Dimensions of Teacher Educator’s Academic Accountability Presented by JaisonMammen Lecturer in Education M.G.U.CT.E ,Thottakkad, Kerala, Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Accountability refers to the management philosophy where by individual are held liable, or accountable, for how well they use their authority and live up their responsibility of performing predetermined activities
Wagner (1989) defines accountability as “to render an account of, to explain and answer for”.
Accountability has sometimes also been used as a synonym for responsibility. Accountability implies a statement of explanation of one’s conduct, a statement or exposition of reasons, causes, grounds, or motives. In common parlance accountability implies answerability to a person or body that has imposed a task or duty
Academic accountability in this study implies teacher accountability. The teachers are accountable for the life, needs and aspirations of the people in the society. In the educational system, they are accountable to the authorities, students, and teaching fraternity.
Teacher accountability is defined as “Theory that teachers and school system should take responsibility for improvement in pupil achievement and that teacher effectiveness by this criterion should be measured by external agencies” Page and Thomas (1978, p. 337).
Academic accountability as the responsibilities and the effectiveness of teachers on the moral, legal, intellectual, professional and social spheres. In other words, Teacher / Academic accountability encompasses Moral accountability, Legal accountability, Professional accountability, Intellectual accountability and Social accountability
According to Barton et al. (1986) there are four modes of accountability. Moral accountability:- to clients Moral accountability is based upon a sense of responsibility – a feeling that one is responsible to ones’ clients (students and parents). Professional accountability: - responsibility to oneself and colleagues. Legal/Contractual accountability: - to employers. Modes of Accountability
Legal accountability is being responsible to ones’ employer in terms of employment. Intellectual accountability: - a perception by the teacher that he or she is under a discipline imposed by the intellectual criteria and structure of the subject which he or she teaches. It also means the intellectual efficiency of teachers. Besides these aspects of accountability, at individual level, accountability can be related to a broader level, that is, to the social development of students. That is; Social accountability: - social accountability as, the effectiveness and responsibility of teachers to inculcate social values and virtues in students, enabling them to become socially useful citizens.
The concept of Teacher accountability must be developing in the teacher training Period. During the metamorphic of development, the practice of entrepreneurships to be inbuilt.
Novice Teachers are natured by Teacher Educators; so the is the need for ensuring teacher accountability at the Teacher training level. Teacher educators are with passion for teaching are those are industrious, change catalyst and innovate in their work with novice teacher. These teacher educators are change catalyst in creating a system that is vibrant and up to date
Teacher is the wheel of development of any society. If the students have to develop entrepreneurship, innovation, self-efficacy, teachers should not only be trained enough so as to work as sea of knowledge and skills but also have highly developed extra personality skill. In this globalised, vibrant society, which is full of challenges, conflict and demanding, only different teachers are able to tune their students, to face challenges of the present day world
Moral accountability Moral Accountability means accountability towards students and parents. The dimensions of Moral accountability of Teacher Educators selected are: Special efforts for slow learners; Imparting value-based education; Addressing students by their name; Role model to pupils; Encouraging students to excel in their independent work; “Answerable to authorities, parents and society; Mentoring Individual attention Differentiation of students according to their overt behavior; Solving both personal and learning related problems of students;
Rectifying students’ errors positively; Students’ Evaluation of Teachers (SET); High standard and trustworthiness in the conduct of examination and Internal assessment procedure; and Regular contact with parents. Genuine interest in the development of novice teachers Classes and period taught and the degree of the effectiveness of teaching as measured by the interest generated in the students and self-thinking process created in them; The quality of books used for teaching and reference and the quality of assignments given to the students; The course developed and innovative methods of teaching adopted;
Professional Accountability Professional Accountability implies teachers’ accountabilility towards professional and colleagues. The dimensions of Professional accountability of teachers educators selected are; Plan Academic work properly Evaluation of trainee projects and other assignments; Use of curricular materials and teachers’ handbooks; Preparation of personality assessment tools (e.g. cumulative records, case history, check lists etc.); Utilization advanced technology for teaching and training Sense of time management; Conducting class tests; Peer tutoring
Counseling students; Discussion with colleagues about academic matters. Two-Directional Approach” in assessment (assessment of performance of junior teachers by senior and senior teachers by juniors); Contribution of the teacher to the design of curriculum, teaching methods, lab experiment, evaluation methods, preparation of resource materials, students counseling and remedial teaching; Careful in instruction; and Diagnostic test and remedial teaching Participation of the teachers in refreshes/orientation courses, summer schools, workshops, seminars, symposia etc.; Number of research papers published and research projects undertaken and Seminar, conferences and Symposia organized; Offices held in national or regional organizations;
Legal Accountability The dimensions of Legal accountability of teachers selected for the study are: Willingness to be Assessed by external agencies ; Two-Directional Approach” in assessment (assessment of performance of junior teachers by senior and senior teachers by juniors); Punctuality in attendance and handling classes; Co-operation extended to the head of the institution; Punctuality in taking attendance of students; Self-assessment report; and Transacting curriculum in time.
Intellectual Accountability Intellectual accountability means intellectual caliber of teacher educator to inculcate intellectual and personal efficacy of novice teachers The various magnitude of Intellectual accountability of teachers educators are: Organize quiz completion, debates and seminars; Providing opportunities for the development of inquisitiveness in students; Providing opportunities to exceptionally good students to develop their talents; Research activities; Knowledge of Information Technology; Extra reading; Inculcate the habit of extra reading to novice teachers Intellectual discussion with students and colleagues
Social Accountability is the social responsibility of teachers The various dimensions of Social accountability of teachers, selected for the study are: Awareness of Human Rights; Fostering dignity of labour and hard work; Organize study classes and seminars based on health and social issues; Participation in community works; Awareness of the negative influence of consumerism; Contribution to community work and national literacy mission; Contribution in resolving Social issues, institutional issues Social Accountability
Promote the idea of small saving and simple living; Population education; Promote secularism and social justice; Fostering National integration and international understanding; and Guidance regarding selection of media’s programmes.
Suggestion for enhancing Teacher Educator Accountability Teacher accountability can be ensured in teacher training time itself. So there must systematic system of accountability in secondary training college. There systematic monitoring of teacher educators performance to ensure academic accountability. The concept of teacher accountability must be trained to novice teachers; the awareness of accountability needs to be implemented; so teachers educator to be role model For monitoring and supervision of teacher training by role of N.C.T.E should be enhanced. Systematic monitoring and supervision of teacher training and evaluation can contribute to accountability. There should be periodical assessment of teacher educators ’performance by the head of the institution. Teacher educators should be asked to submit self-appraisal reports periodically to authorities.
Scheduling academic Calendar and following implicitly is an important factor to make Teacher educators more accountable. Teaching a course requires adequate planning in advance. The academic calendar must distribute to novice teachers at the beginning should indicate various projects, assignment and duties and different of type of examination to be conducted during the course of year. Every projects and /assignment submitted should be returned back to students. Random checking of corrected scripts is required to be done by head of the institution. Teaching has remained neglected unattractive and unrecognized. Lack of motivation and reinforcement has led to disinterestedness and lack of excellence. So highlighting the activities of innovate teacher educators will bring in more accountability.
The role of education system goes beyond its main function of imparting education to students. It has to explore and mechanism for the application of knowledge for benefiting to society. Research, development and extension, therefore, become important components of education process. So these should be encouraged.
Enforcement of accountability should begin with recruitment of teaching staff who evidence of continue academic interest. This should be followed by training and retraining of teaching staff from time to time to cope with the curriculum and research and orientation of teachers about the responsibilities towards academics and administration. Students’ Evaluation of Teachers (SET) may be considered. PTA Involvement should be enhanced. In order to motivate teachers to put their best it may be useful to link ‘Increments and promotion’, to ‘performance’. Non-performing teachers, training colleges must be subjected to system based audits. They should be ranked in terms of their performance
The government and community should create conditions, which will help to motive teachers on constructive and creative lines. Teachers should enjoy freedom to innovate, to devise appropriate methods of teaching and activities relevant to the needs and concern of the community.
According to Pandey, (1977) “a good system of accountability must ensure that personal growth of the teacher would continue, mind and imagination retain then spontaneity, experience extend its range, and vitality overflow in quickening power from teachers to taught.” Self-realization is the best approach to accountability, which is linked with excellence and autonomy. In conclusion teachers must realize that, accountability does not throw humiliation on them, rather it multiples the worth and respect of their professions. So a deliberate attempt must be made by authorities to ensure Teacher accountability. This is the only way to revitalize the present educational scenario.