Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and cells
separate from the organism. This is typically
facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid
growth medium, such as broth or agar. Tissue
culture commonly refers to the culture of
animal cells and tissues, while the more specific
term plant tissue culture is being named for
In 1885 Wilhelm Roux removed a section of the
medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and
maintained it in a warm saline solution for
several days, establishing the basic principle of
tissue culture. In 1907 the zoologist Ross
Granville Harrison demonstrated the growth of
frog nerve cell processes in a medium of clotted
lymph. In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A.
Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of
guinea pig corneal tissue.
Polybags is separated from the
plant without disturbing the root
ball of the plant and then plants
are planted in the pits keeping
the pseudo-stem 2cm below the
ground level. Soil around the
plant is gently pressed. Deep
planting should be avoided.
• True to the type of mother plant under well management.
• Pest and disease free seedlings.
• Uniform growth, increases yield.
• Early maturity of crop.
• Round the year planting possible as seedlings are made available
throughout the year.
• New varieties can be introduced and multiplied in a short duration.
1. If large scale production is being thinking, the
costs of the equipments are very expensive.
2. The procedure is very variable and it depends
on the type of the species so sometimes it needs
trial-and-error type of experiments if there is not
any review about that species.
3. The procedure needs special attention and
diligently done observation.
4. There may be error in the identity of the
organisms after culture.
5. Infection may continue thorough generations
easily if possible precautions are not taken
6. Decrease genetic variability.
Animal cells are more difficult to
culture than microorganisms
because they require more
nutrients and they typically grow
only when they are attached to
specially coated surfaces. Despite
these difficulties, various types of
animal cells, including both
undifferentiated and differentiated
ones, can be cultured successfully
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