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Ic chapter 6  listening
 

Ic chapter 6 listening

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    Ic chapter 6  listening Ic chapter 6 listening Presentation Transcript

    • WHERE ARE WE NOW? INTRODUCTION PERCEPTION VERBAL COMMUNICATION NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
    • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHAPTER SIX LISTENING: UNDERSTANDING OTHERS
    • A PSYCHOLOGY PROFESSOR FIRED A BLANK SHOT IN CLASS AND THEN DETERMINED WHAT HIS STUDENTS HAD BEEN THINKING ABOUT:
    • 20% were thinking about sexual fantasies 20% were reminiscing about something 20% were worrying or thinking about lunch 8% were thinking about religious matters 20% reported listening to the professor 12% were able to recall the professor's words when the gun fired
    • WHY IS THIS CHAPTER IN THE BOOK? WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN LISTENING AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION?
    • COMMUNICATION IS A PROCESS (THE MODEL) LISTENING IS A PROCESS A PROCESS IS SUBJECT TO MALFUNCTION OR BARRIERS HOW WE RESPOND TO LISTENING BARRIERS CAN DAMAGE THE COMMUNICATION IN A RELATIONSHIP OR BUILD BRIDGES TO OTHERS WHY ARE LISTENING AND IC CONNECTED?
    • PREVIEW: WHY STUDY LISTENING? LISTENING DEFINED ACCEPTANCE ACTIVE LISTENING TYPES OF QUESTIONS TO ASK POOR LISTENING STYLES BARRIERS TO LISTENING GUIDELINES FOR LISTENING
    • WHY STUDY LISTENING?
    • WE SPEND LARGE AMOUNT OF TIME LISTENING  45 PERCENT OF OUR COMMUNICATION LISTENING  30 PERCENT OF OUR COMMUNICATION SPEAKING  15 PERCENT OF OUR COMMUNICATION READING  10 PERCENT OF OUR COMMUNICATION WRITING  BUT WE REMEMBER ONLY A FRACTION OF WHAT WE HEAR
    • WHY ARE LISTENING SKILLS IMPORTANT TO COMMUNICATION? YOUR PARTNER WILL HEAR ON AVERAGE 2 1/2- 5 MINUTES OF A 10 MINUTE CONVERSATION.
    • WHY IS EFFECTIVE LISTENING IMPORTANT IN MEDICINE?-THE RELATIONSHIP COMPONENT TO LISTENING EFFECTIVE LISTENING IS A SIGNIFICANT PREDICTOR FOR PATIENT SATISFACTION. (WANZER, BOOTH-BUTTERFIELD & GRUBER, 2004)
    • WHAT GOOD LISTENING SKILLS WILL DO: HELP YOU UNDERSTAND ASSIGNMENTS BUILD RAPPORT WITH COWORKERS, BOSSES, AND CLIENTS/PATIENTS FIND MEANING IN WHAT PEOPLE SAY WORK WITH A TEAM BUILD CONVERSATIONAL BRIDGES
    • THE HELPFUL ASPECTS OF LISTENING ARE NOT OFTEN STUDIED IN OTHER PLACES
    • LISTENING DEFINED
    • LISTENING PROCESS OF RECEIVING, ATTENDING TO, AND ASSIGNING MEANING TO AURAL STIMULI. -FUJISHIN
    • LISTENING DEFINED IN OTHER WORDS…THE PROCESS OF MAKING SENSE OUT OF THE SOUNDS WE HEAR.
    • LISTENING DEFINED TWO WAYS TO APPROACH DEFINITION: LISTENING AS A PROCESS LISTENING V. HEARING
    • LISTENING AS A PROCESS
    • LISTENING DEFINED LISTENING AS A PROCESS: RECEIVING ATTENDING INTERPRETING EVALUATING RESPONDING
    • LISTENING DEFINED LISTENING AS A PROCESS: RECEIVING-PHYSICAL PROCESS OF RECEIVING AND PROCESSING AMONG COMPETING SOUNDS ATTENDING-FOCUSING ON A SELECTED SOUND OR SOUNDS INTERPRETING-ASSIGNING MEANING TO SELECTED SOUNDS
    • LISTENING DEFINED LISTENING AS A PROCESS (CONT.): EVALUATING-DETERMINE VALUE OR WORTH OF A MESSAGE RESPONDING-EXPRESS YOURSELF WITH OPINION, FEELING, QUESTION, JUDGMENT, SILENCE, ETC.
    • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LISTENING AND HEARING?
    • HEARING PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF DECODING SOUNDS. -BEEBE, BEEBE, & REDMOND
    • HEARING
    • HEARING VS. LISTENING: HEARING: PHYSIOLOGICAL PHYSICAL RELATIVELY SIMPLE PROCESS LISTENING: PSYCHOLOGICAL MENTAL COMPLEX PROCESS
    • LISTENING DEFINED A GOOD SUMMARY OF HEARING VS. LISTENING: “JUST HEARING SOUNDS VS. LISTENING FOR THE MESSAGE"
    • ACCEPTANCE
    • DEFINITION OF ACCEPTANCE “RECEIVING WHAT IS” NOT JUDGING WHAT SPEAKER IS SAYING AS RIGHT OR WRONG, GOOD OR BAD, FROM YOUR POINT OF VIEW THIS PERMITS ATMOSPHERE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
    • NONVERBAL SIGNS OF ACCEPTANCE  POSTURE AND GESTURES ARE OPEN  DIRECT EYE CONTACT  POSITIVE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS  NODDING
    • VERBAL SIGNS OF ACCEPTANCE  AVOID INTERRUPTIONS  NONEVALUATIVE LISTENING  WORDS OF ACCEPTANCE (“I SEE”)  INVITATIONS TO SHARE
    • ACTIVE LISTENING SKILLS
    • FOUR STEPS OF ACTIVE LISTENING 1. SPEAKER MAKES A STATEMENT 2. LISTENER PARAPHRASES STATEMENT 3. SPEAKER ACCEPTS PARAPHRASE 4. IF REJECTED, SPEAKER CLARIFIES ORIGINAL MESSAGE, IF ACCEPTED, LISTENER IS FREE TO EXPRESS THOUGHT/FEELING
    • DETERMINE LISTENING PURPOSE • COMPREHENSION/ACCURACY LISTENING • EMPATHETIC LISTENING • CRITICAL LISTENING
    • ENHANCING SKILLS COMPREHENSION/ACCURACY: GOAL-TO ACCURATELY UNDERSTAND EXACTLY WHAT MESSAGES THE PARTNER IS CONVEYING STOP ATTENDING TO SELF TALK LOOK AT NONVERBAL MESSAGES (car dealer) USE QUESTIONS/STATEMENTS THAT REFLECT BACK CONTENT
    • ENHANCING SKILLS EMPATHY: SOCIALLY DECENTER-HOW WOULD YOU REACT, WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE OTHER PERSON, HOW WOULD MOST PEOPLE REACT REFLECT SPEAKER’S VERBAL AND NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR- INVITATION TO SHARE (CAR DEALER)
    • ENHANCING SKILLS CRITICAL LISTENING: "LISTENING TO EVALUATE AND ASSESS THE QUALITY, APPROPRIATENESS, VALUE, OR IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION." ASSESS QUALITY OF INFORMATION AVOID JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS
    • Classroom listening Skills: Choose to find the subject useful (calculus) Concentrate on message, not professor's appearance, etc. React slowly to things with which you disagree Identify the "big ideas" to which everything else in the lecture is related Adjust your notetaking system Stay attentive ENHANCING SKILLS
    • Classroom listening skills: Aggressively tackle difficult material Don't get derailed by emotionally charged "buzz" words Get to know the professor personally Use the thinking v. speaking speed differential to your advantage www.leadershiplane.com ENHANCING SKILLS
    • HELPING CHILDREN LEARN TO LISTEN: ASK THEM TO REPEAT YOUR INSTRUCTIONS TEACH THEM EYE CONTACT READ OUT LOUD AND ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION ABOUT READING AGE APPROPRIATE ACTIVITIES ON LISTENING ENHANCING SKILLS
    • TYPES OF QUESTIONS TO ENHANCE EFFECTIVE LISTENING
    • TYPES OF QUESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING 1. CLOSED QUESTIONS-INVITE ONE OR TWO WORD ANSWERS 2. OPEN QUESTIONS-ENCOURAGE EXPLANATION OF THE ANSWER 3. PROBING QUESTIONS-OPEN AND CLOSED QUESTIONS DIRECTLY RELATED TO PRECEDING STATEMENT IN CONVERSATION 4. LOADED QUESTIONS-BLAME, ACCUSE, AND JUDGE. MAY FORCE ADVICE ON LISTENER
    • POOR LISTENING STYLES
    • POOR STYLES OF LISTENING THAT MAY LEAD TO MISCOMMUNICATION 1. REFUSING TO LISTEN 2. PRETENDING TO LISTEN 3. LISTENING SELECTIVELY-LISTENING ONLY TO WHAT YOU ARE INTERESTED IN 4. LISTENING TO EVALUATE-EVALUATING FROM OWN POINT OF VIEW RATHER THAN ACTUAL MESSAGE 5. LISTENING TO RESCUE-PREVENTS PERSON FROM ACCEPTING CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR
    • LISTENING BARRIERS
    • LISTENING BARRIERS CERTAIN CONDITIONS MAY IMPEDE OR INTERFERE WITH OUR ABILITY TO EFFECTIVELY LISTEN TO OUR COMMUNICATION PARTNER. WHAT ARE THEY?
    • LISTENING BARRIERS ABUNDANCE OF MESSAGES EXTERNAL NOISE RAPID THOUGHT OUR JUDGMENTAL FRAME OF REFERENCE SHORT ATTENTION SPAN EFFORT UNCHECKED EMOTION CRITICIZING THE SPEAKER LISTENER APPREHENSION
    • LISTENING BARRIERS ABUNDANCE OF MESSAGES PHONES, CONVERSATIONS, MEETINGS
    • LISTENING BARRIERS EXTERNAL NOISE TRAFFIC, DOGS, MACHINERY, MUSIC, AIR CONDITIONER, CONVERSATION NEXT TO YOU
    • LISTENING BARRIERS RAPID THOUGHT- DIFFERING SPEECH AND THOUGHT RATES UNDERSTAND 500 WORDS PER MINUTE SPEAK 125 WORDS PER MINUTE
    • LISTENING BARRIERS JUDGMENTAL FRAME OF REFERENCE HOW DOES THIS AFFECT ME?
    • LISTENING BARRIERS BEING SELF ABSORBED: CONVERSATIONAL NARCISSISM- FOCUS ON PERSONAL AGENDAS AND SELF ABSORBTION RATHER THAN ON THE NEEDS AND IDEAS OF OTHERS.
    • LISTENING BARRIERS SHORT ATTENTION SPAN AFFECTED BY ADVANCE OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN OUR SOCIETY
    • LISTENING BARRIERS EFFORT • BE PRESENT • BE ATTENTIVE • BE RECEPTIVE • BE RESPONSIVE
    • LISTENING BARRIERS UNCHECKED EMOTIONS: AROUSAL OF WORDS EMOTIONAL NOISE
    • LISTENING BARRIERS CRITICIZING THE SPEAKER
    • LISTENING BARRIERS AMBUSH LISTENER: PERSON WHO IS OVERLY CRITICAL AND JUDGMENTAL WHEN LISTENING TO OTHERS (roof preacher)
    • LISTENING BARRIERS LISTENER APPREHENSION- FEAR OF MISUNDERSTANDING SPOKEN MESSAGES OF OTHERS
    • LISTENING BARRIERS ABUNDANCE OF MESSAGES EXTERNAL NOISE RAPID THOUGHT OUR JUDGMENTAL FRAME OF REFERENCE SHORT ATTENTION SPAN EFFORT UNCHECKED EMOTION CRITICIZING THE SPEAKER LISTENER APPREHENSION
    • GUIDELINES FOR LISTENING
    • GUIDELINES FOR LISTENING  AVOID PARROTING (VERBATIM)  AVOID OVERUSE OF ACTIVE LISTENING (ONLY USE IT WHEN YOU NEED TO CLARIFY)  AVOID INAPPROPRIATE USE OF ACTIVE LISTENING  “WHAT TIME IS IT?” “ARE YOU ASKING ME WHAT TIME IT IS?”
    • ALAN'S SUMMARY OF EFFECTIVE LISTENING PRINCIPLES DETERMINE LISTENING PURPOSE STOP, LOOK, LISTEN LISTEN CRITICALLY RESPOND EFFECTIVELY WITH QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS EMPATHIZE AND CONFIRM OTHERS EFFECTIVE LISTENING SKILLS
    • SUMMARY: WHY STUDY LISTENING? LISTENING DEFINED ACCEPTANCE ACTIVE LISTENING TYPES OF QUESTIONS TO ASK POOR LISTENING STYLES BARRIERS TO LISTENING GUIDELINES FOR LISTENING