Jai nagawat
Indore , India
The Panama Canal
Engineering Wonder of 20th Century
According to the American Society of Civil
Engineers
“The canal remain...
The Panama Canal:
“A Wonder of Work”
Joseph Pennell
“I looked down into a yawning gulf stretching to
right and left, the bottom filled with crowds of
tiny men ...
Case Study of U.S. Policy and
Problems to be Overcome
1.Political
Problems
2.Geographical
Problems
3.Other Natural
Problem...
Political Problem Gran Columbia
Panama

In the 1820s,
at the time of
initial American
interest in the
Panama
Canal,
Panama...
Geographical Problems
Three major geographical
problems:
1. complex mountain range
formation;
2. tropical jungles; and

3....
Complex Mountain Range Formation
Tropical Jungles
Tropical
jungles with
an average
annual
rainfall of 105
inches and
average
temperature
of 80
degrees
Fahr...
Complex Topography
The Other Natural Problem: Disease the “killer” obstacle
Facts and Figures
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Construction began 1904
Opened Aug. 15, 1914
50 Miles long deep water to deep water
Ave...
•From the Atlantic Ocean the Panama Canal runs south for ten
miles (17 km) and then eastward to the Pacific Ocean.
•The to...
•The Commissary Department provided food for the
entire work force and baked as many as six million
loaves of bread, 650,0...
Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty
•Signed on
November 18, 1903
•Granted U.S.
control over
Panama Canal for a
price
•Negotiated by
P...
U.S Canal construction
•Began in 1904
•Employed
thousands of
Panamanians and
U.S. construction
companies
•First ship trave...
Layout of Canal

• Consists of artificial
lakes (Miraflores,
Gatun)and channels
and three sets of
locks
• Additional artif...
Gatun Dam
• Constructed 19071913
• Impounds Gatun Lake
• Hydro-electric
generating station
generates electricity
• Electri...
How Locks Work/Design
• Three sets of the two lane Canal work as water elevators to lift the
ships to the level of the Gat...
• .
Gatun Dam Spillway Construction
Canal Lock Gate Under Construction
• Panama Canal is an 82-kilometre (51 mi) ship canal in Panama
that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to...
Pennel began his artistic journal through the Canal from the Atlantic
Ocean at Colon where American Canal employees lived ...
Gatun Locks
The Guard Gate, Gatun
Pennell noted the
“magnificent arrangements”
of the Gatun gates. He
wrote: “I have never seen
such a...
Construction of Gatun Lock
The Culebra Cut at Bas Obispo

The Culebra Cut at Las Cascadas
Gatun Lake
Pedro Miguel Locks
Pennell was also impressed with the walls of
the Pedro Miguel Locks
Miraflores Locks
Pennell was fascinated by
the giant cranes at
Miraflores Locks.
Panama City

The entrance to the
Pacific Ocean at
Panama City
“The Kiss of Oceans”
The Canal opened for operation in
1914, completing what one artist
called the “Kiss of Oceans.”
Bridge of the Americas
Bridge of the Americas
• Puente de Las Américas (In Spanish).
• The Bridge of the Americas is approximately 354
ft. high a...
• -Originally known as the Thatcher Ferry
Bridge, is a road bridge in Panama, which
spans the Pacific entrance to the Pana...
Centennial Bridge
Centennial Bridge
• (Spanish: Puente Centenario)
A major bridge crossing the Panama Canal. It
was built to supplement the ...
•

The bridge is cable-stayed ,meaning it’s a bridge that
consists of one or more columns , with cables supporting the
bri...
Expansion efforts
• Panamanian President Martín Torrijos
presented the plan on April 24, 2006. Saying
that The project wil...
• The first phase of the expansion project is the dry excavations of
the 218 meter (715 ft) wide trench connecting the Cul...
Expansion Construction Photos
Objectives of the expansion
• (1) achieve long-term sustainability and growth for the
Canal’s contributions to Panamanian ...
Estimated time/cost
• The construction of the third set of locks
project will take between seven to eight years.
The new l...
1909 Lock Construction

The American expenditures from 1904 to 1914 totaled $352,000,000, far
more than the cost of anythi...
At the Gatun Locks on the Atlantic side, workers poured
enough concrete to build a wall 8' wide, 12' high, and 133
miles l...
By August 15, 1914 the Panama Canal was officially
opened by the passing of the SS Ancon.
Panama Canal
Map of the Panama Canal

Figure 3: A map showing the route of the
completed canal. A series of "locks" are
us...
Technological Fact #1
Upon the Canal’s
completion, a ship
traveling from New
York to San
Francisco saved
7,872 miles by us...
Technological Fact #2

Between 1904 and 1913, a total of 56,307 people
worked on the construction of the waterway. Of
thes...
Technological Fact #3
Construction costs for
the Canal reached
approximately $352
million. When including
the $10 million ...
Technological Fact #4
During the US construction
period, 232 million cubic
yards of earth were
removed. This quantity,
add...
Technological
Fact #5
Millions of cubic
yards were
deposited in the
jungles of Panama.
The biggest
dumps were in
Miraflore...
Technological Fact #6
The highest Canal
toll ever recorded
by $ 141,344.91
paid by the Crown
Princess and the
lowest toll ...
Technological Fact #7
By 2006, the Panama
Canal was maxed out.
In October, the country's voters
approved a $5.25 billion p...
Tight Fit…

In the current
canal locks, ships
have a clearance
of about 2 ft. on
either side.
Updates on the Panama Canal began in
2007.
To connect those locks to
existing shipping lanes, nearly
5 miles of channels w...
Panama all in one                                                                                                         ...
Panama all in one                                                                                                         ...
Panama all in one                                                                                                         ...
Panama all in one                                                                                                         ...
Panama all in one                                                                                                         ...
Panama all in one                                                                                                         ...
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Panama all in one

  1. 1. Jai nagawat Indore , India
  2. 2. The Panama Canal Engineering Wonder of 20th Century According to the American Society of Civil Engineers “The canal remains a testament to the combined skills of structural, geotechnical, hydraulic and sanitary engineers.”
  3. 3. The Panama Canal: “A Wonder of Work”
  4. 4. Joseph Pennell “I looked down into a yawning gulf stretching to right and left, the bottom filled with crowds of tiny men and tiny trains … Overhead, huge iron buckets flew to and fro, great cranes raised or lowered huge masses of material…As I looked a bell rang, the men dropped their tools, and lines of little figures marched away, or climbed wooden stairs and iron ladders to the surface… It was perfect, the apotheosis of the Wonder of Work…”
  5. 5. Case Study of U.S. Policy and Problems to be Overcome 1.Political Problems 2.Geographical Problems 3.Other Natural Problems
  6. 6. Political Problem Gran Columbia Panama In the 1820s, at the time of initial American interest in the Panama Canal, Panama was part of Gran Colombia.
  7. 7. Geographical Problems Three major geographical problems: 1. complex mountain range formation; 2. tropical jungles; and 3. complex topography
  8. 8. Complex Mountain Range Formation
  9. 9. Tropical Jungles Tropical jungles with an average annual rainfall of 105 inches and average temperature of 80 degrees Fahrenheit
  10. 10. Complex Topography
  11. 11. The Other Natural Problem: Disease the “killer” obstacle
  12. 12. Facts and Figures • • • • • • • • Construction began 1904 Opened Aug. 15, 1914 50 Miles long deep water to deep water Average depth 43 feet Width varies between 500 to 1000 feet 14000 vessels pass every year Average of 8 to 10 hour journey Travel time from NYC to San Francisco 6000 miles compared to 14000 taking route around Cape Horn • Tolls based on tonnage of the vessel
  13. 13. •From the Atlantic Ocean the Panama Canal runs south for ten miles (17 km) and then eastward to the Pacific Ocean. •The total soil excavated from the canal would build a pyramid 4,200 feet (1,280 meters) high. •During the construction engineers working on the project earned from $225 to $600 per month. Physicians earned from $150 to $300. •The project consumed as much as twelve million pounds of dynamite per year. •Gatun Lake, the highest part of the canal, is about 85 feet (26 meters) above sea level.
  14. 14. •The Commissary Department provided food for the entire work force and baked as many as six million loaves of bread, 650,000 rolls, and 114,000 pounds of cake per year. •It took nine hours and forty minutes for the passage of the first ship through the canal. The average is 810 hours. •When the canal opened tolls were set at $1.20 per ton for freight and $1.50 per ton for passengers. A freighter carrying a cargo of 4,500 tons paid a toll of $5,400. •When the Panama Canal opened to traffic, the United States had spent $352 million.
  15. 15. Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty •Signed on November 18, 1903 •Granted U.S. control over Panama Canal for a price •Negotiated by Phillipe BunauVarilla and U.S. Secretary of State John Hay
  16. 16. U.S Canal construction •Began in 1904 •Employed thousands of Panamanians and U.S. construction companies •First ship traveled thru the canal in 1914 •Officially finished in 1915
  17. 17. Layout of Canal • Consists of artificial lakes (Miraflores, Gatun)and channels and three sets of locks • Additional artificial lake, Alajuela Lake, acts as a reservoir for the canal • Chagres River is dammed by the Gatun Dam and forms Gatun Lake-it drains northwest into the Caribbean Sea
  18. 18. Gatun Dam • Constructed 19071913 • Impounds Gatun Lake • Hydro-electric generating station generates electricity • Electricity used to operate the locks and other equipment in the canal
  19. 19. How Locks Work/Design • Three sets of the two lane Canal work as water elevators to lift the ships to the level of the Gatun Lake • Set of lanes can accommodate traffic on opposite or same direction • No pumps used to lift the ships, the work is done by a force of gravity • Later lower the ships back to sea level on the other side of the Isthmus of Panama • Electric locomotive on the side provides complete control of movement of vessels • All operations accomplished from a control house built on the center wall of the upper lock chamber. • Single person can run every operation in the passage of the ship except for the towing
  20. 20. • .
  21. 21. Gatun Dam Spillway Construction
  22. 22. Canal Lock Gate Under Construction
  23. 23. • Panama Canal is an 82-kilometre (51 mi) ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. • Work on the canal, which began in 1880, was completed in 1914, making it no longer necessary for ships to sail the lengthy Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America and to navigate the dangerous waters of the Strait of Magellan.
  24. 24. Pennel began his artistic journal through the Canal from the Atlantic Ocean at Colon where American Canal employees lived in wooden bungalows. According to Pennell, the bungalows were “…built of wood, painted white, and completely screened with wire gauze, rusted black by the dampness, a protection from mosquitoes and other beasts, bugs, and vermin.” Colon
  25. 25. Gatun Locks
  26. 26. The Guard Gate, Gatun Pennell noted the “magnificent arrangements” of the Gatun gates. He wrote: “I have never seen such a magnificent arrangement of line, light and mass…great work is great art, and always was and will be. This is the Wonder of Work.”
  27. 27. Construction of Gatun Lock
  28. 28. The Culebra Cut at Bas Obispo The Culebra Cut at Las Cascadas
  29. 29. Gatun Lake
  30. 30. Pedro Miguel Locks
  31. 31. Pennell was also impressed with the walls of the Pedro Miguel Locks
  32. 32. Miraflores Locks
  33. 33. Pennell was fascinated by the giant cranes at Miraflores Locks.
  34. 34. Panama City The entrance to the Pacific Ocean at Panama City
  35. 35. “The Kiss of Oceans” The Canal opened for operation in 1914, completing what one artist called the “Kiss of Oceans.”
  36. 36. Bridge of the Americas
  37. 37. Bridge of the Americas • Puente de Las Américas (In Spanish). • The Bridge of the Americas is approximately 354 ft. high and 5,400 ft. long, and connects the land that was divided during the construction of the Panama Canal(as well as north and south America). The Bridge of the Americas crosses the Pacific approach to the Panama Canal at Balboa, near Panama City and serves as an important part of the Inter-American Highway.
  38. 38. • -Originally known as the Thatcher Ferry Bridge, is a road bridge in Panama, which spans the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal. • -Completed in 1962, costing $20 million, it was the only non-swinging bridge (there are two other bridges, one at the Miraflores locks and one at the Gatun locks)
  39. 39. Centennial Bridge
  40. 40. Centennial Bridge • (Spanish: Puente Centenario) A major bridge crossing the Panama Canal. It was built to supplement the overcrowded Bridge of the Americas, and to replace it as the carrier of the Pan-American Highway; upon its opening in 2004, it became only the second permanent crossing of the canal.
  41. 41. • The bridge is cable-stayed ,meaning it’s a bridge that consists of one or more columns , with cables supporting the bridge, the cables are made nearly parallel by attaching cables to various points on the tower. • It’s designed with a total span of 1,052 m (3,451 ft). The main span is 320 m (1,050 ft), and clears the canal by 80 m (262 ft), allowing large vessels to pass below it. • The bridge is supported by two towers, each 184 m (604 ft) high. The deck carries six lanes of traffic across the canal. The bridge is designed to withstand the earthquake. • The West Tower of the bridge was built ca. 50m inland to allow space for the future widening of the Panama Canal.
  42. 42. Expansion efforts • Panamanian President Martín Torrijos presented the plan on April 24, 2006. Saying that The project will double the canal's capacity and allow more traffic • Panamanian citizens approved it in a national referendum by 76.8% of the vote on October 22, 2006.
  43. 43. • The first phase of the expansion project is the dry excavations of the 218 meter (715 ft) wide trench connecting the Culebra Cut with the Pacific coast, removing 47 million cubic meters of earth and rock. • The project will create a new lane of traffic along the Canal by constructing a new set of locks. Details of the project include the following integrated components: • Construction of two lock complexes—one on the Atlantic side and another on the Pacific side—each with three chambers, which include three water-saving basins; • Excavation of new access channels to the new locks and the widening of existing navigational channels; and, • Deepening of the navigation channels and the elevation of Gatun Lake’s maximum operating level.
  44. 44. Expansion Construction Photos
  45. 45. Objectives of the expansion • (1) achieve long-term sustainability and growth for the Canal’s contributions to Panamanian society through the payments it makes to the National Treasury • (2)maintain the Canal’s competitiveness as well as the value added by Panama’s maritime route to the national economy. • (3) increase the Canal’s capacity to capture the growing tonnage demand with the appropriate levels of service for each market segment. • (4) make the Canal more productive, safe and efficient.
  46. 46. Estimated time/cost • The construction of the third set of locks project will take between seven to eight years. The new locks could begin operations between fiscal years 2014 and 2015. • The construction cost of the third set of locks is estimated at approximately $5,250 million.($5.2 Billion)
  47. 47. 1909 Lock Construction The American expenditures from 1904 to 1914 totaled $352,000,000, far more than the cost of anything built by the United States Government up to that time. In today’s money it would cost $7,448,028,707.72
  48. 48. At the Gatun Locks on the Atlantic side, workers poured enough concrete to build a wall 8' wide, 12' high, and 133 miles long. They built culverts the size of railroad tunnels to channel water from Gatun Lake into the locks.
  49. 49. By August 15, 1914 the Panama Canal was officially opened by the passing of the SS Ancon.
  50. 50. Panama Canal Map of the Panama Canal Figure 3: A map showing the route of the completed canal. A series of "locks" are used to control the water level within the canal.
  51. 51. Technological Fact #1 Upon the Canal’s completion, a ship traveling from New York to San Francisco saved 7,872 miles by using the Panama Canal instead of going around South America. The average time spent in transit from port to port is approx. 8 - 10 hours.
  52. 52. Technological Fact #2 Between 1904 and 1913, a total of 56,307 people worked on the construction of the waterway. Of these, 11,873 were Europeans, 31,071 were from the various Caribbean nations, 11,000 were American, and 69 were not classified.
  53. 53. Technological Fact #3 Construction costs for the Canal reached approximately $352 million. When including the $10 million paid to Panama, the $40 million paid to the French company, and the money previously invested by the French, the total expenditures were about $639 million.
  54. 54. Technological Fact #4 During the US construction period, 232 million cubic yards of earth were removed. This quantity, added to the 30 million removed by the French, provide an approximate of 262 million total cubic yards of earth. How to dispose of the excavated material was an important aspect of the excavation.
  55. 55. Technological Fact #5 Millions of cubic yards were deposited in the jungles of Panama. The biggest dumps were in Miraflores, Gatun, Tabernilla and Balboa.
  56. 56. Technological Fact #6 The highest Canal toll ever recorded by $ 141,344.91 paid by the Crown Princess and the lowest toll ever paid was 36 cents by Richard Halliburton for swimming the Canal in 1928.
  57. 57. Technological Fact #7 By 2006, the Panama Canal was maxed out. In October, the country's voters approved a $5.25 billion plan to expand and modernize the canal. The project will include: • two new sets of singlelane, three-step locks — one set at the Atlantic entrance and one at the Pacific; • two new navigational channels to connect the new locks to existing channels; and • deeper, wider versions of existing shipping lanes.
  58. 58. Tight Fit… In the current canal locks, ships have a clearance of about 2 ft. on either side.
  59. 59. Updates on the Panama Canal began in 2007. To connect those locks to existing shipping lanes, nearly 5 miles of channels will be excavated. The current route through Gatun Lake will also be deepened by 5 ft. and widened, from today’s 500 ft. minimum, to 920 ft. on straightaways and 1200 ft. in the turns. Gatun Lake will then be raised 1.5 ft., providing an extra 550 million gallons of water each day for the locks and alleviating concerns that canal expansion will tax water supplies.

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