Contents 1. Introduction The Nature of the world History Environmental History Timeline Mass Migration Population growth and rise of cities Manufacturing and Industry World trade and new world Ecology Fossil Fuels and Climate Change 2. An Evolving Earth 3. Evolving Humanity 4. Foraging, Cultivation, and Food Production 5. Populating the Earth: Diet, Domestication and Disease 6. Making of an Urban World 7. Mining, Making and Manufacturing 8. Industrial Work 9. Trade and consumption 10. The Worming Climate
The worlds oldest major religion, Hinduism., begins Ancient ciilizationswith Vedic scriptures called Aranyakas (forest books}which are written by sages living in the forest. "Theculture of the forest has fueled the culture ofIndia," modern poet Rabindranath Tagore wrote."The unifying principle of life in diversity, ofdemocratic pluralism, thus became the principle ofIndian civilization."To the east of India, in the same period three to fivethousand years ago, Taoism and Confucianism explainand help people follow the patterns of nature. To thewest, Egyptian, Sumarian, Babylonian and othercivilizations have extensive and intricate links betweennature and the divine. Greek philosophers such asAristotle see the “imitation of nature” as the key tounderstanding life. Greek mythology also links theconcepts of justice and nature. For instance, Themis,the goddess of law, was the daughter of Gaia, thegoddess of earth.
The Middle Ages1000-- Sri Lankan King Nissanka Mallacarved into a stone a decree stating that, "Itis ordered, by beat of the drum, that noanimals should be killed within a radius ofseven gau from the city" of Anuradhapura, hiscapitol. The decree combined considerationfor animal welfare with concerns about publichealth and sanitation, and about the emotionaleffect on children of witnessing slaughter..(M. Clifton, 2007)1600s-- Paris becomes first European citywith extensive sewer system. See FrederiqueKrupas Paris: Urban Sanitation Before the20th Century.
The Enlightenment EqaThe Age of Enlightenment (or simplythe Enlightenment) is the era in Westernphilosophy, intellectual, scientific and culturallife, centered upon the 18th century, inwhich reason was advocated as the primarysource for legitimacy and authority. It is alsoknown as the Age of Reason.Some 600 ships are engaged in hauling "seacoal" from Newcastle to London, an enormousincrease compared to 1650, when only twoships regularly carried sea coal. The reason?Rapid industrialization and the demand foriron and naval supplies has stripped Englandsforests.
Industqial Reolution Living conditions in urban areas horrify reform minded commissions in London in the 1840s and America in the 1850s and 60s. Progress is slow but the common interest in pure drinking water and sanitation is spurred by epidemics of typhoid and cholera. Water pollution carried disease, but no one knew exactly why until the 1880s. Some concerned reformers didnt wait for exact knowledge: John Snow, a London physician, traced a part of the cholera epidemic to a contaminated water pump in 1855. Smog episodes begin killing residents of large cities like London. Demands for conservation of wilderness areas accelerate with the felling of an enormous redwood, called the "Mother of
The Pqogqessie EqaThe Progressive Era in the UnitedStates was a period of social activism andreform that flourished from the1890s tothe 1920s. The main goal of theProgressive movement was purification ofgovernment, as Progressives tried toexpose and undercut political machinesand bosses. Many (but not all)Progressives supported prohibition inorder to destroy the political power oflocal bosses based in saloons. At thesame time, womens suffrage waspromoted to bring a "purer" female voteinto the arena.
US MineralRoaqing up rich The Leasing Act opens Twentiesdeposits on federal lands for token rentalfees. US Water Power Act authorizes federalhydroelectric projects. .US Supreme Courtallows New Jersey to dump sewage into NewYork harbor in New York v. New Jersey andPassaic Valley SewerageCommissioners. However, the court says:The grave problem of sewage disposalpresented by the large and growingpopulations living on the shores of New YorkBay is one more likely to be wisely solved bycooperative study and by conference andmutual concession on the part ofrepresentatives of the States so vitallyinterested in it than by proceedings in anycourt however constituted. (Barros, 1974)
3:17 PM Woqld Waq II and the Postwaq Yeaqs1940 -- US Congress passes Bald EaglePreservation Act.1941 -- St. Louis adopts first strict smokecontrol ordinance in U.S. Meanwhile, St. LouisPost Dispatch wins first Pulitzer Prize forenvironmental reporting. The Pulitzercommittee cites the Dispatch "For itssuccessful campaign against the smokenuisance."1941 -- "Action Club" formed to combatpollution from paper mills near Augusta,Maine.1941 -- Between 25,000 and 60,000 rooftopsolar water heaters are being used, mostly inFlorida and California. In Miami 80 percent ofnew homes are built with solar hot water. War
The Sixties1960 -- June 12 -- Responding to safetyconcerns from unions and the public, a federalcourt halts construction of the Laguna Beach,Mich. Fermi nuclear power plant 30 milessouthwest of Detroit, but US Supreme Courtallows it to restart. In 1966, a nearlycatastrophic loss of coolant accident forcesthe plants permanent closure and shows thatcritics had reason to be concerned. (See JohnG. Fuller, We Almost Lost Detroit, ReadersDigest Press, 1975).1960 -- US Congress funds two-year PublicHealth Service study on air pollution fromcars.1960 -- First Clean Water Act passes USCongress.1960 -- Jacques Cousteau and Prince Rainier
From left, clockwise: A soldier lies on theground during the Vietnam War; The arrivalof The Beatles in the U.S., and subsequentappearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964,marked the start of the "British Invasion,"contributing to the bands phenomenalsuccess and tremendous influence on popularmusic in the U.S and around the world;The Woodstock Festival was held inupstate New York in 1969 in front of 400,000concert-goers and featured some of the toprock musicians of the era; For the first timein history, a human being sets his foot onthe Moon, in the Moon landing of July1969; Chinas Mao Zedong executes the GreatLeap Forward, a disastrous attempt tomodernize the Chinese economy that ended insevere grain shortages and the deaths of tensof millions of people; President John F.Kennedy in the presidential limousine, minutesbefore his assassination on November 22,1963;Martin Luther King Jr. makes his famous"I Have a Dream" speech to a crowd of over amillion during the March on Washington in1963.
The SeentiesThe 1970s, pronounced "the NineteenSeventies", was the decade that started onJanuary 1, 1970, and ended on December 31,1979.In the Western world, socialprogressive values that began in the 1960s,such as increasing political awareness andpolitical and economic liberty of women,continued to grow. The hippie culture, whichstarted in the latter half of the 1960s, wanedby the early 1970s and faded towards themiddle part of the decade, which involvedopposition to the Vietnam War, opposition tonuclear weapons, the advocacy of world peace,and hostility to the authority of governmentand big business.The environmentalist movement began to
From left, clockwise: USPresident Richard Nixon doing the Vfor Victory sign after his resignationfrom office after the Watergatescandal in 1974; Refugees aboard aUS naval boat after the Fall ofSaigon, leading to the end ofthe Vietnam War in 1975; The 1973oil crisis puts the nation of America ingridlock; Both the leadersof Israel and Egypt shake hands afterthe signing of the Camp DavidAccords in 1978; The 1970 Bholacyclone kills an estimated 500,000people in the denselypopulated Ganges Delta region of EastPakistan in November 1970;The Iranian Revolution of 1979transformed Iran from an autocraticpro-western monarchy toa theocratic Islamistgovernmentunder the leadershipof Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini; Thepopularity of theDisco music genrepeaked during the middle to late1970s.
The EightiesThe 1980s, often called "the Eighties," wasthe decade that began on January 1, 1980 andended on December 31, 1989 and was theninth decade of the 20th century.The time period saw great social, economic,and general change as wealth and productionmigrated to newly industrializing economies.As economic liberalization increased in thedeveloped world, multiple multinationalcorporations associated with themanufacturing industry relocatedinto Thailand, Malaysia, Mexico, SouthKorea, Taiwan, China, and new marketeconomies in Eastern Europe following thecollapse of communism in eastern Europe.
From left, clockwise: Thefirst Space Shuttle, Columbia,lifted off in 1981;American President RonaldReagan and Soviet leader MikhailGorbachev eased tensions betweenthe two superpowers, leading tothe end of the Cold War; The Fallof the Berlin Wall in 1989 isconsidered to be the mostmomentous event of the 1980s; In1986, six astronauts and oneteacher died inthe Challenger disaster; In 1985,the Live Aid concert was held inorder to fund relief efforts forthe famine inEthiopia; Ukraine and much of theworld is filled with radioactivedebris from the 1986 Chernobyldisaster; The Iran–Iraq War leadsto over one million dead and $1trillion spent.
The NinetiesThe 1990s, also known as "the NineteenNineties" or abbreviated as "the Nineties" or"the 90s", was the decade that started onJanuary 1, 1990 and ended on December 31,1999. It was the last full decade of boththe 20th century and the 2nd millennium.A combination of factors including the massmobilization of capital marketsthrough neoliberalism, the beginning of thewidespread proliferation of new media such asthe Internet, and the dissolution of theSoviet Union led to a realignment andreconsolidation of economic and politicalpower across the world, and within countries.
From left, clockwise: The Hubble SpaceTelescope floats in space after it wastaken up in 1990; American F-16s and F-15s fly over burning oil fields and theUSA engages in Operation DesertStorm, also known as the 1991 Gulf War;The signing of the Oslo Accords onSeptember 13, 1993; The World WideWeb gains a public face during the startof decade and as a result gains massivepopularity worldwide; Boris Yeltsin andfollowers stand on a tank in defiance tothe August Coup, which leads tothe Soviet Unions collapse onDecember 26, 1991; Dolly the sheep isthe first mammal to be cloned from anadult somatic cell; The funeralprocession of Diana, Princess of Wales,who dies in 1997 from Paris car crash,and is mourned by millions; Countlesshundreds of thousands are killed inthe Rwandan Genocide of 1994
The 21st CentuqyIn contemporary history, the 21st centurybegan with the United States as thesole superpower in the absence of the SovietUnion, with five other entities, China, India,the European Union, Brazil and the RussianFederation as potential superpowers in thecoming decades. As the Cold War was overand terrorism on the rise exemplified bythe September 11, 2001 attacks at the WorldTrade Center in New York City; thePentagon in Arlington, Virginia; followed bythe 2001 anthrax attacks that commenced asletters containing anthrax spores were mailedfrom Princeton, New Jersey to ABCNews, CBS News, NBC News, the New YorkPost, and the National Enquirer; the UnitedStates and its allies turned their attention tothe Middle East.
From left, clockwise: The World TradeCenter towers, in the wake of theSeptember 11 attacks; the Euro entersinto European currency in 2002; astatue ofSaddam Hussein beingtoppled during the 2003 Invasion ofIraq; troops heading toward an armyhelicopter during the War inAfghanistan, part of the effort tocombat International terrorism,named the War on Terror; socialmedia through the Internet spreadsacross the world; a Chinese soldiergazes at the 2008 Summer Olympicscommencing; an economic crisis, thelargest since the Great Depression,hits the world in 2008; a tsunami fromthe Indian Ocean following anearthquake kills over 250,000on Boxing Day, 2004.
So how do we save this beautiful blue planet?The FutuqeKurt Vonnegut on Natures surrender terms:"Now that we can discuss the mess we are in withsome precision, I hope you have stopped choosingabysmally ignorant optimists for positions ofleadership. They were useful only so long as nobodyhad a clue as to what was really going on--during thepast seven million years or so. In my time they havebeen catastrophic as heads of sophisticatedinstitutions with real work to do."The sort of leaders we need now are not those whopromise ultimate victory over Nature throughperseverance in living as we do right now, but thosewith the courage and intelligence to present to theworld what appears to be Natures stern butreasonable surrender terms:1. Reduce and stabilize your population.2. Stop poisoning the air, the water and the topsoil.3. Stop preparing for war and start dealing with your
10:54 PM Mass Migqation Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. The movement of populations in modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary migration within ones region, country, or beyond, and involuntary migration (which includes the slave trade, trafficking in human beings and ethnic cleansing). People who migrate are called migrants or more specifically, emigrants,immigrants, or settlers, depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective. According to the International Organization for Migrations World Migration Report 2010, the number of international migrants was
PopulationA population is all the organisms that both belong tothe same speciesand live in the same geographicalarea. The area that is used to define the population issuch that inter-breeding is possible between any pairwithin the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Normallybreeding is substantially more common within the areathan across the border. In sociology, population refersto a collection of human beings. Demography is asociological discipline which entails the statisticalstudy of human populations. This article refers mainlyto human population.As of 29 January 2011, the world populationis estimated by the United States Census Bureau to
Manufactuqing and Industqies Raw Material ExtractionManufacturing is the use Manufacturingof machines, tools and labor to produce Productiongoods for use or sale. The term mayrefer to a range of human activity,from handicraft to high tech, but ismost commonly applied to Transportationindustrial production, in which rawmaterials are transformed into finishedgoods on a large scale. UtilizationIndustry refers to the production of Rescuean economic good (either material or aservice) within an economy. Industrial Disposalorganization is a field of economics that Recyclingstudies the structure of and boundariesbetween firms and markets and thestrategic interactions of firms.
Woqld Tqade and New woqld EcologyInternational trade is exchange of capital, goods, and servicesacross international borders or territories. In most countries, itrepresents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP).While international trade has been present throughout much ofhistory (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its economic, social, andpolitical importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house"; -λογία, "study of") isthe scientific study of the relation of living organisms to eachother and their surroundings. Ecosystems are definedInternational trade by uses a varietya web, community, or network of individuals that arrange into the most of currencies, important of which area self-organized and complex hierarchy of pattern and process. held as foreign reserves by governmen ts and central banks. Here the percentage of global cumulative reserves held for each currency between 1995 and 2005 are shown: the US dollar is the most sought-after currency, with the Euro in strong
Fossil FuelIn 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was474 exajoules (474 1018 J) with 80 to 90 percent derived from thecombustion of fossil fuels. This is equivalent to an average powerconsumption rate of 15 terawatts (1.504 1013 W). Not all of the worldseconomies track their energy consumption with the same rigor, and theexact energy content of a barrel of oil or a ton of coal will vary withquality.Despite advances in efficiency and sustainability, of all the energyharnessed since the industrial revolution, more than half has beenconsumed in the last two decades. However, when considering this fact, itshould not be overlooked that this is primarily the result of globalincreases in the standard of living and of the increase in world population,and not as a failing of energy management as a whole.