Supervisory Skills

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A good guide to the science of coaching and developing your employees as well as the basic skills needed as a supervisor. New supervisors will find this training helpful in making the transition from a position where they were technically proficient to one where they rely on their subordinates for that proficiancy.

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  • My primary goal in the supervisory training is to educate but my secondary goal is to make the Washoe Tribe a better place to work. By educating supervisors to positively recognize employees and provide or create opportunities for their employees we will establish a better work environment through better working relationships. This will improve long-term employee retention, improve productivity and ultimately reduce turnover. Happy employees stay at their job. Engaged employees are happy. Regular feedback or Stay Interviews (instead of exit interviews we regularly find out why employees are staying) can help uncover employee expectations thus establishing better relationships between employees and their supervisors. “Seek first to understand, then to be understood.” Keep your employees engaged for a better workplace. This is my vision for the Washoe Tribe.
  • During this course, we will overview the transition to a leadership role and discuss critical leadership skills for supervisors. Specifically, the topics we will cover include: Key areas of responsibility as a supervisor…things to be aware of !!! The transition to leadership, Time management for supervisors, Coaching and developing employees, and Active listening.
  • The legal theory in Latin, ‘respondeat superior’ or “let the master answer” means, in layman’s terms, that employers may be held liable for the actions of their supervisors… … If the supervisors are acting within the scope of their employment. Therefore, supervisor training is an essential component of keeping the tribe’s employee liability to a minimum. You have a responsibility to the tribe as a supervisor working here.
  • Unfairness/Harassment - Working side by side with people of different races, ages, genders, national origins, colors, abilities and religions supervisors are in the best position to recognize problems and are the first to learn about any issues. They are usually the ones responsible for ensuring that any unwanted or unfair conduct stops. It is important to be fair when making decisions regarding job assignments, evaluations, disciplinary actions, promotions, layoffs and terminations. The purpose of discipline is to correct the unwanted behavior, not to punish the employee. Termination needs to be handled properly to minimize bad feelings and avoid legal problems. Wrongful discharge claims can be very costly. Employees must also be treated fairly when it comes to hours worked, wages paid and overtime. You must know which employees are exempt from overtime, hours and job limitations of minors?, how to calculate hours worked and overtime, whether meal periods and breaks are required, when meal time must be paid, when travel time must be paid and what kinds of wage deductions are allowable.
  • You need to know FMLA provides eligible employees with up to 12 work weeks of unpaid job-protected leave. Supervisors may need to provide advice to employees about their rights to leave. Your employees don’t need to say they want FMLA. It is your job as a supervisor to understand when an employee asks for emergency leave it is FMLA. Supervisors need to know what to do if an employee is injured on the job. You are the tribe’s eyes and ears to make sure safety precautions are being taken and hazards are identified and addressed promptly. You play a significant role in helping injured workers recover. You may need to assist in completing reports and making sure work restrictions are followed. The ability to effectively listen and communicate is a fundamental skill for every supervisor. Communication and leadership skills are key skills that must be learned and developed . It is important for supervisors to be aware of the issues involved in workplace violence and that everyday office security is a big part of staying safe from workplace violence. SPEAKERS NOTES : Refer to FMLA handouts/checklist
  • You need to know FMLA provides eligible employees with up to 12 work weeks of unpaid job-protected leave. Supervisors may need to provide advice to employees about their rights to leave. Your employees don’t need to say they want FMLA. It is your job as a supervisor to understand when an employee asks for emergency leave it is FMLA. Supervisors need to know what to do if an employee is injured on the job. You are the tribe’s eyes and ears to make sure safety precautions are being taken and hazards are identified and addressed promptly. You play a significant role in helping injured workers recover. You may need to assist in completing reports and making sure work restrictions are followed. The ability to effectively listen and communicate is a fundamental skill for every supervisor. Communication and leadership skills are key skills that must be learned and developed . It is important for supervisors to be aware of the issues involved in workplace violence and that everyday office security is a big part of staying safe from workplace violence.
  • Quite often employees who are technically proficient are promoted into supervisor roles. The technical proficiency that helped you obtain this role will no longer be enough to sustain you. After all, it is rare to see a supervisor’s role in jeopardy due to technical incompetence; instead, it can be derailed by lack of attention to leadership skills. It was once said that managers do things right but leaders do the right things . Most supervisors know how to do things right which speaks to their technical proficiency. Doing the right things and knowing what those things are can be a little more difficult for supervisors. Also, should you find yourself the leader of a team in which you were once a member, you will have additional challenges. Your new leadership role will require changes in the relationships you have with others. If you are promoted from within a team, it is imperative to recognize you will need to change your interactions and communication with your old peers and your new peers (other supervisors).
  • Quite often employees who are technically proficient are promoted into supervisor roles. The technical proficiency that helped you obtain this role will no longer be enough to sustain you. After all, it is rare to see a supervisor’s role in jeopardy due to technical incompetence; instead, it can be derailed by lack of attention to leadership skills. It was once said that managers do things right but leaders do the right things . Most supervisors know how to do things right which speaks to their technical proficiency. Doing the right things and knowing what those things are can be a little more difficult for supervisors. Also, should you find yourself the leader of a team in which you were once a member, you will have additional challenges. Your new leadership role will require changes in the relationships you have with others. If you are promoted from within a team, it is imperative to recognize you will need to change your interactions and communication with your old peers and your new peers (other supervisors).
  • It is imperative for supervisors to learn how to manage their time effectively. As a supervisor you will quickly begin to notice there are more demands placed on you and your time. To be successful in a leadership role, it is important to have a method for how you plan to manage your time and resources. The goal of time management is to balance the production of your desired results with your capability. That can be affected by your abilities or your resources. Working excessive overtime to finish a presentation will be worthless if you are too sick or tired to present. Likewise, being excessively focused on fine tuning your mgmt skills will be worthless if you don’t have the time to use those skills.
  • As a supervisor it is important to understand where you are spending your time. To help you understand where your time goes, we will look at a time management matrix from Steven Covey’s training, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. This time management matrix classifies our activities into four quadrants. The activities are classified in terms of their importance and their urgency. It is your job to find that balance between the importance and the urgency of your activities. What makes an activity important? The tribe’s vision clarifies what is most important to the tribe; what gives the tribe meaning and its purpose for being. An activity is considered important if it is valuable and if it contributes to the tribe’s vison values and goals. Important activities support our vision, values, and our department goals. Your clear understanding of the tribe’s vision affects the decisions you make and how you spend your time. If you are unclear about the tribe’s vision and how it relates to your department and individual goals, it will be difficult for you to identify what is most important for you and your employees to spend time on. So, when is an activity considered Urgent? An activity is classified as urgent if you or others feel that it requires immediate attention. Let’s take a look at the Matrix.
  • As a supervisor it is important to understand where you are spending your time. To help you understand where your time goes, we will look at a time management matrix from Steven Covey’s training, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. This time management matrix classifies our activities into four quadrants. The activities are classified in terms of their importance and their urgency. It is your job to find that balance between the importance and the urgency of your activities. What makes an activity important? The tribe’s vision clarifies what is most important to the tribe; what gives the tribe meaning and its purpose for being. An activity is considered important if it is valuable and if it contributes to the tribe’s vison values and goals. Important activities support our vision, values, and our department goals. Your clear understanding of the tribe’s vision affects the decisions you make and how you spend your time. If you are unclear about the tribe’s vision and how it relates to your department and individual goals, it will be difficult for you to identify what is most important for you and your employees to spend time on. So, when is an activity considered Urgent? An activity is classified as urgent if you or others feel that it requires immediate attention. Let’s take a look at the Matrix.
  • Quadrant I activities are those that are classified as important and urgent. You must spend time in Quadrant I. However, it is important to realize that many important activities become urgent through procrastination or lack of preparation, planning, delegation, or follow-up. Quadrant II activities are classified as important but not urgent. The caveat with Quadrant II activities is there is no sense of urgency; therefore, if we don’t actively make a decision to do them, they won’t get done unless urgency moves them into Quadrant I. Quadrant III activities are classified as not important but urgent. The urgency of Quadrant III activities is often based on other people’s sense of urgency rather than the urgency of mission-related activities. They are things that have to be done immediately but do not fall into our vision or goal focus. The activities in Quadrant IV are not important and not urgent. Quite often we find that much of our time is spend in QI putting out fires and crises that we spend time on Quadrant IV activities to escape the pace and pressure of the day. All four of the quadrants in the matrix are important and they all serve a purpose. There will always be time spent in all four; however, the goal of effective time management is to spend the majority of your time in Quadrant II . Perhaps most importantly for a new leader, this matrix will help you to create more time for key Quadrant II leadership activities including coaching and developing your employees. The things that are hardly ever urgent but always the most important to overall organizational success. SPEAKERS NOTES : Refer to Time Management Matrix Exercise (2 sheets)
  • Here are some time mgmt tips: To manage your time effectively: Plan and organize your day and week … Remember the old adage “ Failing to Plan …is Planning to Fail” Manage and control interruptions .
  • Here are some time mgmt tips: To manage your time effectively: Plan and organize your day and week … Remember the old adage “ Failing to Plan …is Planning to Fail” Manage and control interruptions .
  • Plan each day in as much detail as possible. Do this ideally at the end of the preceding day or the first thing at the beginning of your day. (Plan your week on a “big picture” basis making notes in your day-timer or desk calendar.) Make a daily to-do list of your objectives in order of priority. Use whatever system you prefer to record this list – handwritten, computerized, day-timer, blackberry. Cross out items as they are completed. Move items that cannot be done that day to another day in the week.
  • Batch routine tasks together – separate from your high priority tasks Break any large task or project into smaller pieces Work on priority or routine items during that time of day which matches your work habit preferences. For example, if you are a morning person and like to tackle tough assignments when you first start working, batch your priority and harder tasks in the morning hours. Do more routine tasks in the afternoon.
  • Handle each piece of paper or document only once if at all possible. Refer it on, file it, or discard it. (Another idea is to have a temporary hold until discarded file – keep a file, perhaps under your desk where you place documents you are not quite ready to discard. Last ones on top so it is chronological. If you have not needed the document in 3 months, discard it when you periodically review the stack.)
  • Handle each piece of paper or document only once if at all possible. Refer it on, file it, or discard it. (Another idea is to have a temporary hold until discarded file – keep a file, perhaps under your desk where you place documents you are not quite ready to discard. Last ones on top so it is chronological. If you have not needed the document in 3 months, discard it when you periodically review the stack.)
  • Delegate to others if appropriate and possible. Set aside uninterrupted blocks of time for difficult and lengthy project. Close your door, forward your calls to your phone mailbox, refrain from checking e-mails. Throughout the day review your objectives for that day and update or reprioritize.
  • Delegate to others if appropriate and possible. Set aside uninterrupted blocks of time for difficult and lengthy project. Close your door, forward your calls to your phone mailbox, refrain from checking e-mails. Throughout the day review your objectives for that day and update or reprioritize.
  • Give yourself a break or several breaks during the day. Get up and stretch, leave your desk for lunch. Getting away even for a few minutes from your work will help you return alert and refreshed. And Last but Not Least -- Maintain your work/life balance. Put family and other social activities on your daily and weekly lists. Avoid the habit of ignoring these constantly for work!
  • Unless you are awaiting an urgent message, check e-mails only at specified times during the day. When you have planned to devote a block of time to work on project, do not interrupt it by checking e-mails. Set up folders to save appropriate e-mails – possibly one folder for messages to review later and delete or respond to and another folder for reference/retention. (archive set-up) Touch each e-mail just once – same as for paper documents. Decide whether to delete, save to respond to later, save for reference or retention, or to respond to immediately.
  • Keep e-mails short – no more than 1-10 sentences. Communicate main point in first or second sentence. After two rounds of trying to solve a problem via e-mail, use phone or talk in person. If you can’t respond immediately, let the other party know when you can if you can’t respond to avoid repeat messages
  • Just as we spend so much effort managing money, so must we spend equivalent effort managing time. Has anyone ever heard of summarizing what a meeting accomplished and what action plans came out of it. If every attendee was able to focus on that at every meeting our meetings would be much more productive…Don’t you think? So avoid the two major time wasters… unproductive and unnecessary meetings and e-mail overload
  • Just as we spend so much effort managing money, so must we spend equivalent effort managing time. Has anyone ever heard of summarizing what a meeting accomplished and what action plans came out of it. If every attendee was able to focus on that at every meeting our meetings would be much more productive…Don’t you think? So avoid the two major time wasters… unproductive and unnecessary meetings and e-mail overload
  • (Use Flip Chart) We waste time due to factors beyond our control but also due to factors within our control . SPEAKERS NOTES : Complete the worksheet What are some factors within our control? Beyond our control… Interruptions – phone calls, questions from coworkers and customers Computer and other equipment problems Holding and attending unnecessary and unproductive meetings Staffing shortages – covering for absent coworkers Unplanned work and changed priorities Within our control… Lack of good planning and organization, failing to set and maintain priorities, losing focus on task at hand – jumping from project to project without completing any Holding and attending unnecessary and unproductive meetings Spending too much time on phone calls, e-mails and the internet Procrastinating until a project becomes urgent Inability to say “No” when appropriate – taking on too much Failure to delegate when possible Socializing too much SPEAKERS NOTES : Refer to handout/HR Morning “How co-workers can make each other nuts-9 Step Plan”
  • (Use Flip Chart) We waste time due to factors beyond our control but also due to factors within our control . Who can name some factors beyond our control…? Can someone write them on the flip chart for us? What are some factors within our control? Beyond our control… Interruptions – phone calls, questions from coworkers and customers Computer and other equipment problems Holding and attending unnecessary and unproductive meetings Staffing shortages – covering for absent coworkers Unplanned work and changed priorities Within our control… Lack of good planning and organization, failing to set and maintain priorities, losing focus on task at hand – jumping from project to project without completing any Holding and attending unnecessary and unproductive meetings Spending too much time on phone calls, e-mails and the internet Procrastinating until a project becomes urgent Inability to say “No” when appropriate – taking on too much Failure to delegate when possible Socializing too much
  • No longer are technical skills enough to sustain you in your new role. You now have employees with those skills. Therefore, it is time to learn how to coach and develop employees so you can motivate them to complete the necessary work. The skills that made you a great team player won’t necessarily make you a great supervisor. It’s not enough to keep yourself motivated — you have to be a coach and a cheerleader, and you have to deal with people who have bad days, interpersonal conflicts, and skill deficiencies.
  • QUOTE “The opportunity to guide others to their fullest potential is an honor and one that should not be taken lightly. As leaders, we hold the lives of others in our hands. These hands need to be gentle and caring and always available for support.” -Ken Blanchard
  • Even though you want to be fair and consistent as a manager you can’t manage everyone the same way. How you manage someone depends on the employee and the situation. Two key questions are: What is their motivation? And What is their skill? Situational Leadership is a process for developing people by providing effective leadership over time so that they can reach their highest level of performance. It is based on a relationship between their development level on a specific goal or task and the leadership style the leader provides. The Development Level consists of various combinations of competence and commitment on the part of the employee. The Leadership Style depends on various combinations of directive and supportive behavior by the leader or coach.
  • Even though you want to be fair and consistent as a manager you can’t manage everyone the same way. How you manage someone depends on the employee and the situation. Two key questions are: What is their motivation? And What is their skill? Situational Leadership is a process for developing people by providing effective leadership over time so that they can reach their highest level of performance. It is based on a relationship between their development level on a specific goal or task and the leadership style the leader provides. The Development Level consists of various combinations of competence and commitment on the part of the employee. The Leadership Style depends on various combinations of directive and supportive behavior by the leader or coach.
  • The Situational Coach (leader) provides direction and support for individual employees. They are guided through the development stages (D1 – D4). D1 = If they are a new employee they have a low competence level and a high commitment level for their new job. Granted not all employees are new to the task. They may come in to the process at a different level. Usually D1 or D2 for any new task. D2 = Next they realize how much they don’t know and their commitment level drops. This level is crucial for them to get coaching through to the next level to avoid turnover. D3 = Now they are becoming more competent and their commitment is improving again with their confidence level. We are able to ease up on the coaching and support as we give more direction and guidance and less nurturing. D4 = finally they have achieved a high competence level combined with a high commitment level. Just keep tabs on them and keep communicating but very little coaching is needed, if any. Just occasional direction. As the developmental level changes the leaders style must change. How do we do that? Are we chameleons? Let’s move on to a better understanding of how we do that. SPEAKERS NOTES : Refer to handout Worksheet Grid in back of workbook
  • Remember the development level of the employee is a combination of the two factors we discussed, competence and commitment. Also, we need to remember that this cycle is all task or goal specific. Once the task is complete or the goal is achieved this cycle may start all over again. Here is a good analogy. Has anyone ever taught their children to ride a bike? It is very hands on at first but before you know it they are off on their own. He next thing you know you are teaching them to drive a car. New task or goal…new cycle of development.
  • Once again when you’re at the D1 level (the enthusiastic beginner) and you are at a low competence and high commitment level you are Hopeful, Curious, New, Unskilled, Excited, Eager and Not Experienced. D2s (The disillusioned learners) Where are they with their competence and commitment ? ( low to some competence/low commitment ) So their characteristics are; Overwhelmed, Confused, De-motivated, Frustrated, Disillusioned, may have Flashes of Competence, Discouraged. This is why it is so crucial to be fully supportive at this level. We don’t want them to leave before we get them to a level D4, do we? The task may not be what they expected…they may be letdown. D3 (capable but cautious performer) is more competent and more committed but not quite there yet. This is where we begin to back off and let them develop on their own more but we still have to be there with some coaching but moving toward just giving direction. if individuals overcome the disillusionment stage and acquire the skills they need, most will then go through periods of self-doubt where they question whether they can perform the task well on their own. They tend to still have self-doubt and be Self-critical, Cautious, Doubtful, Capable, Contributing, Insecure, Tentative and maybe a bit Bored if they are advancing well. Finally, D4s (self-reliant achievers) are Justifiably Confident, Consistent, Inspired, Inspiring, Expert, Autonomous, Self-assured, Accomplished. Yeah! We’ve worked hard to get them there, right? Some people can jump in at different levels. They don’t always start at the D1 level. Competence is based on their ability to plan, organize, problem solve and communicate well. On the other hand their commitment is based on their motivation and confidence.
  • When matching your leadership style to their development level remember Your style is a pattern of behavior used to influence others. It is Directive behavior that c oncentrates on the what and the how - What to do, how to do it, when to do it, monitoring performance and providing frequent feedback Or it is Supportive behavior Focusing on developing commitment and initiative. This is when we relate to them with Positive attitudes, feelings, listening, encouragment and (extremely important) involving them in decision-making Why involve them in decision making (ownership, buy-in, developing commitment)
  • When matching your leadership style to their development level remember Your style is a pattern of behavior used to influence others. It is Directive behavior that c oncentrates on the what and the how - What to do, how to do it, when to do it, monitoring performance and providing frequent feedback Or it is Supportive behavior Focusing on developing commitment and initiative. This is when we relate to them with Positive attitudes, feelings, listening, encouragment and (extremely important) involving them in decision-making Why involve them in decision making (ownership, buy-in, developing commitment)
  • There are 5 keys words you need to know for both Supportive and Directive Leadership Behavior. Directive behavior involves telling and showing people. It develops competence in others. The 5 Key words for Directive Leadership Behavior are Teach – teach them what to do Organize – show how by example Structure – provide the structure in their daily routine, when Supervise – monitor them and how they are doing Evaluate – provide them with feedback
  • 5 Key words for Directive Leadership Behavior Teach Organize Structure Supervise Evaluate
  • 5 Key words for Directive Leadership Behavior Teach Organize Structure Supervise Evaluate
  • 5 Key words for Directive Leadership Behavior Teach Organize Structure Supervise Evaluate
  • 5 Key words for Directive Leadership Behavior Teach Organize Structure Supervise Evaluate
  • 5 Key words for Directive Leadership Behavior Teach Organize Structure Supervise Evaluate
  • 5 Key words for Directive Leadership Behavior Teach Organize Structure Supervise Evaluate
  • Supportive behavior focuses on developing attitudes toward the goal or task. 5 Key words for Supportive Leadership Behavior Ask (for input) - involving others in the decision making process Listen – listen good to what they tell you (active listening) Explain (why) - so they understand your reasoning or the tribal policy Encourage – as much as possible without being phony Facilitate - (facilitating self-reliant problem solving)
  • 5 Key words for Supportive Leadership Behavior Ask for input Listen Explain Encourage Facilitate
  • 5 Key words for Supportive Leadership Behavior Ask Listen Explain Encourage Facilitate
  • 5 Key words for Supportive Leadership Behavior Ask Listen Explain (why) Encourage Facilitate
  • 5 Key words for Supportive Leadership Behavior Ask Listen Explain Encourage Facilitate
  • 5 Key words for Supportive Leadership Behavior Ask Listen Explain Encourage Facilitate (problem solve)
  • 5 Key words for Supportive Leadership Behavior Ask Listen Explain Encourage Facilitate
  • These four styles of coaching vary in the amount of direction and support the coach gives; and varies in the employee’s involvement in decision-making. S1 – Directing: there is high directive and low supportive behavior. The coach provides specific instruction and closely supervises performance. Most decisions are made by coach. S2 – Coaching: there is high directive and high supportive behavior. Coach explains decisions, solicits suggestions, praises progress, and continues to direct task accomplishment. Input from the employee is considered, although final decisions are made by the coach. S3 – Supporting: there is low directive behavior and high supportive behavior. The coach listens, encourages, and facilitates self reliant decision-making and problem solving. S4 – Delegating: there is low directive, low supportive behavior. The coach empowers the employee to act independently and provides the appropriate resources to get the job done. Most decisions are made by the employee Speaker’s Notes : Show the flow of the curve an employee moves through in development as they go from S1 through S2 and S3 and back down through S4. Another worksheet grid in back of workbook
  • SPEAKER NOTES : Blank Worksheet Grid provided in back of workbook S1 – In S1 the coach provides specific instruction and closely supervises performance. Most decisions are made by the leader. Characteristic behaviors are Defining, Planning, Orienting, Teaching, Checking, Giving, Feedback S2 – In S2 the coach explains decisions, solicits suggestions, praises progress and continues to direct task accomplishment. Input from the individual is considered, although final decisions are made by the leader. Not too controlling. Exploring, Asking, Explaining, Redirecting, Encouraging, Praising, Sharing, Feedback S3 – In the S3 stage, The coach listens, encourages and facilitates self-reliant decision-making and problem solving. Asking, Listening, Reassuring, Collaborating, Appreciating, Encouraging, Feedback S4 – In the S4 stage the coach empowers the individual to act independently and provides the appropriate resources to get the job done. Most decisions are now made by the individual. Allowing, Trusting, Confirming, Empowering, Acknowledge, Challenging We need to realize that if someone slips back into a previous stage, possibly due to family crisis or major work changes around them you need to adjust your style to fit…be more supportive, etc. this is a regression cycle. Your job is to be aware and bring them back through the stages again. Coaching and supervising is about adjusting our style to the circumstances surrounding us and to our employees’ needs. It is all about partnerships and good relationships with your employees. SPEAKER NOTES : Practice Exercise “ Diagnosis –The case of the bright, promotable supervisor”
  • Coaching is a significant role as a supervisor. You will spend a considerable amount of time interacting with your employees . Coaching is a critical role to a supervisor when you consider three basic truths: As a supervisor, your job is to get things done through other people. 2) You need your employees more than they need you. After all, they are the ones performing the day to day tasks. 3) Supervisors are evaluated on their ability to achieve results through the efforts of their employees . A successful coach is able to drive employee behavior, which drives performance and ultimately impacts business results for the tribe.
  • Coaching is a significant role as a supervisor. You will spend a considerable amount of time interacting with your employees . Coaching is a critical role to a supervisor when you consider three basic truths: As a supervisor, your job is to get things done through other people. 2) You need your employees more than they need you. After all, they are the ones performing the day to day tasks. 3) Supervisors are evaluated on their ability to achieve results through the efforts of your employee s. A successful coach is able to drive employee behavior, which drives performance and ultimately impacts business results for the tribe.
  • Coaching is the ability to bring out the best in people — all day, everyday. Leaders who are good coaches will do everything in their power to help their employees be successful. Too often, coaching is reserved for those employees who are performing below expectations. Effective leaders will coach all their employees regardless of performance. They will coach their strong performers to leverage their skills and talents. They will coach their steady performers to ensure their performance continues to meet expectations, and they will coach poor performers to bring their performance up to the standards.
  • Coaching is a process, not a one time event. Coaching can happen spontaneously or formally through a coaching session. There are three stages to a formal coaching that ensure a valuable experience for both the leader and employee. The stages of a formal coaching session are: pre- planning , the coach ing session, and the post-coaching session.
  • Prior to having a coaching session with an employee, it is necessary to do some pre planning. Pre Planning activities include: Plan objectives — prior to taking both your time and your employee’s time it is important to have a clear understanding of what objectives you have for the coaching session. Determine goals — when you determine the goals of a coaching session, you are creating a skeleton of what success will look like. List the specific goals you want to accomplish with the employee. Document specific examples — regardless if your coaching session is meant to improve performance or stretch a strong performer, it is important to provide specific examples to the employee. Also, document the specific behaviors the employee has demonstrated, both positive and negative, to help them understand what is going well and what needs improvement. Schedule the session — spontaneous coaching happens at the moment you see or hear the employee demonstrate a certain behavior. Formal coaching is structured and warrants a scheduled session. When scheduling the session, remember to choose a private location with minimal interruptions.
  • Once you have completed the pre planning activities, you are ready to conduct the coaching session. During the coaching session, the following actions should be taken. Explain the purpose — don’t make the employee wonder why you have decided to meet with him or her. Instead, explain right up front the purpose for the coaching session and the objectives you have. Describe the impact — describe the impact the employee’s behavior is making (whether positive or negative). Be specific so they know exactly what behavior should be repeated (if positive) and what behavior needs to stop (if negative). Provide next steps — provide the them with the next steps needed for success. What specifically do you want them to do? Ask for specific actions — based on the next steps, ask them for specific actions that will be taken. Empower the employee by allowing him or her to create the action items. Get their buy-in so they take ownership. Create a timeline — to ensure accountability for completing the action items, create a timeline with the employee so both parties are clear when action items are due. The timeline should be realistic yet challenging. Gain commitment — it is important to gain the commitment of the employee at the end of the coaching session. Reiterate the key points from the session and gain their commitment in regards to the action items and timeline. This will increase the likelihood they will feel ownership toward the items. Provide praise and recognition — end the coaching session on a positive note by providing praise and recognition to the employee. This can be something as simple as praising them for accepting the challenge presented in the coaching session.
  • Even after the coaching session, the work of a coach is not complete. There are several steps a coach should take to ensure the success of the employee. Monitor outcomes — this includes the ongoing observation, review, and analysis of the action items that were developed in the coaching session. Monitoring outcomes may also include adjusting or reviewing the coaching strategy with your employee. Reinforce — it is important to reinforce the impact and importance of the action items with them as well. A gentle reminder of the commitment they made and the accountability to follow through may ensure success. Assist — as the coach your role is to assist your employee as needed. Set them up for success by providing direction and feedback when needed. However, assisting does not mean you complete the work for them. Re-evaluate — depending on the purpose of the coaching session, it may be necessary to re-evaluate the employee’s progress. If you choose to re-evaluate provide them with a date and time. ARTICLE: Refer to Coaching for Improved Performance! (in back of workbook)
  • Depending on the academic source, there are between three and thirteen types of intelligence. However, there are three primary learning styles and subcategories within those styles. The primary learning styles are: SPEAKER’S NOTES: Exercise #2 Adults Learn Best When
  • Depending on the academic source, there are between three and thirteen types of intelligence. However, there are three primary learning styles and subcategories within those styles. The primary learning styles are: Auditory — auditory learners learn best when they are able to listen or hear instructions. This may include discussing abstract concepts or theories, attending lectures, and doing case studies. 22% of people learn this way. Visual — visual learners learn best when they are able to read or see instructions through means such as images and observing others through demonstration and videos. 29% of people learn this way. Kinesthetic — kinesthetic learners learn best when they are able to touch or have hands-on practice through means such as role playing and other experiential activities. 10% of people learn this way. That’s only 61%...The rest of us learn by combinations of any of the above methods. As a coach, it is your responsibility to create an environment that appeals to the employees’ learning style. If you are unable to identify the learning style, take a blended approach and design your coaching session intentionally to incorporate elements from all of the learning styles. SPEAKER’S NOTES: Exercise #2 Adults Learn Best When
  • While operating in your role as a supervisor and taking on the additional responsibilities of leadership, such as coaching and mentoring, there is an underlying skill that will lend itself to your success. That skill is active listening.
  • Active listening, according to Steven Covey, means to “seek first to understand , and then to be understood .” Active listening is the ability to understand what is happening behind what is being said.
  • Active listening, according to Steven Covey, means to “seek first to understand , and then to be understood .” Active listening is the ability to understand what is happening behind what is being said.
  • There are four steps to active listening. Step 1: Paraphrase — When you paraphrase, you repeat back to the speaker a summary of what was said. Step 2: Ask questions — Ask the speaker questions as a way to invite the speaker to elaborate on his or her ideas. Step 3: Use “I” statements — Using “I” statements places the burden of understanding on you rather than on the speaker. Saying to someone, “You’re not making any sense” will likely cause defensiveness. Instead, say “I’m a little confused, could clarify this for me?” Step 4: Monitor body language — Be aware of your body language and the non-verbal message you are sending. Use body language that conveys friendliness, openness, and interest. Monitor
  • What are four steps to active listening again?
  • There are four steps to active listening. Step 1: Paraphrase — When you paraphrase, you repeat back to the speaker a summary of what was said. Step 2: Ask questions — Ask the speaker questions as a way to invite the speaker to elaborate on his or her ideas. Step 3: Use “I” statements — Using “I” statements places the burden of understanding on you rather than on the speaker. Saying to someone, “You’re not making any sense” will likely cause defensiveness. Instead, say “I’m a little confused, could clarify this for me?” Step 4: Monitor body language — Be aware of your body language and the non-verbal message you are sending. Use body language that conveys friendliness, openness, and interest. Monitor
  • There are four steps to active listening. Step 1: Paraphrase — When you paraphrase, you repeat back to the speaker a summary of what was said. Step 2: Ask questions — Ask the speaker questions as a way to invite the speaker to elaborate on his or her ideas. Step 3: Use “I” statements — Using “I” statements places the burden of understanding on you rather than on the speaker. Saying to someone, “You’re not making any sense” will likely cause defensiveness. Instead, say “I’m a little confused, could clarify this for me?” Step 4: Monitor body language — Be aware of your body language and the non-verbal message you are sending. Use body language that conveys friendliness, openness, and interest. Monitor
  • There are four steps to active listening. Step 1: Paraphrase — When you paraphrase, you repeat back to the speaker a summary of what was said. Step 2: Ask questions — Ask the speaker questions as a way to invite the speaker to elaborate on his or her ideas. Step 3: Use “I” statements — Using “I” statements places the burden of understanding on you rather than on the speaker. Saying to someone, “You’re not making any sense” will likely cause defensiveness. Instead, say “I’m a little confused, could clarify this for me?” Step 4: Monitor body language — Be aware of your body language and the non-verbal message you are sending. Use body language that conveys friendliness, openness, and interest. Monitor
  • There are four steps to active listening. Step 1: Paraphrase — When you paraphrase, you repeat back to the speaker a summary of what was said. Step 2: Ask questions — Ask the speaker questions as a way to invite the speaker to elaborate on his or her ideas. Step 3: Use “I” statements — Using “I” statements places the burden of understanding on you rather than on the speaker. Saying to someone, “You’re not making any sense” will likely cause defensiveness. Instead, say “I’m a little confused, could clarify this for me?” Step 4: Monitor body language — Be aware of your body language and the non-verbal message you are sending. Use body language that conveys friendliness, openness, and interest. Monitor
  • There are several barriers that interfere with our ability to practice active listening. These barriers include: Mind reading — This is when you make assumptions or jump to conclusions about what the speaker is thinking or saying. When this happens your focus shifts away from paying attention to what is being said. Interrupting — Active listening requires you to give your time and undivided attention to the speaker. Individuals who interrupt are often more worried about what they are going to say than the message being sent. Rehearsing — You are rehearsing when your energy and attention are focused on what you are going to say next, instead of what the speaker is saying. Filtering — Filtering is listening to only what you want to hear and ignoring the rest of the conversation. Speaker’s Notes : REVISIT Active Listening… Complete worksheet in workbook.
  • What are four steps to active listening again? Complete the worksheet in your workbook. Can you do it without looking back?
  • Supervisory Skills

    1. 1. Supervisory Skills for Supervisors Washoe Tribe of Nevada & California
    2. 2. Course Content <ul><li>Key areas of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Time management for supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and developing employees </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening </li></ul>
    3. 3. “ Respondeat Superior” <ul><li>Legal theory </li></ul><ul><li>“Let the Master answer” </li></ul>
    4. 4. Key areas of responsibility <ul><li>Unfairness / Harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline / Termination </li></ul><ul><li>Wage and Hour Issues </li></ul>
    5. 5. Key areas of responsibility <ul><li>Family & Medical Leave (FMLA) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety / Injury reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership / Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace Violence / Security </li></ul>Communication and leadership skills are key skills that must be _________ and ____________ .
    6. 6. Key areas of responsibility <ul><li>Family & Medical Leave (FMLA) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety / Injury reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership / Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace Violence / Security </li></ul>Communication and leadership skills are key skills that must be learned and developed .
    7. 7. Transition to Leadership <ul><li>Managers ____________, leaders ______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Doing the right things and knowing what those are can be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Change in relationships and interactions </li></ul>
    8. 8. Transition to Leadership <ul><li>Managers do things right , leaders do the right things . </li></ul><ul><li>Doing the right things and knowing what those are can be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Change in relationships and interactions </li></ul>
    9. 9. Time Management Overview <ul><li>Method for time and resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Better manage yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul>
    10. 10. Time Management Matrix <ul><li>Washoe Tribe Vision statement clarifies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is most important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What gives the organization meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose for being </li></ul></ul><ul><li>________ activities support our vision, values and department goals </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are ______ if you or others feel they require immediate attention </li></ul>
    11. 11. Time Management Matrix <ul><li>Washoe Tribe Vision statement clarifies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is most important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What gives the organization meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose for being </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important activities support our vision, values and department goals </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are Urgent if you or others feel they require immediate attention </li></ul>
    12. 12. Time Management Matrix Important Not Important I II III IV <ul><li>ACTIVITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Some interruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Some phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Some meetings </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Production capability activities </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship building </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and developing </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Crises </li></ul><ul><li>Pressing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Deadline driven projects </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Busy work </li></ul><ul><li>Junk mail </li></ul><ul><li>Some phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Time wasters </li></ul><ul><li>Personal emails </li></ul>Not Urgent Urgent
    13. 13. Tips for Effective Time Management <ul><li>To manage your time effectively: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan and organize your day and week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failing to ____…is __________ to Fail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage and control __________________. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Tips for Effective Time Management <ul><li>To manage your time effectively: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan and organize your day and week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failing to Plan …is Planning to Fail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage and control interruptions . </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Tips for Effective Time Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Plan each day in as much detail as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a daily to-do list of your objectives in order of priority. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Tips for Effective Time Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Batch routine tasks together </li></ul><ul><li>Break large tasks into smaller pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Match task types to preferred day-part </li></ul>
    17. 17. Tips for Effective Time Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Handle each piece of paper or document ______ ______ if at all possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer it on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discard it </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Tips for Effective Time Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Handle each piece of paper or document only once if at all possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer it on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discard it </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Tips for Effective Time Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Set aside __________ blocks of time </li></ul><ul><li>Review your objectives each day </li></ul>
    20. 20. Tips for Effective Time Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Set aside uninterrupted blocks of time </li></ul><ul><li>Review your objectives each day </li></ul>
    21. 21. Tips for Effective Time Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Give yourself a break </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain your work/life balance </li></ul>
    22. 22. Tips for Effective E-Mail Management <ul><li>Check e-mails only at specified times during the day </li></ul><ul><li>Set up folders to save appropriate e-mails </li></ul><ul><li>Touch each e-mail just once </li></ul>
    23. 23. Tips for Effective E-Mail Management (cont’d) <ul><li>Keep e-mails short </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2 tries via e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>If you can’t respond, let the other party know </li></ul>
    24. 24. Time Wasters <ul><li>Avoid two major challenges to effective time management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un_____________ and unnecessary meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-______ overload </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Time Wasters <ul><li>Avoid two major challenges to effective time management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un productive and unnecessary meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e- mail overload </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Time Wasters <ul><li>We waste time due to factors ______ ____ _____ but also due to factors _____ ___ _____ . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>beyond our control? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>within our control? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Time Wasters <ul><li>We waste time due to factors beyond our control but also due to factors within our control . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>beyond our control? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>within our control? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Coaching and Developing Employees
    29. 29. Quote “ The opportunity to guide others to their fullest potential is an honor and one that should not be taken lightly. As leaders, we hold the lives of others in our hands. These hands need to be gentle and caring and always available for support.” -Ken Blanchard
    30. 30. Managing with Flexibility Situational Leader <ul><li>Even though you want to be ____ and _________ as a manager you can’t manage everyone the same. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is their motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is their skill? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We try to develop people over time and help them reach their highest level of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is all about the relationship between ____________ level of employee and ______ used by the leader. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Managing with Flexibility Situational Leader <ul><li>Even though you want to be fair and consistent as a manager you can’t manage everyone the same. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is their motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is their skill? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We try to develop people over time and help them reach their highest level of performance </li></ul><ul><li>It is all about the relationship between development level of employee and style used by the leader </li></ul>
    32. 32. Determining Development Level Situational Coaching High Commitment Variable Commitment Low Commitment High Commitment High Competence Moderate to High Competence Low to Some Competence Low Competence D4 Self-Reliant Achiever D3 Capable Cautious Performer D2 Disillusioned Learner D1 Enthusiastic Beginner
    33. 33. Determining Development Level Situational Coaching High Commitment Variable Commitment Low Commitment High Commitment High Competence Moderate to High Competence Low to Some Competence Low Competence D4 Self-Reliant Achiever D3 Capable Cautious Performer D2 Disillusioned Learner D1 Enthusiastic Beginner
    34. 34. Determining Development Level Situational Coaching Confident Consistent Inspired Inspiring Expert Autonomous Self-assured Accomplished Self-directed Self-critical Cautious Doubtful Capable Contributing Insecure Tentative Bored Self-doubt Overwhelmed Confused De-motivated Frustrated Disillusioned Flashes of Competence Discouraged Hopeful Curious New Unskilled Excited Eager Not Experienced Optimistic D4 Self-Reliant Achiever D3 Capable Cautious Performer D2 Disillusioned Learner D1 Enthusiastic Beginner
    35. 35. Matching Coaching Style to Development Level <ul><li>Your style is a pattern of </li></ul><ul><li>behavior used to influence </li></ul><ul><li>others… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>___________ behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrates on what and how </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do, how to do it, when to do it, monitoring performance and providing frequent feedback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>___________ behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on developing commitment and initiative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attitudes, feelings, listening, encouraging and involving others in decision-making </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Matching Coaching Style to Development Level <ul><li>Your style is a pattern of </li></ul><ul><li>behavior used to influence </li></ul><ul><li>others… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrates on what and how </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do, how to do it, when to do it, monitoring performance and providing frequent feedback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on developing commitment and initiative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attitudes, feelings, listening, encouraging and involving others in decision-making </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. 5 Keys for Directive Behavior Evaluate Supervise Structure Organize Teach
    38. 38. 5 Keys for Directive Behavior
    39. 39. 5 Keys for Directive Behavior Teach
    40. 40. 5 Keys for Directive Behavior Organize Teach
    41. 41. 5 Keys for Directive Behavior Structure Organize Teach
    42. 42. 5 Keys for Directive Behavior Supervise Structure Organize Teach
    43. 43. 5 Keys for Directive Behavior Evaluate Supervise Structure Organize Teach
    44. 44. 5 Keys for Supportive Behavior Facilitate (problem solve) Encourage Explain Listen Ask
    45. 45. 5 Keys for Supportive Behavior
    46. 46. 5 Keys for Supportive Behavior Ask
    47. 47. 5 Keys for Supportive Behavior Listen Ask
    48. 48. 5 Keys for Supportive Behavior Explain Listen Ask
    49. 49. 5 Keys for Supportive Behavior Encourage Explain Listen Ask
    50. 50. 5 Keys for Supportive Behavior Facilitate (problem solve) Encourage Explain Listen Ask
    51. 51. Developmental Coaching High Low Low High Supportive Behavior Directive Behavior Supporting Coaching Delegating Directing S1 S4 S2 S3
    52. 52. Developmental Coaching Development Behaviors Allowing Trusting Confirming Empowering Acknowledge Challenging Asking Listening Reassuring Collaborating Appreciating Encouraging Feedback Exploring Asking Explaining Redirecting Encouraging Praising Sharing Feedback Defining Planning Orienting Teaching Checking Giving Feedback S4 Delegating S3 Supporting S2 Coaching S1 Directing
    53. 53. Why Coach? <ul><li>Your job is to get things done through other people </li></ul><ul><li>You need your employees more than they need you </li></ul><ul><li>____________ s are evaluated on their ability to achieve results through </li></ul><ul><li>the efforts of </li></ul><ul><li>their ____________ s </li></ul>
    54. 54. Why Coach? <ul><li>Your job is to get things done through other people </li></ul><ul><li>You need your employees more than they need you </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor s are evaluated on their ability to achieve results through </li></ul><ul><li>the efforts of </li></ul><ul><li>their employee s </li></ul>
    55. 55. What is Coaching? <ul><li>Ability to bring out the best in people—all day, everyday </li></ul><ul><li>Effective leaders coach all employees regardless of performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong performers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steady performers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor performers </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Coaching is… <ul><li>A process—not a one time event </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous or formal </li></ul><ul><li>Formal coaching process includes… </li></ul><ul><li>Three (3) Stages: </li></ul>Pre- Planning Coaching Session Post Session
    57. 57. Pre- Planning <ul><li>Plan objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Determine goals </li></ul><ul><li>Document specific examples </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule the session </li></ul>Coaching Session Post Session
    58. 58. Pre- Planning Coaching Session Post Session <ul><li>Plan objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Determine goals </li></ul><ul><li>Document specific examples </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule the session </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the impact </li></ul><ul><li>Provide next steps </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for specific actions </li></ul><ul><li>Create a timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Gain commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide praise and recognition </li></ul>
    59. 59. Pre- Planning Coaching Session Post Session <ul><li>Plan objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Determine goals </li></ul><ul><li>Document specific examples </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule the session </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the impact </li></ul><ul><li>Provide next steps </li></ul><ul><li>Create a timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Gain commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide praise and recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce </li></ul><ul><li>Assist </li></ul><ul><li>Re-evaluate </li></ul>
    60. 60. Primary Learning Styles <ul><li>A__________ </li></ul><ul><li>V_______ </li></ul><ul><li>K____________ </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know?—take a _________ approach </li></ul>
    61. 61. Primary Learning Styles <ul><li>A uditory </li></ul><ul><li>V isual </li></ul><ul><li>K inesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know?—take a blended approach </li></ul>
    62. 62. Active Listening
    63. 63. Active Listening Means… “ Seek first to _____________ , then to be _____________ .” Stephen R. Covey
    64. 64. Active Listening Means… “ Seek first to understand , then to be understood .” Stephen R. Covey
    65. 65. 4 Steps to Active Listening Step 4— Monitor body language Step 3— Use “I” statements Step 2— Ask questions Step 1— Paraphrase
    66. 66. 4 Steps to Active Listening Step 4— Step 3— Step 2— Step 1—
    67. 67. 4 Steps to Active Listening Step 4— Step 3— Step 2— Step 1— Paraphrase
    68. 68. 4 Steps to Active Listening Step 4— Step 3— Step 2— Ask questions Step 1— Paraphrase
    69. 69. 4 Steps to Active Listening Step 4— Step 3— Use “I” statements Step 2— Ask questions Step 1— Paraphrase
    70. 70. 4 Steps to Active Listening Step 4— Monitor body language Step 3— Use “I” statements Step 2— Ask questions Step 1— Paraphrase
    71. 71. Barriers to Active Listening <ul><li>Mind reading </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsing </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering </li></ul>
    72. 72. 4 Steps to Active Listening Step 4— Step 3— Step 2— Step 1—
    73. 73. <ul><li>Please be sure to complete and leave the evaluation sheet you received with your handouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your attention and interest! </li></ul>

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