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Middle Colonies
 

Middle Colonies

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    Middle Colonies Middle Colonies Presentation Transcript

    • Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware
      • Massachusetts was founded by John Winthrop, as a place for Puritans to worship freely, without persecution .
      • Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams, as a place for all people to worship any religion without interference from people or the government. Key points here are religious tolerance , and separation of church and state (government).
      • Connecticut was founded by Thomas Hooker, as a place where government’s power was strictly limited. Key point here is checks and balances .
      • More religious diversity (Catholics, Presbyterians, Quakers, and Jewish) in the Middle Colonies.
      • More ethnic diversity as well (German, English, Irish, Scottish, Dutch).
      • While New England was land previously land claimed by the Native Americans, the Middle Colonies is mostly land called “New Netherlands” before the English take that over.
      • Settled by the Dutch and called New Netherlands (Peter Minuit in 1626), but had originally been settled by the Swedish.
      • Many people settled in New Amsterdam (later called New York City).
      • Captured by the English in the 1630’s, then renamed in honor of the Duke of York, King Charles II’s brother. Charles also gave the Duke power over the colony.
      • Religious freedom and tolerance are very alive in New York during colonial times,
      • … But the real reason the English took it over was for trade. With the Dutch gone, the English now have unbroken control over the Atlantic coast.
      • The former territories of New Netherlands become a very confusing and confrontational mess. Each of the colonies – remember, they are separate states, separate entities – fight each other throughout colonial times, up to and including the Revolution.
      • Broke off of New York in 1664, as New York was too large to effectively govern.
      • King Charles gave New York to his brother, the Duke of York, and he broke off New Jersey and gave it to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.
      • Many of the same people settled here as New York, but also Finnish and Swedish people settled here.
      • Many New Englanders relocated here because the farmland was so good.
      • At first a proprietary colony, but when rent was difficult to collect, and disputes over land became frequent, King James made it a Royal Colony.
      • Then became controlled by the King of England (people kept the right to worship freely and right to vote).
      • Founded by William Penn in 1681.
      • Penn was raised an Anglican (official religion of England), but when to college and got all liberal like college kids do, and became a Quaker.
      • This is bad, as Quakers are usually hanged in England…
    •  
      • So after Mr. Penn’s death, King Charles II gave William Penn land in exchange for his – and 1500 other imprisoned Quakers – freedom.
      • Penn ran the land, but was still owned by the King of England. What kind of colony is this?
      • Designed to be a model of religious freedom, peace, and Christian living. Who was Penn later forced to keep out?
      • Treated Native Americans fairly, even paying for land that they lived on. What did this result in?
      • Designed a capital city named “Philadelphia,” which means “ brotherly love.” It would become one of the most important cities in the world. “ Billy Penn” is a statue still on the capital of Philly’s City Hall.
      • The Pennsylvania Dutch would settle here, too, even though they were actually German (as in Deutschland , but butchered by the English language, naturally).
      • Delaware was also part of Pennsylvania, kind of like a little growth at the bottom, having very little connection to the larger body of Pennsylvania.
      • Originally part of Pennsylvania.
      • William Penn gave them independence in 1701, as Philly had grown too snobby for it.
      • Uniquely, it wasn’t governed by one person, but by the people of the “Lower Counties.”
      • Not much to know here, other than some interesting disputes over borders, and having been ruled by Native Americans, Swedes, Dutch, and then the English.
      • These are crops sold for money at markets…. Big money.
      • Wheat, barley, and rye are so big, that people refer to the Middle Colonies as the “bread basket” colonies.
      • Cattle, pigs, butter, and other goods like clocks, watches, guns, and stone/glassware became shipped all over the world .
      • Make lots of money (that means more people stay, and more people come to live).
      • Live on its own, without England or any other country’s help.
      • Draw thousands of slaves into North America, which obviously had a lasting effect on America, too.
      • 25% of New York were African Slaves.
      • 33% of Pennsylvania were, too.
      • By 1750, there were 150,000 African Slaves between the MC and New England.
      • Most homes only had 1 or 2 slaves, but lived in cities, not farms.
      • There is a growing division between the Northern colonies, who are a “society with slaves,” and the Southern Colonies, who are “slavery society.” What’s the difference?