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Edp111c z2-001

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  • 1. Computer
  • 2. What is a Computer?
    A computer is an electronic device that helps people perform different tasks.
    Computers range in size, type, shape and ability.
  • 3. Where can we find computers?
    Cash registers
    Gas pumps
    Cameras
    Cars
    Stereos
    Toys
    Etc.
  • 4. Four types of Computers
    There are many different types of computers to meet our different needs. They are of different sizes, with different capabilities, for different purposes. Some are portable for ease of travel, while others are large enough to handle great amount of data and information.
    1. Microcomputer
    2. Mini Computers
    3. Mainframe Computers
    4. Supercomputers
  • 5. MICROCOMPUTERS
    First appeared in late 1970s.
    Designed for individual use
    Used for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, running spreadsheets and database management applications
    Entertainment
    Apple II introduced in 1977 by Apple Computer was one of the first and most popular PC.
    In 1981, IBM PC introduced by IBM became the most popular computer choice of consumers.
  • 6. IBM PC
    Apple II PC
  • 7. 2 Classifications of Microcomputers
    1. Personal Computer or PC
    Popular because it is powerful, affordable and easy to use.
    Different sizes and design
    - Mini tower
    - Desktop
    - iMac
    2. Portable Computer
    Laptops, notebooks, sub-notebooks, tablet and personal digital assistants (PDA)
    Small and can operate in batteries
  • 8. Personal Computer or PC
    DESKTOP
  • 9. Personal Computer or PC
    MINI TOWER
  • 10. Personal Computer or PC
    iMAC
  • 11. Portable Computers - Uses a flat-panel display technology to produce lightweight and non-bulky display screen
    Laptop/Notebook
    Small and portable computer
    Sub-notebook
    Slightly lighter and smaller than a notebook
    Smaller keyboard and screen
    Equivalent in capacity
  • 12. Portable Computers
    LAPTOP
    NOTEBOOK
    SUBNOTEBOOK
    HANDHELD PC
    PocketPC
  • 13. Portable Computers
    PDA or Personal Digital Assistant
    Handheld device that combines computing, telephone/fax and networking features
    Typical PDA can function as a cellphone, fax sender and personal organizer
    Most PDAs began as pen-based, using a stylus rather than a keyboard for input
    Used handwriting and voice recognition features
    Modern PDAs used stylus or keyboard version
  • 14. PORTABLE: PDA
  • 15. Portable Computers
    Tablet PC
    Provides full power and functionality of today’s notebook PCs
    Lightweight and long life battery
    Use digital ink which allows the user to write a note on the screen in freehand
    Alan Kay of Xerox contributes the idea of tablet in 1971
    Newton of Apple Computer was the first widely-sold tablet computer
  • 16. PORTABLE: TABLET
  • 17. MINICOMPUTERS
    Midsized computer
    Lies between workstation and mainframe in terms of size and power
    Capable of multi-processing, supporting from 4 to 200 users simultaneously
    Ex. IBM’s AS/400e
  • 18. MINICOMPUTERS
    FLIPSTART
    DEC PDP-8
    AS/400
  • 19. MAINFRAME COMPUTER
    Very large and expensive computer
    Capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously
    In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because it can support more simultaneous programs but supercomputers can execute faster than a mainframe
    Ex. IBM 3090, Amdahl 5890
  • 20. MAINFRAME COMPUTER
    IBM 3090
    IBM 7094
    AMDAHL 5860
  • 21. SUPERCOMPUTERS
    Fastest type of computer
    Very expensive and are used for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations (weather forecasting, animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research and petroleum exploration)
  • 22. Top 5: Cray XT4 Jaguar
    Speed: 205 teraflops/sec (trillion)
    Runs on LINUX, AMD x86_64 Opteron Dual Core 2600 MHz processor
    The unit is stored at DOEs Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is the primary system in the National Leadership Computing Facilitation.
  • 23. Top 4: Sun SunBlade x6420 Ranger Cr
    Speed: 326 teraflops/sec (trillion)
    Runs on Linux and has a AMDx86_64 Opteron Quad Core 2000Mhz of processing power
    house at the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas Austin
    Used in science research
  • 24. Top 3: IBM BlueGene/P
    Speed: 450.3 teraflops/sec (trillion)
    stored at the DOEs Argonne National Laboratory
    operating system is CNK/SLES
    helpful for the science based research
  • 25. Top 2: IBM BlueGene/L
    • Speed: 478.2 teraflops/sec (trillion)
    • 26. 4,096 processor, used to simulate half a mouse brain
    • 27. used at DOEs Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California
    • 28. use in research in the form of science simulation
  • Top 1: IBM Roadrunner
    1.026 quadrillion calculations per second. The $133 million supercomputer achieved the milestone with the help of 12,960 "improved" Cell processors (yes, like those powering your PS3) and a smaller number of AMD Opteron processors
    116,640 processor cores in total. Speed: 1.026 petaflops/sec
    housed at U.S. Department of Energys Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico
    Use LINUX as its Operating System
    DOE plans to use the computer for simulating how nuclear materials age
  • 29. Laptop
  • 30. Notebook
  • 31. Main Frames
  • 32. Terminal
  • 33. CPU Case
  • 34. Power Chord
  • 35. Power Supply
  • 36. 3 Fundamental Elements of a Computer
    Work like a team to complete tasks
    1. System Unit
    2. Output Devices
    3. Input Devices
  • 37. System Unit
    The core of a computer responsible for processing and storing data and controls all computer functions
    It is where data are processed into information
    It works with peripheral devices
  • 38. System Unit
    System Case – a plastic and metal box that houses components such as the motherboard, disk drives, power supply and etc.
    System Case Types
    1. Desktop – designed to sit horizontally
    2. Tower – designed to sit vertically
    a. Full-tower case
    - used for PC servers
    - requires extra space for additional hard disks, interface cards and redundant power supply
    b. Midi-tower case
    - usually used for high-end user PCs
    -require extra devices and interface cards but not as
    many as a server
    c. Mini-tower case
    - used for office or home PCs
    - where additional internal devices and interface cards are
    limited
  • 39. FULL TOWER
    MINI TOWER
    MIDI TOWER
  • 40. Storage Devices (Memory) : 2 types of memory - Main / Primary - Secondary
    Main / Primary / RAM
    Closely connected to the processor
    Quickly and easily change, volatile
    Holds the programs and data that the processor is actively working with
    Interacts with the processor millions of times per second
    Types of RAM
    1. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) – constantly refreshed by the CPU or it will lose its contents
    2. Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) – synchronous by the system clock and is much faster than DRAM
    3. Static RAM (SRAM) – faster than any DRAM and will retain its contents w/o having to be refreshed by the CPU
    4. Rambus DRAM – faster and more expensive than SDRAM and is the type of memory used with Intel’s P4 chip
  • 41. DYNAMIC RAM
    SDRAM
  • 42. RAMBUS DRAM
    SRAM
  • 43. Ex.
    Floppy disk
    ZIP Disk
    SuperDisks
    HiFD Disk
    Flash Disk
    Memory Card
    Hard disk
    Optical disk
    Magnetic tape
    Secondary
    Slow compared to main memory
    Used for long-term storage of programs and data, non-volatile
  • 44. Secondary Storage
    1. Floppy Disk (1.44 MB) –also called as diskette or disk, is a removable flat piece of mylar plastic package in a 3.5-inch plastic case.
    8“ floppy disk (large floppy)
    5 ¼“ floppy disk (minifloppy)
    31/2” floppy disk (micro floppy)
    2. ZIP Disk (100 to 250 MB) – special disks that uses their own ZIP disk drive.
    3. SuperDisks (120 MB) – uses a SuperDisk Drive and can also read standard 1.44 MB floppy disk, which a ZIP drive cannot do.
    4. HiFD Disk (200 MB) – uses a HiFD drive and can also read standard 1.44 MB floppy disk.
    5. Flash Disk (128 MB to 16GB) – uses the USB
    6. Memory Card (16 MB – 2GB) – used in cameras, cellphones
  • 45. 8”, 5.25”, 3.5” floppy disks
    8”, 5.25”, 3.5” floppy disk drives
  • 46. ZIP DISK
    HiFD DISK
    SuperDISK
  • 47. FLASH DISK
    MEMORY CARD
  • 48. Hard Disk
    are made up of thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots.
    Nonremovable hard disk – also known as fixed disk, is housed in a microcomputer system unit and is used to store nearly all programs and most data files.
    Removable hard disk – or hard disk cartridges, consist of one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into a microcomputer’s cartridge drive
  • 49. REMOVABLE HARD DISK
    NONREMOVABLE HARD DISK
  • 50. Optical Disk
    A removable disk, usually 4.75” in diameter and less than 1/20 of an inch thick, on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams.
    Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) –can hold up to 650 MB of 300,000 pages of text
    Compact Disk-recordable (CD-R) – can be written to only once but can be read many times
    Compact Disk-rewritable (CD-RW) – also known as erasable optical disk
    Digital Versatile disk or digital video disk, with read only memory (DVD-ROM) – a CD-style disk with extremely high capacity, able to store 4.7 – 17 GB
    Universal Media Disk (UMD) – The disc is only two and a half inches wide and weighs only .35 ounces but it still has plenty of space for material with its 1.8 gigabyte capacity.
  • 51. CD-ROM / CD-ROM DRIVE
    DVD-ROM
    CD-RW
    CD-R
    UMD
  • 52. Magnetic Tape
    A thin plastic tape made up of mylar film coated with iron oxide that can be magnetized.
  • 53.
  • 54. Other Memories used in the computer
    Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System (ROM BIOS)
    A chip that provides the industry's standard program code that operates the fundamental components of the PC
    The routines that allow the setup configuration of a PC
    The Power-on Self Test (POST) diagnostic tests for the PC
    Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Random Access memory
    Stores the configuration of the PC (password, disk types, amount of memory installed, current time and date). This prevents the need for reconfiguration when powering on a PC
  • 55. CMOS RAM
    ROM BIOS
  • 56. Motherboard
  • 57. Motherboard
  • 58. Motherboard
  • 59. Integrated Circuit
  • 60. PCI Slot
  • 61. ROM
  • 62. LED
  • 63. Capacitors
  • 64. Transistor
  • 65. Soundcard
  • 66. TV Card
  • 67. LAN Card
  • 68. Video Card
  • 69. Processor
  • 70. CPU fan
  • 71. CMOS Battery
  • 72. Heat Sink
  • 73. Storage Media
  • 74. Memory or RAM
  • 75. RAM
  • 76. RAM Slots
  • 77. Hard Disk
  • 78. Jumper
  • 79. Flash Drive
  • 80. Floppy Disk
  • 81. Floppy Disk Drive
  • 82. Compact Disk
  • 83. CD Drive
  • 84. DVD Writer
  • 85. Magnetic Tape
  • 86. Input Devices
  • 87. Fingerprint Scanner
  • 88. Bar Code Reader
  • 89. Keyboard
  • 90. Output Devices
  • 91. LCD Projector
  • 92. MP3 Player
  • 93. Printer
  • 94. Printer Cable
  • 95. Scanner
  • 96. Speaker
  • 97. USB Port
  • 98. Wires
  • 99. Network Devices
  • 100. Cable Wire
  • 101. UTP Cable
  • 102. RJ 45
  • 103. Fiber Optics
  • 104. Hub
  • 105. Hub
  • 106. Hub
  • 107. Bridge
  • 108. Bridge
  • 109. Bridge
  • 110. Microwave Dish
  • 111. Microwave Station
  • 112. Repeater
  • 113. Router
  • 114. Satellite
  • 115. Switch

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