Googlenomics - An economic analysis of Google’s Innovation

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The project is an attempt to study the economics behind the google's innovation and how the company leverage's these innovations for further profits

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Googlenomics - An economic analysis of Google’s Innovation

  1. 1. An economic analysis of Google’s Innovation. By Saurabh Agarwal 1212049 Surabh Jain 1212050 Swati Bajaj 1212063 Swati Jain 1212064 Utkarsh Jain 1212066 Submitted on Aug 31, 2012 Googlenomics
  2. 2. 2 Goooooooooogle Table of Contents What is Google?............................................................................................................................................4 Google’s Two Sided Market......................................................................................................................5 What is Innovation......................................................................................................................................5 Google and Innovation..................................................................................................................................6 Google's Product Development Philosophy .............................................................................................6 Google’s Culture........................................................................................................................................7 Google and Product Innovations ..................................................................................................................8 Innovations in YouTube ........................................................................................................................8 Google Search ...........................................................................................................................................9 Gmail.......................................................................................................................................................10 Innovations in Gmail ...........................................................................................................................10 Google driverless car...............................................................................................................................11 Project Glass............................................................................................................................................11 Google Chrome ......................................................................................................................................11 Google Analytics......................................................................................................................................11 Android...................................................................................................................................................11 Google Fiber ...........................................................................................................................................12 Google Nexus Q ......................................................................................................................................12 Google Maps ...........................................................................................................................................12 Innovations in Google map..................................................................................................................12 Google and IP.............................................................................................................................................13 Google and Trademarks..............................................................................................................................13 Exploitation of network Effects...................................................................................................................14 Google and Economies of Scale & Scope....................................................................................................14 Google and Auctions...................................................................................................................................15 Auction of IPO.........................................................................................................................................15 AdWords/Ad sense Auction....................................................................................................................16 How does Ad word Auction work? .....................................................................................................16 How does Google determine which ad is shown where?...................... Error! Bookmark not defined. How does Google determine what you pay?......................................................................................17
  3. 3. 3 Goooooooooogle Google and Two Part Tariff.........................................................................................................................17 Google and Learning Curve.........................................................................................................................19 Conclusion...................................................................................................................................................20
  4. 4. 4 Goooooooooogle What is Google? Google Inc. is an American multinational corporation which provides Internet-related products and services, including internet search, cloud computing, and software and advertising technologies. Advertising revenues from AdWords generate almost all of the company's profits. The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while both attended Stanford University. Google was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 4, 1998, and its initial public offering followed on August 19, 2004. The company's mission statement from the outset was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful" and the company's unofficial slogan is "Don't be evil". With the mission of organizing the world’s information and making it universally accessible and useful Google also believes in the set of core philosophies.  Focus on the user and all else will follow o Google believes in doing what is best for the user and everything else will follow.  It’s best to do one thing really, really well o Google does search and does it really well. They are market leaders in search and also build search as part of their other products like Gmail, Google drive etc.  Fast is better than slow o Google believes in speed, may it be speed of searching on its page or may it be breaking its own records of performance in Chrome web browser.  Democracy on the web works o Google promote a lot of open standards and feel that the web itself gives enough signals for what is good and what is bad. They harness this very well in their PageRank algorithm in search.  You don’t need to be at your desk to need an answer o Google sees a lot of potential in the mobile world and believes it will be essential for future growth of the company. In Fact many of their products are becoming mobile first.  You can make money without doing evil o Google generates its revenue from ads displayed on its products and strives hard to make the ads non-intrusive to the user, moreover it does not charge the advertiser till user has expressed interest in the ad by clicking it.  There’s always more information out there.
  5. 5. 5 Goooooooooogle  The need for information crosses all borders.  You can be serious without a suit.  Great just isn’t good enough. Google’s Two Sided Market Google operates in a two sided market, where it serves both consumers via the products like search Mail etc. and advertisers and publisher with products like blogger, YouTube and ad sense. With the goal of making world’s information universally accessible, Google builds products varied for consumers like Gmail, Search, Android, and Chrome with the common aim of making the information available when needed. They also display ads only when is relevant to the user so that it’s beneficial for both users and advertisers. It also shares revenue to publishers for the ads shown on their websites via ad sense. It works in two ways for Google to meet their mission, it promotes publishers to get good content online by rewarding them and it also helps Google to organize more information in useful way. What is Innovation? Innovation is the creation of better or more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are readily available to markets, governments, and society. Innovation differs from invention in that innovation refers to the use of a better and, as a result, novel idea or method, whereas invention refers more directly to the creation of the idea or method itself What is IPR: Intellectual property refers to creations of the mind: inventions; literary and artistic works; and symbols, names and images used in commerce. Industrial Property includes patents for inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, copyrights, trade secrets
  6. 6. 6 Goooooooooogle Google and Innovation Google’s innovations can be attributed to two factors: Google's Product Development Philosophy and Google's Culture. Google's Product Development Philosophy Google follows a 70-20-10 formula to divide its product investments in three ways. Seventy percent targets its core search and advertising products, 20 percent focuses on related products, and 10 percent centers on the most experimental products. These experimental projects include ones where the company remains unsure if users will adopt the service or if it would make money, but such experiments are critical for the long term. Another important factor here is the way Google acquires companies. Google follows a smart approach to choose a company to acquire.
  7. 7. 7 Goooooooooogle  A small but very talented development team  A private start up with a relatively cheap price tag  Interesting and innovative products, technical or intellectual property Google’s Culture Google’s culture is one of the most important factors of its growing success. Google believes innovation comes from everywhere in the organization. It is the extremely open culture of Google that fosters innovation in the company. Google’s culture has many unique features which foster innovation. Some of them are listed below  Everyone is a hands-on contributor and feels comfortable sharing ideas and opinions.  A weekly hands-on meeting (TGIF) is held every Friday where the Googlers ask questions directly to Larry, Sergey and other execs about any number of company issues.  The offices and cafes are designed to encourage interactions between Googlers within and across teams, and to spark conversation about work as well as play.  Google also encourages employees to spend only 80% of their time on the official project that they are working on while encouraging to spend 20% of their time to work on anything they wish that can help Google. Unbelievably big projects like Gmail and Google Scribe, Google Sky were innovated during this 20% time given to Googlers.  Google “eats its own dog food”, that is to say they use their products internally first and expects that users will provide feedback and suggestions. Googlers feel engaged and responsible for providing feedback.  Google not only allows for mistakes but celebrates them internally. Even if buzz was pulled, the individuals who worked on it were recognized and many technical aspects of the product have gone into other Google products.  Each quarter, Google’s senior leaders share ambitious company-wide goals to set a shared vision for what they will accomplish in a quarter. Every person designs their own quarterly objectives, which like the company goals, are shared publicly. It’s not uncommon for one person’s interesting idea to generate attention and grow to a larger, ever company-wide, initiative.  Google embraces quirkiness, people being themselves at work, the fact that open is better than closed, sharing offices and space and enjoying who you work with.
  8. 8. 8 Goooooooooogle  All people decisions at Google are based on data and analytics.  Googlegeist – is their annual survey focused on retention and innovation (answering questions like do employees see Google as the most innovative place, do the best people want to stay). Googlers have a lot of trust in organization. While Googlegeist is not anonymous just confidential, helps to identify the problems and challenge areas. Googlers take it seriously because they know the results will be put to action.  Provide the raw materials – every building has a tech shop, in an effort to make it easy to be and get properly resourced. Similarly, Googlers are given enough online space to try and test new things without a giant permission process.  Make managers resources, not bosses. – Google leaders work for their teams, they strategize, knock down barriers, set the example as drivers of innovation. Leaders are expected to be creative in their own work, not simply to manage the innovation of their team. Google and Product Innovations YouTube YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos .It was acquired by Google for US$1.65 billion and has grown into a one stop shop for all the viewers to view music videos and other streaming video types .Although YouTube does not charge any fees from its user it generates revenues from display advertising .YouTube would be set to earn a net revenue of $2.4 billion in 2012 with a growth of around 20 percent in quarter- over-quarter traffic. Innovations  Localizations In 2007, Google localized YouTube for each country serving 42 countries including all the major nations and languages. The interface also suggests the local version using the IP address of the user and some of the videos can also be blocked based on the localizations.  Live Streaming This feature was started on September 13, 2010 by broadcasting live events throughout the world .The first one being broadcasting of all the 60 IPL cricket matches in India.
  9. 9. 9 Goooooooooogle  Quality Adjustments Based on the bandwidth that is available to the user the quality of the YouTube video is automatically adjusted and thus the buffer time is considerably reduced.  Suggested Playlist Based on your current viewing it automatically suggests what videos you can view next.  Display Advertisements Display advertising is a type of advertising that typically contains text (i.e., copy), logos, photographs or other images, location maps, and similar items. In periodicals, display advertising can appear on the same page as, or on the page adjacent to, general editorial content. User can see personally relevant adverts based on user's cookies .Users can also opt out of the targeted ads by using an ads preference manager. This targeted advertising not only helps sellers and Google was able to charge the advertisers a significant price .The users can also opt to skip ad in which case the advertiser is not charged any amount . Google Search Google search is the most used search engine. It has about 75% market share. Google monetizes search by its targeted advertising products like Ad Words. Google has innovated a lot on its core technology of search. Some of the major innovations in Google Search are: Innovations  Google Instant Starting September 2010 Google realized that people type slower but read quickly. Google instant shows results even as the user types.  Knowledge Panels Knowledge panels aims to go away from traditional keywords and documents philosophy in search, instead it is an effort to try categories entities on the web and find information about them which is useful to the user and show it right away when user is searching for an entity. No other search engine has been able to this till now.  Site Search This is a customized search engine designed for corporate, so that it is for an end user to search content on the company's website.
  10. 10. 10 Goooooooooogle  Voice Search Google Voice Search or Search by Voice is a Google product that allows someone to use Google Search by speaking on a mobile phone or computer, i.e. have the device search for data upon entering information on what to search into the device by speaking.  Apart from these innovations a lot of innovation goes behind the scenes of Google search algorithms. Google periodically updates its search algorithms to avoid search engine optimizations and have most useful results to the users. Gmail Gmail is a free, advertising supported email service provided by Google. Users may access Gmail as secure webmail, as well as via POP3 or IMAP4 protocols. With an initial storage capacity offer of 1 GB per user, Gmail significantly increased the webmail standard for free storage from the 2 to 4 MB its competitors such as Hotmail offered at that time. Individual Gmail messages, including attachments, may be up to 25 MB, which is larger than many other mail services support. Innovations The major technical innovation in Gmail when it was launched was its JavaScript based UI due to which users were not required to migrate to a new page every time they opened an email. It also provided the users a conversation view which enables users to view all mails in a conversation at a time. Other innovations in Gmail has been  Background Send It allows the user to send emails in the background .Specially useful for people with slow internet connections.  Priority Inbox Helps user parse and triage their important, causal and useless emails and thus help in managing the email effectively.  Integration with Gtalk Google integrated the chat messenger with the email client allowing user multiple ways to communicate to the friends under a single hood.
  11. 11. 11 Goooooooooogle Google driverless car With advanced use of technology Google is developing driverless cars. As of the current date it has drove 300,000 miles .The system combines information gathered from Google Street View with artificial intelligence software that combines input from video cameras inside the car, a LIDAR sensor on top of the vehicle, radar sensors on the front of the vehicle and a position sensor attached to one of the rear wheels that helps locate the car's position on the map. Project Glass Project Glass is a research and development program by Google to develop an augmented reality head-mounted display (HMD).The intended purpose of Project Glass products would be the hands free displaying of information currently available to most smart phone users, and allowing for interaction with the Internet via natural language voice commands. Google Chrome Google Chrome is a freeware web browser devolved by Google which is available for all the operating systems whether on desktop or mobile. It is much faster than all the other browsers in the market with increases support for new features like HTML5 but still simpler and streamlined .By keeping each tab in an isolated sandbox ,Google was able to prevent crashing of one browser into another and provide improved protection from rogue sites. Google Analytics Google Analytics (GA) is a free service offered by Google that generates detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. A premium version is also available for a fee. The product is aimed at marketers as opposed to webmasters and technologists from which the industry of web analytics originally grew. It is the most widely used website statistics service, currently in use on around 55% of the 10,000 most popular websites. It can track visitors from all referrers, including search engines, display advertising, pay-per-click networks, e-mail marketing and digital collateral such as links within PDF documents. Android Android is a Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google. Google financially
  12. 12. 12 Goooooooooogle backed the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., and later purchased it in 2005 .Android became the world’s leading smart phone platform at the end of 2010 and was one of the main reasons behind the downfall of companies like Nokia and RIM .According to the recent estimates there are about 1 million activations per day .Currently it has around 59% share in the smart phone market. Google Fiber A new paradigm in internet browsing from Google, the Google Fiber is the most recent addition to the Google basket. Google Fiber at 1 gigabit/second (1Gbps upload & download) is 40 times faster than Comcast Cable download (25Mbps), 200 times faster than Comcast upload (5Mbps), and 1000 times faster than AT&T DSL (1Mbps). Google Nexus Q Nexus Q media server is the world's first social streaming media player with easy cloud connectivity and a built-in amp. The Nexus Q can be operated by any device of choice running Android, acting as a remote control, telling the Nexus Q what to stream. Google Maps Maps have constantly evolved with time. From carrying a simple tourist map to navigate to our destination, we now have options of voice enabled GPS and Google maps at the tip of our finger in our phones offering us several options to get to our destination. Innovations  Display of satellite images  Geocoding capabilities On June 11, 2006, Google added geocoding capabilities to the API whereby the user can get exact coordinates of a street address on the map for markup and vice versa. On December 19th, Google added a feature that lets you add multiple destinations to your driving directions  Google Traffic info On February 28, 2007, Google Traffic info was launched to automatically include real- time traffic flow conditions to the maps of 30 major cities of the United States. On August 21, 2007, Google announces a simple way to embed Google maps onto other websites.
  13. 13. 13 Goooooooooogle  Walking directions On July 15, 2008, walking directions were added. On December 9, 2008 2x Street View coverage was introduced. This is the biggest innovation in Google Maps called the Map Maker that also helps to achieve the economies of scale. Google and IP Apart from developing innovative products Google invests a lot in IPR and copyrights. But to foster innovation Google does not use its patents in aggressive way, on the other hand it licenses the patents sometimes for free to some companies. It mainly uses the IPs for defensive purposes. In this way Google is quite different from traditional companies who obtain patents for offensive purpose or for protecting their technology. Google has around 22000 US patents including 17000 patents acquired from Motorola Mobility. Google has valued 17000 patents and 7000 patent applications of Motorola Mobility at USD 5.5 billion which effectively says that Google values a patent on an average USD 230 thousand. Google and Trademarks Although Google likes to accommodate all the requests they receive from users who want to add a touch of Google to their sites, they are passionate about protecting the reputation of their brand. That means they have to turn down many requests because sites imply that Google is endorsing them or is otherwise affiliated with them. The same applies if Google's trademarks, logos, web pages, screen shots, or other distinctive features ("Google Brand Features" or "Brand Features") are associated with objectionable material, as determined by Google. These Brand Features can be used only for the specific purposes for which Google has given permission. If you have a written agreement with Google that specifically addresses how you may use its Brand Features, you don't need to go through the approval process here unless you want to do something other than what has been authorized in your existing agreement. Otherwise, the only time you can use Brand Features without advance written permission is if there is clear mention on the website stating those Brand Features could be used without first obtaining permission, such as in the case with the search boxes.
  14. 14. 14 Goooooooooogle Exploitation of network Effects Google exploits network effects in all its products. The Google products are so much in demand that it create bandwagon effect for users to join the Google properties. When Gmail was invite only, it was so high in demand that some of the Gmail invites were auctioned on eBay by individuals. On the other hand being a part of two sided market, Google reinforces its network effects by having more users. More advertisers come to Google network and more publishers subscribe to the Ad sense network which again brings more users and advertisers. Google and Economies of Scale & Scope In the software industry, economies of scale do not derive as much from production capacity as from the size of the installed user base, and that’s because software is made of electrical pulses (or bits) that can be replicated and downloaded by the users, at a relatively very small cost to the producer. This means that the size of the installed user base replaces production capacity in classical economic terms. Google has a huge installed base on the Web (Google.com as the default search engine for Firefox and Google Chrome, Safari and Opera), mobile phones (Google Android) and desktop (Google Chrome and Chrome OS.) This huge installed base allows Google to dominate almost every application category on every platform. An Internet-scale cloud infrastructure also achieves economies of scale that can produce tremendous cost savings. Rather than buying off-the-shelf completed servers, Google buys raw computer parts in massive quantities, and assembles custom servers with few unnecessary components. Not only does it save costs on hardware, it also minimizes overhead by consolidating on a very small number of server configurations that can be managed in bulk globally at an extremely efficient ratio of staff to machines. On a per-user basis, these economies of scale allow Google Apps to operate at higher levels of efficiency than can be achieved by customers themselves. As far as economies of scope are considered, Google already has an established data center and it just utilizes its various applications over it. Gmail, Google Maps, Google Documents, YouTube and so on are all applications that run on the same datacenter utilizing its almost null Marginal Cost of storage.
  15. 15. 15 Goooooooooogle Google and Auctions Google depends on economic principles to hone what has become the search engine of choice for more than 60 percent of all Internet surfers, and the company uses auction theory to grease the skids of its own operations. The company uses Auctions for various activities, the following are few: Auction of IPO: Google's IPO is conducted using Dutch auctions. The process which is followed in this auction system is quite simple: 1. The seller (Google) announces how many shares they are looking to sell. 2. Any buyer can submit bids in terms of both quantity and price they are willing to pay (such as: I want 500 shares at a price of no more than 100$). 3. All bids are ranked from highest price to lowest. Shares are sold to the highest price bids up to the bid which clears the market of shares. 4. The price buyers actually pay is the price of the bid that exactly cleared the market. The info graphic below explains the process better.
  16. 16. 16 Goooooooooogle AdWords/Ad sense Auction How does Ad word Auction work? When someone searches for something on Google, Google looks at the AdWords advertiser’s pool and determines whether there will be an auction. If one or more advertisers are bidding on keywords that Google deems relevant to the search query, an auction is triggered. What gets entered into these auctions? Advertisers identify keywords they want to bid on, how much they want to spend, and create groupings of these keywords that are paired with add. Google then enters the keyword from
  17. 17. 17 Goooooooooogle your account it deems most relevant into the auction with the maximum bid you’ve specified as well as the associated add. How does Google determine which ad shown where? Once you are entered into the auction, Google looks at two key factors to determine where your ad ranks: your maximum bid and your quality store. Max Bid x Quality Score = Ad Rank -> Position How does Google determine what you pay? You pay the minimum amount you can pay for the position you win if your ad is clicked on. Your price = (The ad rank of the person below you)/(Your quality score) + $0.01 The auction gets run billions of times each month. The results are such that:  Users find ads that are relevant to what they are looking for.  Advertisers connect with potential customers at lowest possible prices.  Google rakes in billions of dollars in revenue. Google even uses auctions for internal operations, like allocating servers among its various business units. Also one of the most innovative uses of auctions in Google is that the managers bid for new joiners through online auctions. Google and Two Part Tariff A two-part tariff is a price discrimination technique in which the price of a product or service is composed of two parts - a lump-sum fee as well as a per-unit charge. In general, price discrimination techniques only occur in partially or fully monopolistic markets. It is designed to enable the firm to capture more consumer surplus than it otherwise would in a non- discriminating pricing environment. Two-part tariffs may also exist in competitive markets when consumers are uncertain about their ultimate demand. Health club consumers, for example, may be uncertain about their level of future commitment to an exercise regime.
  18. 18. 18 Goooooooooogle  For Google Apps: Google Apps for Business and Google Apps for Business with vault which has advanced security feature for bigger business. For the former case Google charges a lump sum fee of 5$/user/month while for the latter Google charges $10/user/month. Usage charges are zero as the Marginal cost of these products is negligible to Google, and thereby by following two part tariff Google tries to capture CS for both the groups.  Gmail and Drive: In Gmail and Drive, also Google price discriminates based on usage where it initially provides free for use of 5 GB of drive and 1 GB of Picasa and 10 GB of Gmail. If the consumers want they can increase space usage by opting from different slabs of payment per month.  App Development engine: Similarly Google also has a differential pricing for AppEngine, its cloud offering, where its free for small developers and then it charges solely on usage basis (per app) to one set of customers and entry fee (per premium developer) to other set of users. It tries to capture market CS in a non competitive market while it charges its marginal cost in a competitive market for hosting single app.
  19. 19. 19 Goooooooooogle  Google Fiber: Google has priced the Fiber to effectively tap the most consumer surplus by providing different options depending on the consumer utility. It has priced the Google Fiber as a Two Part Tariff where-in the entry fee would be the one time construction fee (for 7 Years) of $300 and then the consumer can choose to pay a change depending on the usage (in terms of internet speed). This pricing strategy ensures that the Google is able to tap the lower end consumers through its basic plan with no usage fee while tapping the consumer surplus by having an entry fees (construction fee). Also Google is the first mover to provide the 1Gbps speed it has the luxury to set the price to maximize its returns by making its marginal cost equal to marginal revenue. But even after keeping this in mind, Google has priced its product pretty competitively to tap the maximum consumer market. Google and Learning Curve Learning curve is a concept which tells how companies reduce their costs by producing same things over time and hence producing them efficiently. Google has been able to reduce the various costs due to efficiency obtained by learning the secrets of trade. For ex it has brought down the traffic acquisition costs as a percentage of advertising revenue. It has also managed to bring down its data Center power cost a lot. Data center power costs are measured by PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness). PUE is a ratio of the total power used to run a data center to the amount used to power the servers. For instance, if a data center has a PUE of 2.0, that means that for every watt of energy that powers the servers, another watt powers the cooling, lighting and other systems. An ideal PUE would be 1.0. Google has been able to get the PUE ratio down to 1.13 over the years from 1.22 which is minimum in the industry. Google data centers hence consume almost only 50% of the energy consumed by a normal data center.
  20. 20. 20 Goooooooooogle In the above graph we can see how Google has managed to bring down the PUE due to its learning in managing data centers efficiently. The quarterly spikes are due to summer season when power consumption increases. Google also tries hard to use green power as much as possible in fact is has sometimes developed green energy plants in its data centers. Conclusion Googlenomics actually comes in two flavors: macro and micro. The macroeconomic side involves some of the company's seemingly altruistic behavior, which often baffles observers. Google believes that anything that increases Internet’s utility ultimately enriches the company. And hence it gives away products like its browser, its apps, the Android operating system etc. The microeconomics of Google is more complicated. By selling ads, Google generates not only profits but also generates torrents of data about users' tastes and habits. Google then sifts and processes this data in order to predict future consumer behavior, find ways to improve its products, and sell more ads. This is the heart and soul of Googlenomics. It's a system of constant self-analysis: a data-fueled feedback loop that defines not only Google's future but the future of anyone who does business online
  21. 21. 21 Goooooooooogle References: 1)Adwords auction - http://www.wordstream.com/articles/what-is-google-adwords 2) HowStuffWorks "How IPOs Work" <http://money.howstuffworks.com/ipo7.htm> 3)Google Case of Innovation - http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4781086/Google%E2%80%99s-case-of-Innovation# . 4)Case Study -Google Inc http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/bitstream/140.119/33884/11/61010111.pdf 5)Google Data Center Efficiency : http://www.geek.com/articles/chips/googles-most-efficient-data-center-runs-at-95-degrees- 20120327/ 6)Google Dutch Auction of IPO: http://www.quora.com/How-was-Googles-IPO-unique http://money.cnn.com/2004/04/29/technology/googleauction/ http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/05/05/google_public_auction_ipo/ 7) Apple and Microsoft Beat Google for Nortel Patents ; http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2011/07/01/apple-and-microsoft-beat-google-for-nortel-patents/ 8) Google Quarterly Results http://investor.google.com/pdf/2012Q2_google_earnings_slides.pdf 9)Google’s policy http://www.google.com/publicpolicy/ 10)Differentiation in a Commodity http://innovationcenter.deteconusa.com/events/summary-plugnplay-expo-2011/ 11)A Case Study of Innovations with Google Maps http://infm718z- s11.wikispaces.com/file/view/INFM+718Z_Term_Project_Google_Maps_Paper- Rohit%26Phillip.pdf 12)Case Study: Innovation at Google http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Case-Study-Innovation-At-Google/659941 13)The Economics Of The Google Gigabit http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/08/01/the-economics-of-the-google-gigabit/ 14)Secret of Googlenomics
  22. 22. 22 Goooooooooogle http://www.wired.com/culture/culturereviews/magazine/17- 06/nep_googlenomics?currentPage=all 15) Google's Innovation -And Everyone's http://www.forbes.com/sites/quentinhardy/2011/07/16/googles-innovation-and-everyones/ 16)Google Financial Results : http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1288776/000119312512312575/d357361d10q.htm 17)Google paid $5.5 billion to arm itself with Motorola's patents http://arstechnica.com/business/2012/07/google-paid-5-5-billion-to-arm-itself-with- motorolas-patents/ 18)Understanding Google’s Privacy Policy Change http://anniesearle.com/web- services/Documents/ResearchNotes/ASA_ResearchNote_UnderstandingGoogle'sPrivacyP olicyChange_Mar2012.pdf 19)Google Releases New Copyright Transparency Report https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/05/google-releases-new-copyright-transparency-report

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