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Pollution

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  • 1. FLORA NATURA proudly presents
  • 2. Environmental Pollution
  • 3. Pollution
    • An undesirable and unfavorable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of land air and water that harmfully affect both plant and animal life including that of man.
    • Caused mainly by population growth, urbanization and technological advances .
    • Things that cause pollution are called pollutants
  • 4.
    • Solid wastes ( sewage, soot, dust etc. )
    • Gases (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide etc.)
    • Industrial wastes (acids, alkalies)
    • Agricultures pollutants (pesticides, herbicides)
    • Metals (Iron, Zinc, Mercury)
    • Radioactive substances
    • Oils
    Main pollutants
  • 5. Two Types of Pollutants
    • Biodegradable pollutants : Those which are rapidly decomposed by natural processes. Eg. Domestic sewage
    • Non-degradable pollutants: That degrade very slowly into natural environment. Eg. Plastic, aluminum cans, glass, DDT, mercuric salts etc.
  • 6.
    • Classification based on environment
    • 1 . Atmospheric pollution
    • 2. Water pollution
    • 3. Soil pollution
    • Classification based on nature of pollutants
    • 1. Chemical pollution
    • 2. Noise pollution
    • 3. Pollution by radio activity.
  • 7. Atmospheric Pollution
    • Contamination of atmospheric air due to accumulation of harmful or toxic materials.
  • 8. Atmospheric pollution
    • Natural sources
    • 1. Volcanic eruption
    • 2. Forest fire
    • 3. Decaying organic matter
    • 4. Sand storms
    • Man-made pollutants
    • Only 0.05% of total atmospheric pollutants. Caused by the outputs of industries and automobiles
  • 9.
      • Gaseous pollutants
      • 1. Carbon monoxide.
      • 2. Nitrogen oxide.
      • 3. Sulphur dioxide etc .
      • Particulate substances
      • Solid and liquid particles
      • 1.Large particles that easily settle down in air. (sand and water drops)
      • 2.Fine particles that float in air for long time (dust and mist).
      • 3.Finer particles that never settle (smoke, aerosol and fumes)
  • 10.
    • Primary pollutants
    • Those emanating from a source
    • Eg. Carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides etc .
    • Secondary pollutants
    • Produced by combustions of primary pollutants in atmosphere
    • Eg. Atmospheric reactions of hydro-carbons and nitrous oxide, peroxy acetyl nitrate
  • 11. Sources of Air Pollution
    • Stationary combustion sources:
      • Combustion of coal and petroleum produces CO,SO 2 ,various Nitrogen compounds and fly ash containing trace metals like arsenic, lead and mercury.
      • Incomplete burning of petroleum produces soot and other toxic gases.
      • Oxides of sulphur react with atmosphere producing sulphuric acid which forms acid rain or acid precipitation.
  • 12.
    • Mobile combustion sources
    • Automobile is a major source of pollution.
    • Their exhaust contain carbon monoxide(77.2%), Oxides of nitrogen(7.7%) and hydrocarbons(13.7%)
    • Photochemical reactions on Oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons produce photochemical smog which contains Peroxy acetyl nitrate and Ozone.
    • Tetra ethyl lead in petroleum produces various lead compounds.
  • 13.
    • Industrial processing and other sources
    • Smoke from factories
    • Compounds contain Chorine and Fluorine used in propellants, refrigerants and in aerosol cans produce toxic outputs
    • Solvents in spray painting, dyeing, printing etc.
    • Blasting, drilling, crushing, mixing etc.
  • 14. Effects of air pollution
    • Human health
      • Allergic reaction and bronchial asthma
      • Co is respiratory poison
      • NO impairs functioning of lungs
      • SO 2 penetrates tissues and causes mouth drying
      • Hydrocarbons and soot are carcinogenic
  • 15.
    • Damage to vegetation
    • Injury to animals
    • Deterioration of materials
    • Aesthetic insults
    • Change in climate
    Other effects
  • 16. Control Measures
      • Removal of pollutants
      • Conversion of pollutants into harmless materials
      • Reduce sulphur content before burning
      • Use of energy sources other than fossil fuels
      • Legal measures from authorities
      • Increased planting of vegetation
  • 17. Water Pollution
      • Contamination of water by addition of undesirable organic, inorganic or biological substances to water sources
      • Natural sources: soil erosion, leaching of minerals from of rocks and decay matter.
      • Industrial effluents
      • Destroys ecosystem and affects human health
  • 18. Sources of water pollution
    • Community waste waters
    • Industrial wastes
    • Agricultural sources
    • Thermal pollution
    • Under ground water
    • pollution
    • Marine pollution
  • 19. Effects of water pollution
    • Mercury poisoning causes Minamata disease in man.
    • Inorganic nitrates promote excessive plant growth in lakes and reservoirs
    • Pesticides are harmful to aquatic life
    • Organochlorines pass through food chain to animals and is harmful
    • Dyes and inorganic compounds induce colour change in animals
  • 20.
    • Increased turbidity due to suspended particles.
    • Unpleasant odours and bad taste
    • Soaps and alkalies cause foam formation
    • Eutrophication provides rich growth of micro organisms that consume dissolved oxygen
    • Thermal pollution cause damage to aquatic life
  • 21. Control of water pollution
    • Treatment of garbage and sewage.
    • Extraction of useful substances.
    • Chemical treatment.
    • Reduction of temperature of waste water.
    • Minimize the use of non - degradable pesticides.
    • Proper enactment of laws by government .
  • 22. Soil pollution
    • Undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological property which adversely affects its productivity
    • Caused by dumping of wastes, agrochemicals and as indirect result of air pollution
  • 23. Sources of Soil Pollution
    • Domestic wastes
    • Agricultural wastes
    • Industrial wastes
    • Excretory products
    • Salination
  • 24. Control of soil pollution
    • Proper disposal of industrial and agricultural wastes
    • Recycling and recovery of materials
    • Minimize the manufacture and use of chemical fertilizers
    • Reduce the use of pesticides
  • 25. Land degradation
    • The productivity of soil is going down. The main reasons are
    • Soil erosion
    • Shifting cultivation
    • Desertification
    • Developmental activities
  • 26. Control measures
    • Control soil erosion and floods by restoring forest and grass cover to the soil
    • Crop rotation and mixed crops
    • Improved drainage facilities to prevent salinity
    • Mulching to prevent sand shifting.
    • Belt of trees as wind breakers
  • 27. Radioactive Pollution
  • 28. Radioactive Pollution
    • Physical pollution that affects air, water and soil. Caused by ionizing radiations of harmful nature emitted from disintegrating atomic nuclei.
    • The natural sources include cosmic rays that reaches the earth surface and radiations from radium 224, uranium 235 thorium 232 etc
  • 29. Sources of Radiations
    • Nuclear weapons
    • Reactors and Nuclear fuel
    • Radioactive isotopes used for scientific research( carbon 14, iodine 125 etc.)
    • Waste waters containing these wastes
    • X-rays used in medical practices
    • Ultra violet rays present in solar radiations
  • 30. Effects
    • Depolymerization of DNA
    • Denaturation of proteins
    • Induce mutations and cancer
    • Radioactive substances in food chain cause retarded growth, leukemia and bone cancer.
    • Causes sterility
    • Increases infant mortality rate
  • 31. Control measures
    • Prevention of leakage of radioactive elements from nuclear reactors.
    • Proper storage and disposal of nuclear wastes
    • Regular monitoring and high risk analysis
    • Increasing the use of non harmful energy sources
    • Global understanding about nuclear explosions
  • 32. Noise pollution
  • 33. Noise pollution
    • Unwanted high pitch sound that pollutes the environment.
    • Maximum tolerable intensity of sound is 85 decibels
    • The main sources are automobiles, aero planes, loudspeakers, industries and other electro-mechanical devices.
  • 34. Effects of noise pollution
    • Damage to ear drum and impairment to hearing.
    • Damages heart, liver and brain
    • Emotional disturbances and behavioral changes
    • Leads to anxiety and stress
  • 35. Control measures
    • Design machines with minimum sound
    • Proper lubrication maintenance of machines and installation of silencers.
    • Use of sound absorbing materials
    • Use of noise protective devices
    • Acoustic Zoning.
    • Keep plenty of vegetation.
    • Proper enforcement of legal measures.
  • 36. Thank-you very much for your co-operation .
    • A slide show presented by Nature Club, Mahatma Gandhi University College of Teacher Education ,Kanjirappally.jaisnm@gmail.com
    • Flora Natura

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