
  5. 5.  AIR CONTAINS 20% OF OXYGEN  IT IS AN ACTIVE GAS  IT IS IMPORTANT FOR RESPIRATION AND COMBUSTION
  6. 6.  AIR CONTAINS 0.93% OF ARGON  IT IS THE MOST ABUNDANT INERT GAS PRESENT IN AIR
  7. 7.  AIR CONTAINS 0.03% OF CO₂  IT IS USED BY PLANTS IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  8. 8. PHOTHOSYNTHESIS EQUATION
  9. 9. INERT GASES
  10. 10. WATER VAPOUR  IT IS THE GASEOUS FORM OF WATER
  11. 11. DUST PARTICLES
  12. 12.  LIQUID AIR IS SEPARATED BY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION METHOD  THE GASES ARE SEPARATED ACCORDING TO THEIR BOILING POINTS  CO₂ AND H₂O ARE SEPARATED IN SOLID FORM  He AND Ne IN LIQUID FORM  THEN THE OTHER GASES ARE SENT INTO THE FRACTIONATING COLUMN  H₂ ,O₂ , Ar , Xe IN GASEOUS FORM
  13. 13.  GASES THAT POLLUTES THE AIR ARE CALLED AS AIR POLLUTANTS
  14. 14. AIR POLLUTANTS CARBON MONOXIDE CARBON DIOXIDE METHANE SULPHUR DIOXIDE OXIDES OF NITROGEN CHLOROFLUORO COMPOUNDS OZONE
  15. 15.  IT IS A VERY POISONOUS GAS  IT IS PRODUCED DUE TO INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION OR LACK OF OXYGEN  IT REACTS WITH HEAMOGLOBIN AND STOPS CARRYING OXYGEN TO THE BLOOD
  16. 16. HARMFUL EFFECT OF CO
  17. 17.  IT IS A GREEN HOUSE GAS  IT IS PRODUCED BY COMPLETE COMBUSTION  IT CAUSES GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
  18. 18.  IT IS ALSO A GREEN HOUSE GAS  IT IS PRODUCED DUE TO ROTTING WASTE  IT ALSO CAUSES GREEN HOUSE EFFECT  NATURAL GAS CONTAINS MORE % OF METHANE
  19. 19.  IT IS A CHOKING SMELL POISONOUS GAS  IT IS PRODUCED DUE TO VOLCANIC ERUPTION AND ALSO BY BURNING FOSSIL FUELS  IT CAUSES ACID RAIN
  20. 20.  IT IS ALSOMA POISONOUS GAS  AT HIGH TEMP. ATM. O₂ REACTS WITH N₂ TO PRODUCE OXIDES OF NITROGEN  EXHAUST FUMES FROM VEHICLES  POWER STATIONS  LIGHTNING
  21. 21.  ITS SYMBOLIS O₃  IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE IT PROTECT US FROM HARMFUL U.V RAYS  U.V.RAYS CAUSES SUN BURN,SKIN CANCER,ETC
  22. 22. CHLORO FLUORO COMPOUNDS CFC COMPOUNDS CAUSES OZONE DEPLETION
  23. 23.  IN THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE OZONE IT PRODUCES PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG WITH OXIDES OF N₂  IT CAUSES IRRITATION OF EYES , NOSE, BREATHING DIFFICULTIES , ETC
  24. 24. GREEN HOUSE GASES
  25. 25.  INCREASE IN THE % OF GREEN HOUSE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE WARM UP THE EARTH AND IT CAUSES GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
  26. 26. GLOBAL WARMING  WARMING UP OF EARTH BY GREEN HOUSE GASES IS CALLED AS GLOBAL WARMING
  27. 27.  INCREASE IN SEA LEVEL  MELTING OF ICE – CAPS  FLOODS IN LOW LYING ISLANDS  CLIMATIC CHANGES  DROUGHT IN SOME PLACES
  28. 28. PREVENTION OF GLOBAL WARMING
  29. 29.  SO₂ AND NO₂ CAUSES ACID RAIN
  30. 30. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN  IT KILLS THE MARINE ORGANISMS  IT DISSOLVES THE LIMESTONE BUILDING  IT CORRODES THE METALS  IT DESTROYS THE STONE WORKS  IT DAMAGES THE CROPS
  31. 31. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN EGEE 102 - Pisupati 40
  32. 32. EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION
  33. 33. THE DISCOVERY  In 1985, using satellites, balloons, and surface stations, a team of researchers had discovered a balding patch of ozone in the upper stratosphere, the size of the United States, over Antarctica. Team who discovered the hole 1985. From left: Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin British Atlantic Survey Research station, Holly Bay, Antarctic coast
  34. 34. •Ozone is a triatomic form of oxygen (O3) found in Earth’s upper and lower atmosphere. •The ozone layer, situated in the stratosphere about 15 to 30 km above the earth's surface. •Ozone protects living organisms by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVB) from the sun. •The ozone layer is being destroyed by CFCs and other substances. • Ozone depletion progressing globally except in the tropical zone. The ozone layer www.epcc.pref.osaka.jp/apec/ eng/earth/ozone_layer_depletion/susumu.html
  35. 35. TOO MUCH ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT CAN RESULT IN:  Skin cancer  Eye damage such as cataracts  Immune system damage  Reduction in phytoplankton  Damage to the DNA in various life-forms  this has been as observed in Antarctic ice-fish that lack pigments to shield them from the ultra-violet light (they've never needed them before)  Possibly other things too that we don't know about at the moment
  36. 36. OVER EXPOSURE dermis.multimedica.de/.../ en/13007/image.htm
  37. 37.  IT IS USED TO CONVERT THE HARMFUL GASES THAT COMES FROM EXHAUST FUMES OF MOTOR VEHICLES INTO HARMLESS GASES
  38. 38. REACTIONS IN CATALYTIC CONVERTOR  IT CONVERTS HARMFUL GASES CO, OXIDES OF N₂ AND UNBURNT HYDROCARBON INTO HARMLESS GASES LIKE CO₂ , H₂O AND N₂
  39. 39. WHAT IS COMBUSTION REACTION?
  40. 40. WHAT ARE SOME REAL-LIFE EXAMPLES OF COMBUSTION REACTIONS?  When people are or a candle.  Or burn wood to make a fire.
  41. 41. HOW ARE COMBUSTION REACTIONS USED IN OUR DAILY LIVES?  People use fire everyday to  People burning paper.  Burning trash
  42. 42. 2 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS!!!  Complete  Clean combustion with a hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water  Incomplete  Dirty combustion with a hydrocarbon produces carbon or carbon monoxide also carbon dioxide.
  43. 43. • Carbon is the key element of life, thus its cycle is the most fundamental biogeochemical cycle • CO2 is the most important greenhouse gases (or called trace gases) Why Study the Carbon Cycle?
  44. 44. • Carbon has two stable isotopes: 12C (98.9%), 13C (1.1%); one unstable isotope: 14C • Carbon Cycle is the process by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere of the Earth. What Is the Carbon Cycle?
  45. 45. Diagram of the Carbon Cycle Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle4.html
  46. 46.  78% OF OUR EARTH IS COVERED BY WATER
  47. 47. WATER USE AND MANAGEMENT Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  48. 48. INTRODUCTION  The water is a chemical substance with the formula H2O.  The water is very important for life, because it is vital. The animals or humans drink water because the body needs 75% water to do exercise for example: walk.  Water covers 70% of the Earth. Like two thirds parts of the earth.
  49. 49. WATER RESOURCES  Water, liquid and solid, covers more than 70% of world’s surface.  More than 370 billion billion gallons. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  50. 50. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  51. 51. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed. Sources of water Surface fresh water: 3% of liquid water, which is 13% of fresh water, which is 2.4% of water
  52. 52. THE IMPORTANCES OF THE WATER  Human uses the water in: - Agriculture: The most important for the agriculture is for irrigation. - For drinking: Because the body need 75% of water to do exercise. - Washing: Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. - Fire extinction: One of the important use of the water is the fire extinction. - Recreation: For example swimming, waterskiing, boating, surfing and diving. - Industrial applications: Water is used in power generation.
  53. 53. PHOTOS OF HUMAN USES
  54. 54. GROUNDWATER  Second largest reservoir of fresh water.  Infiltration - Process of water percolating through the soil and into fractures and permeable rocks.  Zone of Saturation - Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water.  Water Table - Top of Zone of Sat. Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.
  55. 55. INDUSTRIAL USE  For processing, washing, and cooling  Most water is returned to the system, however we need to concerned about the quality: industrial pollution and heat pollution
  56. 56. THERMOELECTRIC POWER  Water used in the generation of electricty from fossil fuels, nuclear and geothermal sources  About 98% of the water is returned to system, but it is hotter than it should be
  57. 57. THE IMPORTANCES OF THE WATER FOR THE ANIMALS  In the animal life the water is essential to life.  The animals uses are: - Temperature regulation: The temperature of the animals should be between a specific range. - Digestion: Water also serves for the lining to the acid in the stomach.
  58. 58. PHOTOS OF THE ANIMAL USES
  59. 59. WATER ON THE EARTH · Water cycle: Water cycle consist in this three process:  Evaporation: from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air.  Precipitation: from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean.  Runoff: from the land usually reaching the sea.
  60. 60.  SUBSTANCES THAT POLLUTES THE WATER ARE CALLED WATER POLLUTANTS
  61. 61. WATER POLLUTANTS FERTILIZERS OIL SEWAGE ACID RAIN HEAVY METAL IONS FROM INDUSTRIES PESTICIDES
  62. 62. FERTILIZERS  NPK FERTILIZERS ARE USEFUL FOR PLANTS GROWTH
  63. 63. USES OF FERTILIZERS
  64. 64. Pollutant Harmful effects Acid marine life cannot survive in low PH water, low pH water results in poor growth of vegetation Nitrates and phosphates causes eutrophication, Sewage health problem Oil kill marine life as the oxygen passes into water is sealed off Heavy metal ions poisonous to mankind
  65. 65. Eutrophication : a major issue
  66. 66. Eutrophication is a process whereby water bodies, such as lakes, estuaries, or slow-moving streams receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth (algae, periphyton attached algae, and nuisance plants weeds). This enhanced plant growth, often called an algal bloom, reduces dissolved oxygen in the water when dead plant material decomposes and can cause other organisms to die.
  67. 67. Step by step eutrophication process
  68. 68. Oligotrophic lake with a low level of nutrients.
  69. 69. Artificial input of nutrients from run-off and discharge of effluent.
  70. 70. Eutrophic lake with a high level of nutrients. Phosphorus is usually the bio-limiting element in freshwater lakes.
  71. 71. Rapid growth of algae and other biomass resulting in a decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen.
  72. 72. Turbidity (cloudiness) of water increases as does rate of sedimentation.
  73. 73. Increased growth of rooted plants such as reeds.
  74. 74. Algal blooms during the Summer months. Note that dissolved oxygen levels are at their lowest at night when plants respire rather than photosynthesis.
  75. 75. Development of anoxic conditions and release of noxious gases such as hydrogen sulphide, thioalcohols and ammonia. Eutrophication process, the movie summary
  76. 76. Effects on water quality, treatment costs, compliance and recreational activities
  77. 77. • Bad taste and odor : some of the algal species that "bloom" produce toxins (geosmin, MIB), water taste and odor deteriorates. • Oxygen depletion: penetration of light into the water is diminished. This occurs because the algae forms mats as a result of being produced faster than they are consumed. Diminished light penetration decreases the productivity of plants living in the deeper waters and hence their production of oxygen. • DBP precursors : As the water becomes depleted in oxygen, the abundant algae and fish die and decompose, further oxygen is consumed by this process. • Under anoxic conditions iron, manganese, ammonia and phosphorous are released into the water column, anaerobic bacteria flourish, producing hydrogen sulfide. Effects on water quality
  78. 78. Effects on treatment costs and compliance • Bad taste, odor, and high organics increase operational costs • Compliance with local and federal regulations becomes more difficult to achieve
  79. 79. • Recreation : Lowered oxygen results in the death of fish that need high levels of dissolved oxygen "DO"), such as trout, salmon and other desirable sport fish. The community composition of the water body changes, with fish that can tolerate low DO, such as carp predominating. • Changes in fish communities have ramifications for the rest of the aquatic ecosystem like the explosion of mosquitoes. Effects on recreational activities
  80. 80. ALGAE PLANT
  81. 81.  IT BLOCKS THE SUNLIGHT AND OXYGEN NEEDED FOR THE MARINE ORGANISMS
  82. 82.  IT CAUSES HEALTH PROBLEM TO MANKIND
  83. 83.  IT KILLS THE MARINE ORGANISMS BY REDUCING THE PH OF THE WATER
  84. 84.  INSOLUBLE IMPURITIES ARE REMOVED BY FILTRATION  ALUMINIUM SULPHATE TO CLUMP SMALLER CLAY PARTICLES TOGETHER
  85. 85.  CARBON TO REMOVE UNWANTED TASTE & ODOUR  CHLORINE TO KILL GERMS  FLUORINE TO PREVENT TOOTH DECAY
  86. 86.  NaOH TO REMOVE ACIDITY DUE TO EXCESS Cl₂  Ca(OH)₂ TO REMOVE HARDNESS OF THE H₂O

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