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Roman architecture : Elements and innovations.

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Hey! i am an architecture student. This presentation i made was for a college submission. Hope it works out for you. All the best. And don't forget to like it...!!!

Hey! i am an architecture student. This presentation i made was for a college submission. Hope it works out for you. All the best. And don't forget to like it...!!!

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  • These vaults require buttressing to counter-act thedownward thrust ofweight.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Model of Rome
    • 2. ORIGINS OF ROMAN ARCHITECTURE As with sculpture, the Romans borrowed heavily from two cultures that they conquered – the Etruscans and the Greeks. The Romans were indebted to their Etruscan neighbors and forefathers who supplied them with a wealth of knowledge essential for future architectural solutions, such as hydraulics and in the construction of arches. MODEL OF AN ETRUSCAN TEMPLE Later they absorbed Greek and Phoenician influence, apparent in many aspects closely related to architecture A ROMAN TEMPLE, FORTUNA VIRILIS
    • 3. ORIGINS OF ROMAN ARCHITECTURE Elements of Roman architecture show very significant Greek influence. However, Roman functional needs sometimes differed, resulting in interesting innovations. The Romans were less attached to “ideal” forms and extended Greek ideas to make them more functional ROMAN PHILOSOPHY "We believe that lightning is caused by clouds colliding, whereas they believe that clouds collide in order to create lightning. Since they attribute everything to gods, they are led to believe not that events have a meaning because they have happened, but that they happen in order to express a meaning."
    • 4. Greek technology POST & LINTEL CONSTRUCTION LINTEL P P O O S S T T
    • 5. POST & LINTEL DRAWBACK LINTEL P P O O S S T T thick narrow thick
    • 6. Something new under the sun … Roman ARCHitecture Arches – strength through compression
    • 7. ORIGINS OF ROMAN ARCHITECTURE  Romans needed interior space for worship, whereas the Greeks worshipped outside.  Their solution was to extend the walls outward, creating engaged columns, while maintaining the same basic shape. THE MAISON CAREE @ NIMES
    • 8. ROMAN INNOVATIONS 1. COLUMNS To the original Greek orders, the Romans added two. TUSCAN SIMPLIFIED DORIC HAVING UNFLUTED COLUMN AND A PLAIN BASE, CAPITAL AND SHAFT HAVING NO DECORATION OTHER THAN MOLDINGS COMPOSITE IT COMBINED ELEMENTS OF BOTH THE IONIC AND CORINTHIAN ORDERS. CORINTHIAN ORDER IS MODIFIED BY SUPERIMPOSING FOUR DIAGONALLY SET IONIC VOULTS ON A BELL OF CORINTHIAN ACANTHUS LEAVES.
    • 9. 2. CONCRETE K K This allowed not only bases, but also walls to be constructed of mainly concrete or concrete and rubble. K Facings could be made of more expensive stone or inexpensive brick. K USE OF BRICK ON OUTER FACING AND FILLING OF CONCRETE RUBBLE The discovery of slow-drying concrete, made with pozzolana sand created a revolution in architectural design. The result was strong structures that could be formed in any desirable shape DOME OF THE PANTHEON
    • 10. 3. ARCH & VAULT The Romans first adopted the arch from the Greeks, and implemented it in their own building. An arch is a very strong shape as no single spot holds all the weight and is still used in architecture today. The Romans used arches to support the things they built. They built victory arches, buildings and aqueducts.
    • 11. Barrel or “Tunnel” Vault K A vault having semicircular cross-section K Windows can be placed at any point. K These vaults require buttressing to counter-act the downward thrust of weight.
    • 12. Groin vault K Also called a cross vault. K A compound vault formed by by the perpendicular intersection of two vaults forming arched diagonal arrises called groins. K Needs less buttressing. BASILICA NOVA
    • 13. Multi Groin Vaults K A series of groin vaults can have open lateral arches that form Clerestories. K Windows that allow light into the interior of churches. K These concrete windows were fireproof
    • 14. 4. dome K A dome is a vaulted structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of a sphere, so constructed as to exert an equal thrust in all directions K Romans used domes to span and cover very large open spaces. K They used it in many public buildings like basilicas, the pantheon etc.
    • 15. CYLINDRICAL DOME K With the dome, the Romans could surpass earlier cultures by their ability to span space. K Light enters through the oculus on top.
    • 16. Roman buildings Massive Building – THE TEMPLE OF FORTUNA PRIMIGENIA  The Temple of Fortuna Primigenia was a massive structure, made possible by concrete construction.
    • 17. Roman buildings Massive Building  Roman baths were  the recreation centers of Roman cities, incorporating pools, exercise facilities and even libraries. They could serve hundreds or thousands at a time. – BATHS OF CARACALLA
    • 18. Roman buildings Public entertainment – THE ROMAN COLOSSEUM Brings together the violence and the achievements of Roman society Home of gladiatorial contests…man vs. man, man vs. animal, animal vs. animal Seating designed for comfort with an expandable covering over the top Plumbing which could wash away the blood or create an „inland sea‟ on which to have mock sea battles
    • 19. The Colosseum- a blend of Greek and Roman architecture  The arches are    supported by central columns. The columns on the first floor are Doric. The columns on the second floor are Ionic. The columns on the third floor are Corinthian.
    • 20. plan Section A special fact about the Coliseum is that it was originally built with a huge removable canopy to protect the spectators from the elements.
    • 21. Roman buildings Public entertainment – AMPHITHEATRE AT NIMES SEATS ABOUT 20,000 Theatres and arenas were built to hold multiple thousands of people and were engineered so as to allow quick and effective entry and exit.
    • 22. Roman buildings WORSHIP – THE PANTHEON The temple to the Roman gods built in 126 AD was called The Pantheon.
    • 23. Occulus 142 ft. Portico 142 ft. COLUMNS: 39 FT. TALL, 5 FT. THICK PLAN SECTION
    • 24. SECTIONAL VIEW
    • 25. INTERIOR VIEWS Engineering marvel Concrete!
    • 26. The magnificent interior space of the Pantheon was achieved by: Employing a dome over a drum. Coffering the dome to reduce weight. Placing an occulus to allow light to enter
    • 27. later used as church Tuscan order of columns (with corinthian capitals) Missing pedimental sculpture (would have been like Parthenon)
    • 28. Roman buildings Public water supply – THE AQUEDUCTS There wasn‟t enough water in the city of Rome. The Romans brought water in from the surrounding countryside. The water was brought in by tubes called aqueducts. Cities themselves were plumbed, providing private water for the rich and for baths and communal supplies for poorer neighbourhoods. PONT DU GARD, FRANCE PIPES AND PLUMBING
    • 29. Where did the water go?  The water was transported in concrete tunnels. The water flowed in a tube on the top of the aqueduct called a water channel. The arches supported the water channel. The water flowed through a rectangular channel. The channel was lined with concrete. The Romans invented concrete.
    • 30. Roman buildings PUBLIC BUILDINGS – THE BASILICA Basilica were first built to house audience facilities for government officials. When Christianity became the state religion, this kind of building was adapted to Christian worship. A large nave is flanked by side aisles behind a row of supporting piers. An Apse draws attention in the direction of the altar.
    • 31. Roman innovation Transport system – THE ROADS  The need to move legions and trade goods in all weather led to the development of the best roads in the world (to the 19th century).
    • 32. SECTION OF THE ROAD VIA APPIA All roads lead to Rome!
    • 33. CONCLUSION  The Romans were brilliant engineers.  Their innovations form the basis of much of our civil engineering today.