India is a vast country - encompassing a large canvas of
habitats, and ecological niches; rich in bio-diversity
and simultaneously supporting a rich, and vibrant
diversity of human cultures.
Deforestation is indeed a serious issue, and there will
be no exaggeration in saying that since 1990 the jungle
areas have been declining at a fast pace. India once had
14.8 billion acres of land that was forested, but now
has dwindled to just 8.6 billion acres.
Forests are chopped basically for
Basic Necessities and Maintaining the lifestyle.
It is true that reason for cutting down of trees is
justified to an extent, but, while razing people do not
realize that they are diminishing the existence of flora
and fauna, and becoming egocentric.
Human activities that lead to
Population explosion.Large areas of forests have
been cleaned for agriculture, factories, road and rail
tracks, industries, mining and quarrying have
seriously affected the forest.
Agriculture. With raise in the demands for
agricultural products, forests are being destroyed to
render space for cultivating crops and building farms,
where especially cultivators are encouraged by the
government to work on the areas.
Wood Harvesting. Trees are cut down for attaining
lumber or timber that is a wood used for constructing
houses and making furniture. It is the most significant
cause of deforestation.
Fires.Forest fires destroy trees, seeds and the animal
Pests.Many kinds of insect pests destroy forests by
eating the shoots and spreading diseases.
Grazing Land. Forests are also cleared for cattle
grazing, which have made them one of the most
Mining. Excavating a diamond or coal means clearing
of all woodland cover with the help of trucks and many
other types of equipment. It is another main cause of
Palm Oil. Palm oil has been in great demands in the
market and its intensifying costs making it more
priceless. Therefore, farmers are exploiting acres of
land of forests to reap it.
Weather.Storm and snow damage the forests. These
natural forces are beyond human power to control.
Dams.Barriers constructed across rivers to prevent
floods submerge and kill large tracts of forests.
Jhuming (Shifting cultivation).In certain parts of
India, forests are burnt and the ash is mixed with the
soil and the land used for cultivation.
Consequences of Deforestation
Loss of Species: Seventy percent of the world’s plants
and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats
to deforestation. Loss of habitat can lead to species
Carbon Emissions: Healthy forests help absorb
greenhouse gasses and carbon. Without trees, more
carbon and greenhouse gasses enter the atmosphere.
Water Cycle: Trees play an important part in the water
cycle, grounding the water in their roots and releasing
it into the atmosphere. Without the plants, the climate
may become dryer.
Soil Erosion: Without tree roots to anchor the soil
and with increased exposure to sun, the soil can dry
out, leading to problems like increased flooding and
inability to farm.
Life Quality: Soil erosion can also lead to silt entering
the lakes, streams, and other water sources. This can
decrease local water quality, contributing to poor
health in the local population.
Cause of Deforestation
All the factors that are mentioned so far are
fundamentally caused by poverty of the developing
countries where tropical rainforests in the world are
It means that prosperity will reduce the economic
pressure on governments, preventing them from
cutting down too many trees for commercial
Poverty and Deforestation
Pro-environment groups should care whether the poor
degrade forests more or less than others.
An understanding of the role(s) of poverty should
inform policies for conserving species habitat, storing
carbon and preventing erosion. Pro-poor groups may
not care about such outcomes but still favor ecological-
service (or any) payments to the poor. Understanding
the effects of poverty generally helps to demonstrate
the benefits of programs targeted at or simply affecting
Policies that address links between ecological services
and poverty can affect a lot of forest and many people.
enhancing poverty in northeast
Environmental degradation is a major factor in
perpetuating poverty, particularly among the rural
poor in the bio-rich northeastern region of the country
Environmental degradation has adverse effects on soil
fertility, quality and quality of water, forests, wildlife
and fisheries and makes air all the more impure.
The dependence of rural poor, particularly the tribal
societies, on natural resources is self-evident. Women,
being directly involved in collecting items of food from
nature, are more vulnerable to the adverse impacts of
degradation of natural resources.
Northeast India is the bio-geographical gateway to
India's richest biodiversity zone and is unique for
its genetic resources. However, the rapid growth in
population is creating a number of environmental
problems because of uncontrolled urbanization,
industrialization and massive intensification of
agriculture and destruction of forests.
Major environmental issues are degradation of forests,
decline in forest cover and degradation of agricultural
land, resource depletion (water, mineral, forest, sand,
The official estimates say, the country's population will
increase to about 1.26 billion by the year 2016.
Population growth and economic development are
contributing to many serious environmental
calamities, including deforestation, habitat
destruction and loss of biodiversity.
The final outcomes of this are air pollution, global
warming, climate change, water scarcity and rise in the
level of toxicity of water.
Deforestation and Tribal Poverty
The progressive tendency towards deforestation and
the progressive marginalization and impoverishment
of the tribal population closely tied up tribal life is
Very little of the benefits of deforestation appears to
have gone to them. Obviously, almost all the surplus
wealth generated through deforestation has accrued to
the other agents of production.
the nexus between commercial interests and the forest
department creates virtual monopoly conditions in the
utilization of forest wealth, The tribals share in the
wealth generated cannot be more than subsistence
The causers of deforestation are forced to cut down
their trees due to their poverty. Hence, it is important
to attack the causes of poverty to deal with
Unfortunately, there is no magical solution to the
problems caused by deforestation because poverty
is an abstruse problem to solve. However, we can
still halt and reduce the process of deforestation.
Deforestation is a serious global issue, and we, as
global citizens, should be aware of the problem.
Deforestation has been conducted for centuries
and will not be solved overnight. Lumber products
are certainly essential in our lives, so the complete
banning of deforestation is rather unrealistic.
Instead, we should focus on solving its
fundamental cause: poverty in the developing
We will be able to gradually decrease the rate of
deforestation, thereby diminishing the
environmental threat. The important factor, which
will determine the success of halting deforestation,
is our attitude and determination. Therefore, we
will only be able to effectively stop the process of
deforestation by understanding the issue.
Cause of Deforestation by Lathamani
Causes and Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India By Jessica Frei
Deforestation: Facts, Causes & Effects-Jessie Szalay, LiveScience Contributor
Development Projects and Deforestation in Orissa: A Retrospect
Tropical Deforestation Problems and Solutions-Ji-woong Kim