Gothic architecture


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Gothic architecture

  1. 1.  Gothic Architecture originated in France in the 12th century and existed in the western half of Europe through the middle of 16th century.  Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches.
  2. 2.  It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.  It is characterized by building of great cathedrals, a progressive lightening and heightening of structure, and the use of pointed arch, ribbed vault, flying buttresses, and a system of richly decorated fenestration
  3. 3. Pointed arches Very high towers and spires and roofs Clustered columns: tall columns that looked like a group of thin columns bundled together Ribbed vaults: arched ceilings made of stone. In the Gothic style they were held up by stone ribs. Tracery: carved stone lace in the windows and on the walls Stained glass: richly coloured glass in the windows, often with pictures telling stories Buttresses: narrow stone walls jutting out from the building to help hold it up Flying buttresses: buttresses that help to hold the vault up. They are made with an arch that jumps over a lower part of the building to reach the outside wall. Statues: of Saints, Prophets and Kings around the doors Many sculptures, sometimes of animals and legendary creatures. Gargoyles spout water from the roof.
  4. 4. There are usually there richly carved doorways in the western facade Deep doorways are formed by receding columns with arches above them. Gothic Style allowed for high walls, allowing larger windows, more light.
  5. 5. The plan is shaped like a cross. The long nave makes the body of the church and, crossing it, the arms are called the transept. On the other side of the transept is the chancel which is often called the choir. The nave has a passageway or aisle on either side. Sometimes there are two aisles on each side. The nave is usually a lot taller than the aisles, and has high windows which light up the central space. The upper part of the building, where these windows are, is called the clerestory (or clear storey). CATHEDRAL SECTION
  6. 6.  It is simply known as the Gothic Arch and was reconstructed from cylindrical vault of Roman architecture. There are four stones at the end of the arch supporting the power from the top so that the height and the span of the arch are no longer restricted and the arch can be made as large and high as possible. POINTED ARCH
  7. 7. Buttress is a supporting facility to share the pressure from the main walls.  It has been largely used in Roman Architecture. The original buttress was solid and covered by the roof. However, the buttress with Gothic style is exposed out to be known as flying buttress. Due to the further requirements of the height, the role and appearance of buttress have been greatly enhanced. It is coved with complicated decorates and elaborate carvings.
  8. 8. The stained glass, covered with religious stories which helped to illustrate the doctrines to illiterate people is of high artistic achievement. There are two main colors, blue and red. Blue symbolizes the heaven and red symbolizes the blood of Christ. The stained glass creates a mysterious but brilliant scene, which express people’s longing for the kingdom of heaven STAINED GLASS AT OPERA CATHEDRAL,ITALY
  9. 9. A vault supported by or decorated with arched diagonal ribs The Gothic vault, unlike the semi-circular vault of Roman and Romanesque buildings, can be used to roof rectangular and irregularly shaped plans such as trapezoids. Pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture.
  10. 10. The facade of a large church or cathedral, often referred to as the West Front, was generally designed to create a powerful impression on the approaching worshipper, demonstrating both the might of God, and the might of the institution that it represents. One of the best known and most typical of such facades is that of Notre Dame de Paris.
  11. 11. Many churches were very richly decorated, both inside and out. the statues were often painted in bright colours The statues, the decoration, stained glass windows and wall paintings told Bible stories such as how God created the world and how he rules over everything that is in the universe, the seasons of the year and the stars in the sky. Right Portal of Chartres Cathedral: Throne of Wisdom
  12. 12. • height • impression of verticality • two large towers
  13. 13. • extreme length • internal emphasis upon the horizontal • double transepts
  14. 14. Different building materials were found in different parts of Europe. This is one of the differences in the architecture between different places. In FRANCE, limestone was readily available in several grades, the very fine white limestone being favored for sculptural decoration. ENGLAND had coarse limestone, red sandstone and dark green Purbeck marble which was often used for architectural decorations like thin columns. In ITALY, stone was used for fortifications, but brick was preferred for other buildings. Interior of Amiens Cathedral, France. In Northern Germany, The clear proportions of Florence Cathedral , ITALY are defined by dark stone against the colourwashed plastered brick. Netherlands, Denmark, Baltic countries and northern Poland there was clay for making bricks and tiles. So many of these countries have Brick Gothic churches and even Brick Gothic castles.
  15. 15. RIBS ELEMENTS OF A GOTHIC CHURCH This picture with parts cut away shows the columns, the stone ribs of the roof and the buttresses of a Gothic church.
  17. 17. V E R T I C A L I T Y
  18. 18. Built in the 16th in the Built century 16th century Built in 1140 Work began on the west facade, called the Royal Portal , in 1145 The innovative design used at Saint-Denis became the inspiration W. Face of Chartres Cathedral 11341220