EDP332: Assignment 2.2 - Needs, Task and Learner Analysis By: Jake Gordon
Task Analysis and
By: Jake Gordon
• Instruction is motivated by a need for change
• Externally motivated: i.e. the need to meet a
particular standard in education or train
workers in a specific skill
• Internally motivated: i.e. address a problem or
increase learners understanding of a subject
Guiding Questions for a
• Some important questions are:
• What is the change being
• Who is being asked to change (target learners)?
• What is currently being done?
• Where will this change need to take place?
• What is the timeline for change?
Formal vs. Informal
• Formal Needs Analysis involves gathering information from
multiple sources and gathering information in multiple ways
including: interviews, observations, reviewing materials, surveys,
• Informal Need Analysis: first-hand experience of the learning
Mager’s Approach to
• Heuristic to help instructional designers
determine what someone is currently doing
and what they need to be doing
• Provides a flow chart for conducting analysis
and provides a guide to key questions
Morrison, Ross and Kemp’s “Needs
• A flow chart for conducting performance.
• Provides a more technical plans for conducting a
needs assessment .
• 4 phases: Planning, Collecting Data, Analyzing the
Data, Preparing final report.
• They also have two other Needs Analysis
methods: Goal Analysis and Performance
Assessment examines whether the performance
can should be remedied for instruction
• Systematic process used by instructional
designers to determine what a learner needs
to learn or accomplish by participating in
Different Models of Task
• Content analysis
• Subject matter analysis
• Learning task analysis
Morrison, Ross and
Kemp on Task Analysis
• Defines the content requires to solve the
performance problem or alleviate a
• Forces the educator to work through the
individual students and identify subtle steps
• Forces the designer to view the content from
the learners’ perspective
Dick & Carey on Task
• The process of identifying the skills and
knowledge that should be included in
• What exactly would learners be doing if they
were demonstrating that they already could
perform the goal?
What Should Task
• What is the task that a learner needs to be able to accomplish or
• What are they key components of this task (what are the skills
and knowledge learner needs in order to complete or perform
• How will you determine whether a learner is able to complete the
• Learner analysis is understanding the target
learners and determining in advance what they
can and will do is an essential part of any
• Instructional designers and educators must
conduct evaluation for a group of learners
Different Approaches to
• Dick & Carey
• Smith and Ragan
Learner Analysis for
• Who are the intended learners for the instruction?
• What common traits do members in the learning group possess?
• What are the differences among the learners?
• What are the achievements and general ability levels of the learners?
• How do the learners feel about the organization/institution providing the