Forts of india


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Forts of india

  1. 1. A Glimpse of someForts in India PRESENTED BY JAY RAJPUROHIT 1
  2. 2. Why I chose this topic? 2
  3. 3. What is a Fort?  A protected enclosure, building, or position that stands strong in defense against an enemy (e.g. Red Fort)  A permanent army post (e.g. Fort Collins) 3
  4. 4. Why were Forts built? From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for many cities Uruk, in ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia) was one of the worlds oldest known walled cities The Ancient Egyptians also built fortresses on the frontiers of the Nile Valley to protect against invaders from its neighboring territories Many of the forts of the ancient world were built with mud brick 4
  5. 5. History of Forts in India Forts are important architectural relics of the long history of India The capital of each Raja or King had a fort, around which a township grew and developed This pattern can be seen in many Indian cities such as Delhi, Agra, Pune, Kolkata and Mumbai Two forts in India are UNESCO world heritage sites Agra Fort Red Fort 5
  6. 6. 10 Famous Forts of India Qila Mubarak  Chittorgarh Fort Fort William  Agra Fort Amber Fort  Golconda Fort Mehrangarh Fort  Lal Qila/Red Fort Jaisalmer Fort  Gwalior Fort 6
  7. 7. For every Fort let’s answer thefollowing Where is it? When was it built and by whom? Features of the fort 7
  8. 8. Qila Mubarak 8
  9. 9. Qila Mubarak The oldest surviving fort in India is the Qila Mubarak at Bathinda (Punjab) Built in 90-110 AD, by Emperor Kanishka and Raja Dab Facts  Razia Sultan (the first woman to take charge of the Delhi throne ) was imprisoned here in 1204  Visited by Guru Nanak Dev (1515), Guru Teg Bahadur (1665), Guru Gobind Singh (1705) 9
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  11. 11. Fort William 11
  12. 12. Fort William It is situated in Kolkata, on the Eastern banks of the River Hooghly Built in 1781, during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India Facts  It was named after King William III of England  Fort is built of brick and mortar in the shape of an irregular octagon  In front of the Fort is the Maidan, the largest urban park in Kolkata 12
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  14. 14. Amber Fort 14
  15. 15. Amber Fort Located in Amber (near Jaipur) Built in 1592, by Raja Man Singh Facts  Name derived from Amba Mata (Mother Earth)  Perfect blend of Hindu and Muslim Architecture  Fort is built with white marble and red sandstone  Inside looks like a palace with a huge courtyard, Shila Mata (Kali) temple, residence of the Maharaja, silver doors, mosaics, marble columns, hand paintings ,sculptures 15
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  17. 17. Mehrangarh Fort 17
  18. 18. Mehrangarh Fort One of the largest forts in Jodhpur Built in 1459, by Rao Jodha (Rathore Ruler) Facts  The hill was called Bhaurcheeria, the mountain of birds  Inside the Fort, there are majestic rooms called Moti Mahal, Sheesh Mahal, Phool Mahal and Takhat Vilas 18
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  20. 20. Jaisalmer Fort (Sonar Kella) 20
  21. 21. Jaisalmer Fort One of the largest forts in world, located in Jaisalmer Built in 1156, by Rawal Jaisal (Rajput Ruler) Facts  Stands on the golden stretches of Thar desert  World’s only living Fort with quarter of Jaisalmer’s population living inside  Sri Satyajit Ray created a famous detective film “Sonar Kella” based on this Fort 21
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  23. 23. Chittorgarh Fort 23
  24. 24. Chittorgarh Fort Also called Water Fort, located in Chittaur Built in 7th century AD, by Mauryans Facts  Some believe Bhim (one of Pandava brothers) built this fort  Inside the Fort, Vijay Stambh (Tower of Victory), Kirti Stambh (Tower of Fame), Gaumukh Reservoir, Rana Kumbha and Padmini Palace, Meera Temple  Witnessed many Jauhars 24
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  26. 26. Agra Fort 26
  27. 27. Agra Fort Located in Agra near world famous Taj Mahal Completed in 1573, under Akbar the Great Facts  Insidethe Fort, Diwan-i-Aam, Diwani-i-Khas, Jahangiri Mahal, Khas Mahal, Anguri Bagh, Golden Pavilions, Musamman Burj  When Aurangzeb imprisoned his father Shah Jahan, he viewed the construction of Taj Mahal from Musamman Burj (a tower with a marble balcony, which provides best view of Taj Mahal) 27
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  29. 29. Golconda Fort 29
  30. 30. Golconda Fort Located in Golconda, near Hyderabad Built in 13th century by the Kakatiya Kings Facts  Situated on a 400 feet high granite hill  Has amazing acoustics, where sound of a clap from near the front gate can be heard on top of the citadel  Many famous diamonds were excavated from mines at Golconda (Hope Diamond at Smithsonian in Washington DC, Darya-e-Noor) 30
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  32. 32. Red Fort (Lal Qila) 32
  33. 33. Red Fort Located in New Delhi Built in 1648 by Emperor Shah Jahan Facts  Shah Jahan moved the Mughal capital from Agra to Delhi and created his palace in Red Fort  Served as capital of Mughals until 1857  Indian Independence celebrated with Flag hoisting at Red Fort every year. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru first hoisted the Indian Flag on Independence Day (August 15th, 1947) 33
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  35. 35. Gwalior Fort 35
  36. 36. Gwalior Fort Located in Gwalior (birthplace of Mia Tansen) Built in 8th century by Tomar Rulers Facts  Emperor Babur described it as “The pearl in the necklace of the forts of Hind”  Inside the Fort, Gurjari Mahal and Man Mandir palace  First epigraphic evidence of “0” (Shunya in Sanskrit) was found on a tablet near a 9th century Hindu temple 36
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  38. 38. Thank You! 38