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Educational Entrepreneurship: is a skill of creating and sustaining social value for education, pursuing new opportunities, engaging in continuous innovation and exhibiting a high degree of ...

Educational Entrepreneurship: is a skill of creating and sustaining social value for education, pursuing new opportunities, engaging in continuous innovation and exhibiting a high degree of accountability for quality educational outcomes. The modes are Change catalyst, innovativeness, risk taking, self efficacy and accountability.

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Educational entrepreneurship Educational entrepreneurship Presentation Transcript

  • Educational Entrepreneurship (E-ship); A paradigm shift in education
  • Presented by DR. PUSHPANATHAM KARANAM SENIOR LECTURER DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA VADODARA 390 002 and Jaison Mammen Lecturer M.G.U.C.T.E, Thottakad,Kottayam, Kerala,India E-mail:jaisnm@gmail.com
  • The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to him. Therefore, all progress depends on the unreasonable man. -George Bernard Shaw
  • “ The aptitude of entrepreneurship should be cultivated right from the beginning and in the educational environment both in the schools and the colleges. We must teach our student to take calculated risks for the sake of larger gain, but within the ethos of good business. They should also cultivate a disposition to things right. The teachers and administrators as role models are very important. The inner being must be illuminated by righteousness. This capacity will enable them to take up challenging tasks later” - Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam  
  • Teaching is a creative and industrious profession where passion and commitment cannot be extravagance. It is an intrinsic drive for self actualization and self motivated activity. Teachers with passion for teaching are those who are diligent, change catalyst and innovate in their work with young one.
  • These teachers are change catalyst in creating a value system that is vibrant and up to date. In this globalised, vibrant society, which is full of challenges, conflicts and demands, only teachers with multiple skills both pedagogical and entrepreneurship skills can only be able to refine their students, to face challenges of the present day world. If the students have to be innovative with self efficacy, teachers should expose them in various realities of life and make them strong to face them with courage and commitment
  • So stakeholders of educational system, have to acknowledge teacher accountability, efficiency, innovation and risk taking; because they hold the key to initiate the process of making change in educational scenario . -
  • It is the teacher community and educational system of a country that plays crucial role in the process of human resource development which is vital for peace, prosperity and overall progress, including mental, physical, moral and spiritual development of a society or a nation.
  • Therefore the critical question at this juncture is how educational professionals can be developed both in pedagogical as well as entrepreneurship skills that will build and sustain a new breed of educational system to meet the challenges of 21 st century.  
  • Kothari Commission (1964-66) opined that of all the different factors which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competence and character of teacher are undoubtedly the most significant
  • The National Policy on education (1986) recognizes an extensive improvement in the quality of education Education is indispensable for skill development and fundamental to entrepreneurship and innovation. The ability to innovate and generate educationally valuable new processes can only take place in environments that encourage experimentation and value addition, observes National Knowledge Commission(2008)  
  • An effort in this direction is to visualize student teachers as educational entrepreneurs and equip them necessary skills and competencies to contribute to the advancement of educational system and thus augmentation of society. There is a need to have value addition to the existing teacher education programs by stressing on the developing entrepreneurship skills. What does Educational Entrepreneurship really mean in Educational Scenario ?
  • What is Entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurship means different things to different people. Conceptually and in practice, the term hints of no stereotypical model. Yet its very etymology – derived from the French ‘ entreprendre which literally means, ‘to undertake’– indicates the minimum characteristics of an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship is the processes of creating or seizing an opportunity. The American Heritage Dictionary defines an entrepreneur to be “a person, who organizes, operates and assumes the risk of ventures.”
  • Entrepreneurship has been understood to mean, among other things: ‘the ability to create and build something from practically nothing’ (J.A.Timmons, “The Entrepreneurial Mind”, 1989); ‘the creation of new economic opportunities’ (Wennekers and Thurik, “Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth”, 1999);
  • ‘ creating and managing vision and demonstrating leadership’ (Wickham,’ “ Strategic Entrepreneurship: A decision making approach to new venture creation and management”, 1998, page 34);); ‘a practice with a knowledge base’ (Peter Drucker, ‘Innovation and Entrepreneurship’, page viii); ‘an ability to assemble or reassemble from what is available into a new kind of activity
  • Entrepreneurism, entrepreneurship are the life blood of any system. These are continuous process and it is growing from centuries to centuries. Entrepreneurship is the essence of quality. It provides synergery in all human endeavors; it is vital for improvement for stakeholders. Entrepreneurship provides excellence and efficiency (Desai, 2000).
  • Some sociologists have suggested that entrepreneurship can be conceptualized as social movement; and that their exist entrepreneurship in other spheres of society than the economy. Concepts such as moral entrepreneurs, political entrepreneurs, and so on have as a result become quite common (Becker 1963: Jenkins, 1983, Weber, 1994).
  • According to Schumpeter (1950), an entrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation . The entrepreneurship is essentially a creative activity or it is an innovative function
  • By Analyzing the various definitions, Lall and Sahai, (2006) concludes that;   Economist defines an entrepreneur as one who brings resources, labour, raw material and other assets into combination that increases their value from before and also one who introduces changes, innovations and a new order. Psychologists define an entrepreneur as a person who is typically driven by some forces, which create a desire to obtain or attain something.
  • Sociologists define an entrepreneur as a person whose action would determine his asocial status and who contributes to the development of society. Management experts define an entrepreneur as a person who has a vision and generate action plan to achieve it
  • Characteristics of an entrepreneur According to David McClelland (1961) the entrepreneur as primarily motivated by an overwhelming need for achievement (n-Ach)-the psychological need to achieve and strong urge to build.
  • Entrepreneurs are high need-achievement Entrepreneurs like to think that they are pulling their own string (They control their own lives, not luck or fate) Entrepreneurs are willing to take moderate risks; this enables them to earn higher returns on assets
  • Entrepreneurs have the ability to tolerate ambiguity They also face more ambiguity since they may be dong certain things for the first time Entrepreneurs have the derive to get more done in less tome and, if necessary, despite the objection of others.  
  • The entrepreneur's vision is usually supported by an interlocked collection of specific ideas not available to the marketplace. The overall blueprint to realize the vision is clear; however details may be incomplete, flexible, and evolving.
  • The entrepreneur promotes the vision with enthusiastic passion. With persistence and determination, the entrepreneur on into reality. The entrepreneur takes the initial responsibility to cause a vision to become a success. Entrepreneurs take prudent risks. They assess costs, market/customer needs and persuade others to join and help. An entrepreneur is usually a positive thinker and a decision maker. An entrepreneur needs inspiration, motivation and sensibility
  • With persistence and determination, the entrepreneur develops strategies to change the vision into reality. The entrepreneur takes the initial responsibility to cause a vision to become a success. Entrepreneurs take prudent risks. They assess costs, market/customer needs and persuade others to join and help. An entrepreneur is usually a positive thinker and a decision maker. An entrepreneur needs inspiration, motivation and sensibility
  • Social Entrepreneurship: Social Dimension of Entrepreneurship Dees, (1998) observes that on this the idea of “Social Entrepreneurship” has struck a responsive chord. It combines the passion of a social mission with an image of business –like discipline, innovation, and determination commonly associated with the high-tech pioneers of great enterprises. The time is certainly ripe for entrepreneurial approaches to social problems.  
  • Social entrepreneurship as a practice that integrates economic and social value creation has a long heritage and a global presence. While entrepreneurial phenomena aimed at economic development have received a great amount of scholarly attention, entrepreneurship as a process to foster social progress has only recently attracted the interest of researchers (Alvord, Brown, & Letts, 2004; Dees & Elias, 1998 ).
  • Social entrepreneurs play the role of change agents in the social sector, by: Adopting a mission to create and sustain social value (not just private value), Recognizing and relentlessly pursuing new opportunities to serve that mission, Engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation, and learning, Acting boldly without being limited by resources currently in hand, and Exhibiting a heightened sense of accountability to the constituencies served and for the outcomes created.
  • Educational Entrepreneurship Teacher training is overhauled, to train novice teachers to be the leaders with entrepreneurship skill and efficacy. Educational entrepreneurship is of recent origin and is relatively a new phenomenon’
  • ” Every generation needs a new revolution” said Thomson Jefferson toward the end of his long life. Peaceful turbulence favors entrepreneuring. There is plenty of opportunity. Many people feel that these changing realities are problems and some consider them as challenges. Change is going to be a part of life. Change is always resisted, first ridiculed and then accepted. But change is the reality of our time.
  • Teachers should learn to manage the change and lead the change. Good entrepreneur must have the certain behavior such as competency risk taking, innovator and change catalyst. As observe by Patel, (2009) good business managers must have the four basic skills that are competency , Caliber, Capabilities/capacity and character. These propositions are now well acknowledged in the educational management world and present educational system is striving hard for systematic efforts to cultivate the spirit of leadership in future teachers. Entrepreneurs in education system can provide the right direction to the economy. They are trend setters, who can optimize the resource utilization and improve growth of various section of the economy.
  • These propositions are now well acknowledged in the educational management world and present educational system is striving hard for systematic efforts to cultivate the spirit of leadership in future teachers. Entrepreneurs in education system can provide the right direction to the economy. They are trend setters, who can optimize the resource utilization and improve growth of various section of the economy
  • Entrepreneurs in Education Educational Entrepreneurship {E-Ship} is a personal attribute consisting of innovativeness, accountability, and change catalyst, risk taking and bearing attitude. Education entrepreneurs instead create organizations that seek to enhance the capacity of the existing educational system.
  • At this critical point in public education, entrepreneurs have three crucial roles. (Smith, 2006). # As change agents # As venues for new skill sets and mindsets # As developers of learning laboratories where experimentation and ongoing learning are encouraged.
  • educational entrepreneurs are: As change agents . Entrepreneurs can demonstrate what is possible when resources are used differently and point the way toward how policy and practice might be changed in light of what they accomplish. As such, their work has a direct impact, as well as a “catalytic impact” that reverberates throughout the system. Another way to consider this is as “ co-opetition ”—a combination of competition and cooperation in which entrepreneurs create additional capacity for school systems (cooperation ) while also applying pressure for change within the system (competition).
  • As venues for new skill sets and mindsets. Teachers are needed renewed mindset and skill to meet various challenges. As developers of learning laboratories where experimentation and ongoing learning are encouraged. As problem-solvers, entrepreneurs are constant learners who regularly review progress and correct course. Since this ongoing learning process is exactly what we are asking our educational system to embrace today, entrepreneurial organizations can demonstrate how this new dynamic might work in a school system
  • Attributes of E-ship Change Catalyst Innovation Risk Taking E-ship Self Efficacy Accountability. Accountability. Accountability. Accountability Accountability.
  • Innovation Mind set for application of latest changes in education, technology and Pedagogy and management.
  • Risk Taker . He/she is a risk taker; they take the risk of their own action and words. Venture in to educational and personal life, facilitating them to be fruitful person and future citizen
  • Self Efficacy : Self –efficacy belief determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Such beliefs produce these diverse effects through our major process. They include cognitive motivational, affective and selection processes. A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well being in many ways.
  • Accountability is defined as Theory that teachers and educational system should take responsibility for improvement in pupil achievement and that teacher effectiveness by this criterion should be measures by external agencies
  • Dimensions of Teacher Accountability Legal Accountability Intellectual Accountability Social Accountability Moral Accountability Professional Accountability
  • Operational Definition of E-ship It is a skill of creating and sustaining social value for education, pursuing new opportunities, engaging in continuous innovation and exhibiting a high degree of accountability for quality educational outcomes. The modes are Change catalyst, innovativeness, risk taking, self efficacy and accountability
  • Strategies for developing E-ship
  • Educational Entrepreneurship can be developed through rigorous inputs and with a systematic training. Several programs and strategies have been developed for nurturing entrepreneurship. Kalkundriker, and Charantimath(2001) suggest a strategy for developing academic entrepreneurship.
  • E-SHIP DEVELOPMENT MODEL stimulatory Activities Sustaining Activists Supporting activities EDUCATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP(E-SHIP)
  • STIMULATORY ACTIVITIES Workshop symposium seminar planned publicity for entrepreneurial opportunities identification of potential entrepreneurial opportunities identification of potential entrepreneurs motivational camps making available necessary information through cyber shop in the institution,
  • entrepreneurial counseling and promotion through local agencies creating forum of academic entrepreneurs and recognizing entrepreneurial accomplishment of teachers and academic institutions local agencies phase where entrepreneurship can sprout and people start looking for entrepreneurial pursuits
  • Support activities personal computer internet connectivity virtual classroom by connecting all institution trough video cameras/conferencing facility providing books updating libraries offering consultancy and providing all required information as how a person should groom himself as an academic entrepreneur
  • Sustaining Activities The sustaining activities refer to all those activities that help continuous and efficient functioning of academic entrepreneurship. These include modernization of infrastructure, encouraging diversification, providing opportunities and supporting industry-institute interaction through consultancy, promoting quality and organizing need-based common facilities centre  
  • For developing entrepreneurship among teacher , the universities and colleges should generate an encouraging milieu that promotes such qualities as inventiveness, perseverance, efficiency orientation, problem solving ability, influential, assertiveness, self –bearing capacity and capacity to manage stress.