Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Describes the structures of the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w...
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY <ul><li>Greek or Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Root words  </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>Suff...
How are living things organized? <ul><li>Atoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are the smallest chemical units  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Organizing a Muscle <ul><li>Protein molecules ( chemical level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein filaments ( organelle level ) <...
Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Metabolism- sum total of all chemical processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolism – breakin...
<ul><li>The body is divided into 11 organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>All organ systems work together </li></ul><ul><li>Many...
Mechanisms of Regulation <ul><li>Autoregulation   ( intrinsic ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>automatic response in a cell, tissu...
Maintaining Normal Limits  <ul><li>Receptor : receives the stimulus  </li></ul><ul><li>Control Center : processes the sign...
Working Together Table 1–1
Anatomical terms used to describe body sections, regions, and relative positions? Anatomical Landmarks Superficial charact...
<ul><li>Anatomical position :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hands at sides, palms forward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supine :  </li><...
Quadrants and Regions <ul><li>4  abdominopelvic quadrants  around umbilicus </li></ul>Figure 1–7a <ul><li>9  abdominopelvi...
Which Direction?   <ul><li>Lateral :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>side view  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontal :  </li></ul><ul><ul...
 
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Ch1 Intro To A P.2009

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Ch1 Intro To A P.2009

  1. 1. Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Describes the structures of the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what they are made of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where they are located </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>associated structures </li></ul></ul>Anatomy – oldest medical science Physiology <ul><li>Is the study of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>functions of anatomical structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual and cooperative functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY <ul><li>Greek or Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Root words </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>Suffixes </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Commemorative names </li></ul>
  3. 3. How are living things organized? <ul><li>Atoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are the smallest chemical units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molecules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are a group of atoms working together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organelles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are a group of molecules working together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are a group of organelles working together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tissues : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are a group of similar cells working together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are a group of different tissues working together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organ systems (11) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are a group of organs working together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is an individual </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Organizing a Muscle <ul><li>Protein molecules ( chemical level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein filaments ( organelle level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle cells ( cellular level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle tissue ( tissue level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart ( organ level ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Metabolism- sum total of all chemical processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolism – breaking down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolism – building up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness - irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The body is divided into 11 organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>All organ systems work together </li></ul><ul><li>Many organs work in more than 1 organ system </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis : All body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>Systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range (body temperature, fluid balance) </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to function within a normal range results in disease </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mechanisms of Regulation <ul><li>Autoregulation ( intrinsic ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic regulation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul></ul>How are living things regulated?
  8. 8. Maintaining Normal Limits <ul><li>Receptor : receives the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Control Center : processes the signal and sends instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Effector : carries out instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Feedback : response of the effector negates the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Feedback : response of the effector reinforces the stimulus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Working Together Table 1–1
  10. 10. Anatomical terms used to describe body sections, regions, and relative positions? Anatomical Landmarks Superficial characteristics : surface parts – names or adjectives
  11. 11. <ul><li>Anatomical position : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hands at sides, palms forward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supine : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lying down, face up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prone : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lying down, face down </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Quadrants and Regions <ul><li>4 abdominopelvic quadrants around umbilicus </li></ul>Figure 1–7a <ul><li>9 abdominopelvic regions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Which Direction? <ul><li>Lateral : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>side view </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontal : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>front view </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomical direction : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refers to the patient’s left or right </li></ul></ul>

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