INTRODUCTION To comprehend and to practice meditation is obligatory for every man inmodern-day world. Meditation is the wonderful method of realizing dharma in humanlife. In fact, it will be more apt to say that meditation is an aspect of religionconnected with breathing. Meditation is a form of religion. In modern times we findreligion and its different aspects being hotly debated and discussed, but there has beenno discussion, no discourse on the form of religion, on its spiritual aspect. Severalso-called religious people have turned religion into a subject of controversy andpolemic. They seem to have forgotten that religion is not a subject for polemic orcontroversy, rather it is a subject of spiritual dialogue, spiritual purification, souldiscovery and spiritual karma. Meditation is spiritual or self-purification and self- discovery. Meditation helpssuch flowers blossom on earth as will give out spiritual fragrance. Therefore, Irequest, I exhort the entire world that it should get itself introduced with the fragranceof religion through the medium of meditation. Shri Shirish Muni and Shri Sailesh²the former an ascetic and the latter abelieving Jain²are deeply involved in trying to realize my dream in the field ofmeditation. Their right and proper efforts deserve my blessings. The responsibility ofgetting the original Hindi version of this book published was taken over by ShriVinod Sharma : I wish him spiritually all the best. Dr. Dharam Singh of PunjabiUniversity, Patiala, accepted our request to make time to render it into English: hewill ever be an object of my blessing for the labour he has put in to make this Englishtranslation possible as well as for what he has been doing to help various members ofthe Jain Sraman Sangh in the perusal of their academic studies. Our thanks are alsodue to Mr. Ravinder Jain and Purshottam Jain of Malerkotla and Dr. Rajesh Ranjanand Dr. Paryudumna Shah Singh of Punjabi University who helped in a variety ofways in the publication of this book. The series of meditation camps we have been holding is an exercise aimed at theuniversal weal, the welfare of all. At this auspicious hour I welcome all thosededicated young men and others to join and make a joint endeavour to bring about abeautiful, clean and healthy social set-up through the medium of meditation. SHIV MUNI
CHAPTER I MEDITATION : WAY TO INNER-PURIFICATIONIntroduction Welcome to all the seekers of the path to meditation and discipline. The Hindiequivalent of the word ‘welcome’ is ‘swÈgat’. The word ‘swÈgat’ literally meanscoming (Ègat) to self (swai). Thus, one’s return to the self is called ‘swÈgat’. There are certain things and desires in this world which sprout quite easily. Forexample, one such thing is the food. It is quite easy for one’s mind to get attractedtowards food. Suppose you have just finished with your food and all of a sudden someeatable of your liking and choice comes to your sight. A thought flashes through themind²‘let me taste a little bit of it.’ It is thus easy for the mind to get attracted to food.And for this, one need not make a resolution that one will go for the food today. Onenever knows when the mind is tempted by the good food. You sit on an upper floorand the sweet smell of some dishes being prepared downstairs reaches your nostrils,mind in a flash reaches downstairs to find out what is being cooked. It is somewhatnatural. The second example is that of sleep. You enjoy a good 8-hour sleep at night. Stillif you find nothing to be done during the day, what happens then? The mind favourshaving some rest and finally some sleep. It is also quite easy for mind to go for restand sleep. You do not have to force your mind to have a sleep. Of course, sometimesmore than one attempts have to be made to wake you up. But while going for rest orsleep, no effort is needed; sleep comes of its own. The third such example comprises the different objects and entertainment of oursenses. Music sounds good to the ear, sweet smell is good to nose, beauty appeals tothe eye, taste tempts the tongue and touch soothes the skin. These are five differentobject of our five senses. Our mind is prone to go to any of these quite easily. If andwhen a melodious music reaches the ear, no conscious effort is required to make theear listen to it. The mind concentrates on it of its own. And, if there happens to be asweet smell, no effort is required to make the nose smell it: our mind reaches the placeof that smell in a flash. So, these are the three things to which our mind is attracted quite easily and of itsown. First is the food, the second sleep and rest, and the third our differentinclinations (say, for tasty food), entertainment (say, listening to music), and otherobjects appealing to mind. However, to get away from these, to think of returning tooneself, one will have to make efforts in this behalf: accomplishment of it is no doubta great achievement. There will be numerous people who might have thought ofmeditating, observe silence for a while, and attend the camp at least once or twice.There will only be very few among those who thought of this but then made a strongresolution to do that. Of course, this thought came to many people, but what was thethought actually? ‘O.K., shall do it sometime. There is still time. We shall do.’ They failed to take the final decision. They remained confused or in dilemma.Some people resolved that they would do it and then they did get their namesenrolled, but even amongst them there were quite a few who failed to put that
resolution to practice-maybe something at home prevented them or maybe theirresolution was not strong enough and their mind wavered. In case of those who gotprevented because of some important or unavoidable work at home, it is somewhatunderstandable. The main thing is that mind wavered at one or the other stage. Thus,even after getting their names enrolled, even after taking the decision, they failed toput that resolution to practice. You are welcome for the reason that you are amongthose resolute ones who took the decision and then sticking to it reached here.Stages of Self-Purification Now we shall see as to what we have to do during these three days. How shallwe live during these three days? What is the importance of living here? What have weto do while being here? If we put into one word all those different activities, differentsorts of meditation and the different methods of working on our own selves during ourstay here for three days, the word obviously will be inner-purification orself-purification. We shall work on this purification during our stay in the camp forthree days. What is the meaning of inner- or self-purification? How can we explain it? Whenpeople generally listen to the word ‘inner- or self-purification’, they take it to bepurification of Ètman or soul. And, when they listen to the word ‘Ètman’, it seems tothem to be something different, something within the body yet different from it. Thisis not the primary meaning of the word. When the word came into usage for the firsttime around three thousand years ago, the word ‘Ètman’ meant ‘I’. That is why theword ‘Ètmaj’ was used to convey the meaning of ‘my son’ or ‘my daughter’. If Ètmanor soul was something different from body, then whose son or daughter he/she wouldbe? It would belong to the inner consciousness, and the body would have had norelation with it? Thus, son/daughter is related to your body and the Ètman also means‘I’. In this sense, inner-purification means ‘my purification’ or purification ofwhatever I am. First of all, what are you? What is your first identifica- tion? When you say ‘I’,then what is your first identification? How can one identify you? By name? There canbe several people by the same name. Then the first identification is your body.Suppose there are three persons by the same name and you want to call one of them,how will you do that? How will you identify one you want to call from the other twoby the same name? Obviously, by looking at their physical appearance, at their body.All three have the same name, but they have different bodily appearance. So what isthe first mark of identification? The body. So the body forms the first stage of the selfwe talk about.First Step : Purification of Body The first step in this direction is the purification of the body. This body of oursneeds be cleansed, purified. This first step is rather significant because we never giveserious attention to our body. And if we ever divert the attention, it happens onlywhen the body starts giving problems, i.e. when it becomes prone to disease anddecay. These teeth in our mouth seldom attract the serious attention they deserve: ofcourse, our attention goes to them but only when one of them gets painful. When atooth falls off or is pulled off, the tongue spontaneously reaches there time and againto assure itself-or warn us?-that a tooth is gone. Maybe, otherwise we might notbother to think as to how many teeth we have. We never divert our attention in this
direction. Similarly, we never consciously think that we have two ears. Again, weremember and think of the ear only when it gets painful or becomes hard of hearing. Itis only after that that we think that there is something wrong with our ear. It isthereafter that we begin to attend to the ear. The same happens with our body as awhole. We never pay attention due to it. That is why our body falls prey to differentdiseases.What is a Disease? Disease implies ‘give attention to me’. Suppose there is a small toddler andnobody is paying any attention to it. What will it do? It will weep, wail and cry. Thenyou give it a little of your attention, ask it what was wrong with it and why it wasweeping. On your attending to it, it will calm down a bit. It will ask for nothing, itneeds nothing except your attention. Similarly, you did not pay attention to your body.Gradually with the passage of time one or the other disease takes roots. If you arefortunate enough that no disease took roots, some impurity or disorder takes place.The latter also implies lethargy. Today, if you are asked to sit straight for a while, youstart complaining of pain here or there. You cannot sit straight, but can easily sit in alittle bending posture. Sitting straight is quite difficult. For some people, walkingupstairs is problematic. In the Dayalji Ashram if you daily go upstairs, you realizehow much is its height. No doubt, you are not yet old people beyond 80 years of age,but any disorder can take roots in the body even when you are young enough of say30 or 40 years of age. In the case of some people, it is the head that has becomeproblematic, it is the waist in the case of other, and similarly some other part of thebody in the case of others. In fact, when I said the age of 30 or 40, perhaps it was toomuch. You will see as we go along with the yoga lessons, even people in theirtwenties will face difficulties. A little movement of the body, bending it and making it do various things seemsquite difficult to many. And it is not unnatural or unexpected because we never paidany attention to the body, never bothered to enquire about its condition. When wewere infants, we had a brand new heart, supple hands, bright and sharp eyes and abeautiful face. As we have grew up, did we ever look at ourselves to find out whathappened to all these parts, to the body as a whole. Whenever we showed any care orconcern for the body, it was only to cleanse it from without with water and soap. Wenever thought of cleansing it from within. In fact, we never knew how to do it. Thenhow will we do the inner cleansing, inner purification of the body here in this camp?Relationship of Body and Mind This body of yours must not be taken as mere body alone, rather quite intimatelyrelated to it is your mind. If there is restlessness of the body, mind cannot remain calmand concentrated. If there is tension and disorder in the body, mind cannot remainbalanced and in order. See for yourself: when your foot is in pain, can you possibly sitcalm and composed? Can you concentrate in prayer? Or can it concentrate insamÈyik? Obviously, no. It means, this body is not mere body alone, our mind isintimately connected with it. You may say for the sake of saying what is inside? It isjust like a house on rent. However, you are still in the body and you are so closelyconnected with it that whatever happens to the body immediately affects your totalbeing, including the mind. If a small thorn pierced into your foot, you remember thepain the whole day. It is a small thorn, but it shakes your entire six feet tall body. And,
it happens because of a small thorn! Thus, we realize that the body has a deep effecton the human mind. This implies that the purity of body is of utmost importance. We have to work on our consciousness, on our mind, but for that it is imperativethat our body should be set right, cleansed and purified. Purity of body is the first step.And, for this purity of body we shall perform different yogic exercises.What is Yoga? The yoga exercises are hundreds of years old. They have not been made orintroduced by me or anyone else. These have been taken from ancient texts. We shalltry different postures (Èsnas) for cleansing the body. The stiffness of the body, thelethargy and all such evils will gradually be gone because the yogic postures are notmere exercises. They are not just another physical activity. There is a lot of differencebetween yogic postures and other physical exercises. Often people tend to confuse onewith the other. It is not that mere raising hands up and down, forward and backward isa yogic activity. Yoga is not mere physical exercise. The latter is only for the bodywhereas the former is for your consciousness. Of course, it will be the body which weshall be using, but the effect will not be limited to the body, rather will go to yourinner most self, to your conscious self. Some yogic Èsnas are connected with thefeeling of anger and the other with the wavering of mind and its sensuous and sensualinclinations. Therefore, when you perform some yoga Èsnas, this surely affects yourfeelings. Gradually these feelings and emotions come under control. This is the firststep towards the purification of body, purification of Ètman.Silence for Self-Purification What is your second identification? How do the people identify you? The firstsuch identification is the body which includes your appearance, mien and face. Whatis the next? Profession? No, profession cannot be the mark of identification. Yourvoice? What and how you speak is the second mark of your identification. When aphone call comes, the person on the other end may not give out his name, but from hisvoice we can identify the caller. That is why when a regular caller, a person wellknown to you makes a call, he just says hello and you respond by asking about hiswell being and continue the conversation without asking the caller’s identity. Thus,the second mark of your identification is your voice. And, therefore, the second steptowards self-purification is that of the voice or speech. This purification is also ofgreat significance because we have been making use of our speech more or lesscarelessly and recklessly, with the minor exception that we try to speak a littlerespectfully in the presence of elders. It is on rare occasions that we observe silencefor a while, but we have never given the due attention to our speech. Then, how can itbe purified? What sort of purification it will be? For this purpose, we shall make useof silence. We shall remain completely silent. Observance of silence here means that we will not speak through the expressionof words. We shall not ‘speak’ even through gestures or by eyes. Absolutely nogestures or words. Silence here implies as if you had cut off all relations with theoutside world. You should presume you have none in the world except yourself andthat you know nobody in the outside world. There are so many people here in thecamp, but each one of you must live and move about here as if he were alone. Youknow so many people here, but you have to be here as if you know nobody.Everybody is alien to you. If there is any problem with anybody here, it should not
bother you. All your attention be fixed and concentrated on yourself alone. Let it notbe that a person comes and stands behind you, all eyes get turned to him to find outwho has come to stand there. The person did not come to stand there for your sake!There is no need to look back at him, but we are so habitual of it that we cannotcontrol ourselves. We are accustomed to look at what we need not. It is like the habitof listening to what we need not and what we are not supposed to listen. We are alsohabitual of speaking what we need not. Therefore, observance of silence here meansthat we shall make absolutely no use of words; we shall not utter even a single word.Absolute silence. You might have a problem, you might have a question to ask, might have aphysical or mental problem, or you might have forgotten to bring along something.You might just open your bag and find that you have forgotten to bring the soap orsome such thing. Do not try to borrow such a thing from anyone because it willamount to speaking. Both the person borrowing and the person lending will be takenas speaking to each other. For any sort of problem, a diary and pen will always beavailable here. You have just to enter therein your name and the item you require. Weshall manage the required item for you. You may have problem in comprehending aquestion, do not express your problem in words, but put that problem here in writingand we shall solve your problem. You may have some other problem, for example asevere headache. You must not ask anybody for help or advice. You should just enterhere your name and problem. Asking anybody else for anything whatsoever iscomplete taboo. You should presume that around you sit not humans but just ghosts.None of them has any acquaintance with you. All are aliens who have come fromforeign, unknown lands. You should live and move about here in this fashion.Whenever you have a difficulty or a problem, you will put that in writing here in thisdiary. In case it is something really urgent or emergent, you will inform me about it inwriting. But you will not talk at all among yourselves or with people from outside. Many people known to you will be visiting here-some to listen to the discourse,some to pay obeisance, but you will meet none of them. You must not meet anybodywhosoever from outside. You have come here and it is important for you that youkeep your belongings in a separate bag with you even if someone closely related toyou, maybe your wife or husband, son or daughter, might also be attending the campwith you. Even if you had brought your belonging together in one bag, you shouldnow separate yours from the other person’s. If your belongings are kept in one bag,observing silence is not possible. If you know someone, identify someone and he/shesits beside you, you are sure to ask him/her for this or that item. Conversation willnaturally follow. One, you are not used to observing silence and then if there is besideyou a known face with whom you are used to converse daily, conversation here willbe a sure possibility. And, silence is the most significant part of this camp. You haveto be very, very careful in maintaining silence. Not only in the hall but wherever yougo-in the room, in the bathroom or anywhere else-you must not talk to anybody at anyplace. You have to behave as if you do not know how to speak: you have becomedumb. You should dive into silence in this way.What Sort of Silence? Of course, we shall observe silence, but this never means that we shall become orseem to be sad. Our silence must not be sadness oriented. It should be smile oriented.We shall observe silence with a laughing face, laughing and smiling. And, this
laughter and smile is not for anyone else, it is by you for your own self. You willsmile because you have to smile. You would not do so because someone else islooking at you or because some one acquainted with you is close by or is passing byyou. Your smile will not be for any reason, it will be without any reason whatsoever.This is what is called Ènand or ecstasy. This ecstasy is not the outcome of this or thatreason. On the other hand, pleasure is the effect of a cause. You should always keeplaughing, you should always keep smiling and you will never at any cost lose thissmile and laughter. You should make the resolution with yourself that your smile willremain whatever comes to happen. You may have headache, you might have a brokenfoot, but smile should always remain spread on your lips. You may like the food oryou may have to get up half way without taking the required food, but you will keepsmiling. You will never lose this smile. This is silence. This is purification of speech. During the observance of silence during this camp, some people think that sincethey do not have to converse, it will be useful to take along a book and read it. Let itbe emphasized that silence here means absolutely no use of words. Nothing to readand nothing to write. If there is anything important to be written, I shall tell you towrite. In case you feel that you have missed out something, there is nothing to worryabout. You may ask me, in writing, any question and any number of times. But youwill not write anything of your own. The prescription is not to write, read, speak ormake gestures. There is office downstairs. A telephone is also available there. You may get thetemptation to go there so as to make at least a phone call at home to find out that all iswell. As it is, there may not be cordiality in relations at home, but when one goes outto a village or some other place, one does remember home a few times. Maybe,distance adds to the affection. In that case you might get the feeling to go down andmake a call at home. But do not go even near the office or the phone. This is for yoursafety alone. In case you go to the office, you might meet someone not from the campand his waves, his feelings, his ideas might adversely affect you. The environmentfrom which he has come, the environment in which he has been living are all differentfrom yours. Why have you been asked to remain here during the tenure of the camp?This is to give you a different kind of environment so that you could observe a deep,very deep silence in that environment, an environment wherein you will be observingboth the inner and the outer silence. We are trying to build that kind of environment.If you meet someone from outside, the preparation being made here will get hindered,will go waste. So not going to the office and not meeting anyone from outside is foryour own welfare. It is not for the safety and welfare of anyone else. It will be yoursafety and it will be to your benefit.What is PrÈ‡a? We have so far discussed body and speech. What is the third one? This is ourprÈ‡a, the life-force. We know a very little of it. This body of ours is made up ofbones, flesh and blood. Beneath it is a subtle body which is made up of prÈ‡a. This iscalled prÈ‡a body. We shall also make endeavours at the purification of this body.We shall do this partly through the medium of speech and partly through that ofprÈ‡ÈyÈma.What is BhÈvanÈ?
We shall purify the bhÈvanÈ through amiability, friendship, love andforgiveness. After that comes our consciousness. That consciousness will be purifiedthrough meditation. Thus, we shall do five kinds of purification-of body, of speech, ofprÈ‡a, of bhÈvanÈ and of consciousness. If we put together all the five kinds ofpurification, it can well be called self-purification. During these three days we shalldive into self-purification. We shall practice it. We shall pay full, complete attentionon our own self, because this is the time when we shall be working on ourselves. Weshall pay absolutely no attention to the others-even if someone is having headache orsome other ailment or problem. You need not either think or speak about any one else.You have come here for your own sake, and you will see to your own benefit. Thereare so many volunteers here to look after others, to attend to their needs and alleviatetheir difficulties and problems. You must not pay attention to others. There is no needfor you to speak for anyone. Silence, everybody to his own self, is the rule. If youmust say something, write it down to convey. If anyone else has to say, he will do ithimself. You must remember this, and follow this strictly. This will meanself-purification. There are certain rules, certain prescriptions for self-purification, andwe have to follow them.What are the Rules? All of you might have read the rules while getting your name registered to attendthis camp. If some of you have not, I shall repeat the rules for their benefit and for thatof others. The first thing about the camp is that it will start at 12.00 noon today andconclude at 4.00 in the evening of the fourth day from today. You will have to stayput here for these four days. Whatever might happen to you or to the outside world,you will live here for this duration. You make the resolution that you will live herewhatever might happen. Nobody of you will come to me with the request that such athing has happened and for this he will have to go back home. You will not beallowed to go- whatever might be your compulsions. This rule is like the one underwhich a doctor takes a patient to the operation theatre. The doctor will first ask you ifyou would wish to be operated upon. Once you answer in the affirmative, the doctortakes you to the operation theatre, gives you the injection or anesthesia and theoperation starts, you cannot at that stage leave midway, saying that today half theoperation is all right and you will get the other half done some other day becausetoday you must go home for some urgent piece of work. Will the doctor let you go atthat stage? Such a decision is dangerous not only for you but also for the doctor. Incase such a patient dies, the blame will be unduly attributed to the doctor as well. Soeither you will not go to the operation theatre or if you go you will come out onlyafter the doctor completes the operation. This camp is also a similar thing. It is a sortof operation to be conducted by you on your self. You are your own doctor, your ownphysician and your own surgeon. You cannot go away leaving the treatment half way.And, once you start the treatment, there might come several problems which you willhave to face. If the wound has gone sour because of your earlier neglect, it will surepain now when you cleanse it and dress it. Suppose there is a bit of trash and rubbish lying on the floor of your house. Dustparticles will sure go up when you try to sweep off the floor to remove this rubbish.How can you expect a rose smell from there? It is therefore natural that body willexperience some pain when go in for its cleansing, its purification. If someone of youdevelops some physical or psychological problem, if someone develops restlessnessor insomnia, it is no cause to worry or get frightened. Keep on renewing the resolution
that you will complete what you have begun and that during the duration of the campnothing is more important to you than the fulfillment of this resolve. Do not worryabout what might be happening at home or at shop or office. Spend your days hereunconcerned about the happenings of the outside world. Take it for this duration as ifyou have no family, no home and that you are a recluse. It is just a three-day longrenunciation. If you are so very keen, you may go back after three days or you mightstay here for another day. This is the first rule of this camp. Check up and confirm now if you have an urgent appointment tomorrowmorning or the day after. If it is so, let me know now. I shall relieve such a person justnow. But later on at night, I will not allow. If you have come with the mind to spendhere the first day and then decide whether or not to continue here the next day, it willnot do. Once we get started, your mind may or may not feel interested, you will haveto remain here till the conclusion of the camp. If there is such a person, please let meknow now. Later on it will not be possible for me to release anyone. It is just like aplane taking off, you cannot get down until and unless it lands. When the plane is inthe sky, you cannot say that I must jump down now, at this very moment. It is notpossible. This is the first rule. The second rule is the purification of food intake. Our body and mind areaffected by the kind of food we take. Here you will be provided with pure vegetarianand healthy food. It will be a bit different from the kind of food you take at yourhome. You sometimes get sweets, fried food and other eatables with a lot of pepper.At home you take tea, coffee, etc., but you will get none of these things here. Someamong you might be habitual of smoking, tobacco or any other kind of intoxicant, butyou will get no such thing here. However, you will get healthy vegetarian food daily.And, you will eat only what will be supplied here. You will not accept any eatablefrom outside for your intake. Purification of food is rather important. As we work on the body in differentways and as we work on our mind, on our consciousness in varied manners, foodconstitutes a significant part of the whole process. It plays a very important role inthis. Third, you will not take any sort of intoxicant. Some of you may have the habitof smoking or chewing tobacco, but you will not take any such during your camp. Incase, someone of you has brought along unknowingly-I am sure no one will havebrought such a thing knowingly and consciously-any intoxicant, he should hand thething over to me. Please all of you check the pockets of your shirts and trousersbecause some such thing might unwittingly have been put there. Any such thing nowhanded over to me will be given back to you after the duration of the camp. However,those who are chronic patients of diabetes, hypertension, liver or kidney and aretaking regular medicine for any of such ailments are advised to keep their medicinewith them and continue with their regular dose of it. However, you will not take thatmedicine which has not been recommended by a physician as daily dose for a chronicailment. This includes the lighter medicines, say for mild headache, for pain in this orthat part of body or for not getting proper sleep. In case you feel you need somemedicine, please let us know and we shall make arrangements for your requirements.But you will not take any medicine on your own. However, you may continue withthe medicines already prescribed by the physician. Still you will not make use of anymedicine for inducing sleep and for killing pain. You are advised to maximize the
intake of water. You should take a lot of water because when we meditate, a lot ofheat is produced within the body. The most important among these rules is that you will remain in ecstasy in allcircumstances. If you are restless, get calm down: If you are calm, get happy; If you are happy, get ecstatic, And if you are ecstatic, get silent. ²SrÏ Ravisha×kar JÏ We have to live through this camp in this way-in ecstasy and in silence. We shallremain ecstatic come what may. If we sleep well, we shall be in ecstasy, but we shallbe in ecstasy even if we do not sleep well. We shall remain ecstatic if we are able toconcentrate or not able to concentrate on meditation. We shall enjoy the same ecstaticposition whether the mosquitoes bite us or not. We shall keep laughing throughoutthese days. We shall laugh heartily, whether laughter comes or not. You will see thatin the beginning, it might sound like artificial, a sort of drama. But you will neverknow when this drama will turn into truth. So we shall live here in complete ecstasy.Bondage of Twentieth Century What sort of bondage it is? This is the bondage of time. For example, you sit stillwrapt in some thought and someone comes and tells you that it is one o’clock, youwill automatically feel hungry. This is so because it is your lunch time. Anotherperson attuned to this lunch-time routine might say that it is still half an hour to gobefore one o’clock, therefore he is not yet hungry and that he will have lunch half anhour later. In other words, he is not hungry now, but will get hungry at one o’clock. Italso means that he does not feel the need for lunch because he is hungry but because itis one o’clock. Similarly, one might ask for the time. Is it 11 o’clock. šO, it is 11already; I feel sleepy’. This means sleep does not come when we feel sleepy, it comesat particular time or we want to go to bed not because of sleep but because of timefactor. We have become bound by time. Our mind has become so slave to time thatsuch things have become our second nature. This is a gift of the twentieth century. Wehave to get liberated from this habit. So you will not keep your watch with you, andwill hand it over to us. In case it is with you, you will now or then feel tempted tolook at it for time. And once our mind learns of the time, it will think of the work it issupposed to do at that point of time, and thus it will start its chain. So please handover your watches to us. And if you have any money on your person, or cell phone ormobile phone, please give over all such things to us. Please do not keep with youanything which is costly or which can help establish your contact with anybodyoutside here. It is only then that you will be able to fully concentrate and benefityourself with the purification of self.
CHAPTER II MEDITATION : A BACKGROUND DhyÈna or meditation is an important word. The given word has its own valueand significance. The word is like a point pregnant with deep meanings. In fact,dhyÈna is the centralization of the scattered powers. And these powers are facing thedirection of the centre of the self. DhyÈna also means silence of the inner self. ¶chÈrya Amit Gati says: Ènand-rÊpam paramÈtmatattvam, samasta-sa×kalpavi- kalpa-muktam; swabhÈvalÏnÈ nivasanti nityam, jÈnÈti yogÏ swayameva tattvam. Thus where there is no sa×kalpa or volition and no vikalpa or alternative, thatcalm and silent stage is named dhyÈna. Looking at and listening to soham sound ofnatural and spontaneous breathing in (inhalation) and breathing out (exhalation)soothens and calms the thoughts. And when all thought stop, when they all calm downand mind becomes thought-free, such a stage is called dhyÈna. There are some similarities between sleep and dhyÈna. When one is in deepsleep, his mind is at peace. That is why we call it deep slumber. Otherwise, differentsorts of dreams keep coming and going. Similarly, when mind becomes flawless andcalm, only then can one achieve dhyÈna or we can say that one gets immersed indhyÈna.Difference Between DhyÈna and Sleep In deep sleep, our mind is thoughtless and at peace, but it is peace associatedwith unconsciousness. In dhyÈna, mind is at peace but associated with completeconsciousness. The second similarity between the two is that neither of them can beattained through conscious effort, with force or power. Both of them happenspontaneously. You cannot attain them through willing endeavour. Of course, it isnecessary to create internal and external background to let them happen. For example,you choose a proper place so that you can have a good sleep at night. Then you spreadproper bedding to lie down on it and take on light or heavy/woolen sheet over yourbody according to the weather at that time. You either switch off the light or put ondim light. You lie down in a relaxed posture and close your eyes. Thereafter, if sleepcomes, well and good, but if it still does not come, you cannot use force for it. Themore you will use your mind to make efforts to get sleep, the farther it will go fromyou and your mind will get equally restless. But if you leave your mind free, you never know when suddenly sleep overtakesyou. Similarly, we create internal and external background for attaining dhyÈna tohappen.External Background At a proper place and in a proper posture, with your eyes lightly closed whilekeeping your backbone straight, you should leave your body loose and relaxed and sitstill. This is the external background.Internal Background
As we take our attention off the surrounding environ- ment, we pay our entireattention to look at and listen to the sound of soham of the natural and spontaneousbreathing in and breathing out. As we do so, our thoughts begin to calm down andwhen the thoughts get completely calm down, dhyÈna is accomplished. We cannotcalm down the thoughts with force The harder we try to check our thoughts, the morethey continue to increase. Thus, dhyÈna is not an effort, but just a happening. Still it isvery important and imperative to create external background for it to happen.Silence is Consciousness This entire world is a game of consciousness. The inner silence and nothingnessis the basis of the creation of everything including sciences, mathematics, language,art, poetry, music, metaphysics and so on. After entering into silence, the door opensfor innumerable possibilities. Thus, when a person enters silence, he undergoes multi-dimensional progress. His consciousness also develops.
CHAPTER III DHY¶NA : PRACTICAL FORM AND ACHIEVEMENT [Dr. Shiv MunijÏ, ¶chÈrya of the ƒrama‡ Sa×gh, has been a very well knownscholar, orator, spiritually enlightened and a guiding spirit to many seekers of spiritualknowledge. With the help of his deep study, experience and experiments he has ledmany on the path to high spirituality. All including the old, the young and the smallchildren are benefiting from his teachings on methods of dhyÈna and its application. In the following pages are published those discourses and addresses of the¶chÈrya which he gave to the seekers of higher knowledge. The readers of thesepages can also benefit by understanding the practical form of dhyÈna.] Even those who are absolutely ignorant of and unfamiliar with the practice ofdhyÈna often use the word in their daily life. For example, they quite often ask ‘readwith care (dhyÈna),’ ‘listen with care’ and ‘do the work with care’. This speaks forthe popularity of the word throughout the world. In the field of sÈdhnÈ, the worddhyÈna is a concept. It implies making your mind reflect or concentrate on the soul(Ètman) which is like the supreme Lord or turning the mind inwards from outwardworld. Just as a fish ever remains deep inside the water, similarly when mind aftermoving away from the ideas and rituals absorbs itself in the soul, it is dhyÈna ormeditation. Meditation occupies the highest place in both the Vedic and „rama‡ic traditions.In the preceding pages we have made only doctrinal analysis of it. It is necessary toknow the practical or experimental method of meditation along side its thoroughdoctrinal knowledge. We either study or learn from others to understand a doctrineand then after following it we try to transform our life. Thus, it is only aftermeditating and realizing its accomplishment in practice that life can become pleasantand joyous. First of all we shall try to understand the content of meditation. Many of youmight have read somewhat or listened from others on the subject of meditation.Maybe, a few amongst you might have practiced it as well. However, when you listennow to the lectures on this topic, listen to them from a new perspective. In fact,listening is also an art. Often, as we listen, we do so on the basis of our own history,on the basis of our sa×skÈra. You have already formed a pre-conceived notion ofwhat meditation means, and you have formed this notion thinking it to be the rightone. If you listen to what I say with that pre-conceived notion already in mind, youwill agree with me if my ideas are identical with your earlier notion. However, if myideas are not identical with that notion, you will wonder as to why I speak as I havebeen, and that meditation does not mean what I try to convey. In other words, youhave already made up your mind that meditation means this and this.You have cometo the meditation camp. Let it be an experiment for you. What is meant by the wordexperiment? In experiment, you never know the final result to be arrived at, but stillyou agree to give your cent per cent in making the experiment a success. Whatevermight be the final outcome, you always give your maximum in the experiment. Thismeditation camp is a sort of journey into the unknown. Yes, since there have alreadytaken place so many camps, I can say with a certain degree of assurance that this and
this will happen during the camp. Even then the world of consciousness is the worldof the unknown. Who knows what might happen and how that might happen? Ourduty is to do, to perform but the result or the reward of that performance is not in ourpower. You should go ahead with this camp with the presumption that this meditationcamp is a blessing. And, when a person is under the blessings, whatever happens isfor his well being. We have to go through this experiment with this kind of feeling inmind. What is meditation? How to define it? What do you think of it? If you are askedto meditate, what do you understand of it? First of all, I will ask the audience here asto what meditation means. You will tell me whatever you think of the word. The various responses from the audience can be summed up as under: Concentration Control over mind Mental journey from one world to the other State of being liberated Reflection on soul Cessation of the course of cognition Sit in a state of nothingness End of Asssumptions Feeling of being in Divine proximity Removing the defilements One-pointedness of mind All these answers mean almost the same thing. Of course, it is very difficult to define the word dhyÈna in a few words orsentences. Kahlil Zibran has said that he used to write quite long and voluminouspoems on love until he had not been in love; the day he experienced love, he did notknow how to express or describe it. All the words seemed small. Similar is the casewith dhyÈna. So what is dhyÈna? How to define it? According to the universally accepted andknown view, it means concentration of mind, to apply it to one point. That is whypeople ask as to who or what should be concentrated upon? I conducted a meditation camp at JalÈnÈ. Three days of the camp were over. Onthe concluding day, it was time for asking questions. One from amongst theparticipants asked me: ‘You repeatedly ask us to meditate, to concentrate, but what orwho should we concentrate upon? I asked him what he has done during the last three days. He said: ‘I had been thinking of this. Concentration on breathing and such otherthings is all right, but concentra- tion? What is to be concentrated upon? From dhyÈna, we generally understand to concentrate on something orsomebody. Often people think of concen- trating on a particular photograph, onrepeatedly reciting a given mantra, on some person, a spiritual preceptor, or somesuch person. To concentrate the mind and apply to any of such things is generally
taken to mean dhyÈna. The general masses think that concentration is meditation. Infact, majority of the people think so. I have met a large number of people who thinkalmost on the same lines, i.e. meditation means concentrating the mind on a givenpoint. Concentration of mind is the important thing. If mere concentration of mind were dhyÈna or meditation, it would have been avery easy thing to do. It would not have been difficult at all. Mind gets concentrated ifwe do something in which we feel pleasure. For example, someone might beinterested in music and he might take pleasure listening to it. You daily find childrenwatching television, with their mind fully concentrated on the programme they arewatching and they get completely oblivious of the surroundings. They either will notrespond even to their mother’s call or at least will refuse to get away from thetelevision. They get deeply involved in what they watch. Their mind gets concentratedon the television. When you count money, how is it that your mind gets concentratedon the job. O course, the mind wavers often. Normally, it goes to what happenedyesterday or before that. But while counting the currency notes, it is concentrated onthe job so that counting does not go wrong. This is a human example. Take theinstance of a cat: it is all concen- tration while preying on the rat. It looks intent, not asingle hair of its body moves. DHY¶NA ² NOT CONCENTRATION OF MIND If mere concentration of mind is taken to mean dhyÈna, then you should put yourmind on a thing you love to do, it will get concentrated on that. Had mentalconcentration been the same thing as dhyÈna, I need not have asked you to look at thebreath. I could have easily procured a good movie for you to watch. Your mind wouldhave concentrated on the movie. None of you would have complained of the pain inthe foot or ache of the back. People sit for three long hours to watch a movie. There isonly a 10-minute-long interval in between. At that time, nobody complains thatwatching a movie for such a long time was quite painful to his foot or back. Here inthe camp, half an hour-half an hour is too long a period, even 10-15 minutes ofdhyÈna- seems ages to them and they complain whether the organizers have no watchwith them! Time, it seems, has stopped moving. And, watching a movie you sit for such along time and still say you never knew how the time flew past. If I say it might bebecause of sitting cross-legged on the floor, I shall also suggest you sit in the chairand see the result. If you feel it is hot out over here, I shall suggest you sit under thefan. It will not make much difference to your feelings. As it is, there is a lot ofdifference between your mental make-up as you watch a movie and that as you try tomeditate or concentrate on the breath. In the former situation, it is like adding fire tothe already burning fire of desires and temptations within you. I can give you anillustration from our life of yester years. Those days people used to cook food on firein the hearth. After the food was cooked, people used to put the fire in the hearth off.For this purpose, they would sprinkle water on the fire. Do you know what happens ifyou sprinkle water on the fire? A sound of shnnnn comes. Why does this sound come?The answer is simple: fire is hot and the water cold. If and when two opposites meettogether, there is bound to be some reaction. If a reaction occurs, there is bound to besome sort of noise or sound. And, if you add some ghee or oil to the fire, there will beno noise and the fire in the hearth will continue to burn. Why? In this case, we addfire to the fire and that is why no reaction took place.
In the same way, within each one of us burns the fire of desires and feelings. Asort of stimulation or excitement is there within us. This keeps the fire of desires andfeelings burning. This excitement or stimulation is ever within. What happens whenyou watch a movie or indulge in some other entertainment? A little more fire getsadded to the already burning fire within us. Thus, nothing, no reaction takes place.Time flies past. Three hours or even six hours. You just do not feel it. Some peoplecan go on watching movies throughout the night. Some parents share with us that theirchildren continue watch the television all through the night. As I said earlier, they donot feel sleepy, because it is fire being added to the fire. Look, what happens here? It is just half an hour before you started themeditation, and you feel drowsy. This happens because here water is being sprinkledon fire. When cold water falls on the fire of desires and feelings, reaction will be thereand there will be some sound. It is that very reaction which we sometimes call pain inthe feet, pain in the neck, back ache, restlessness, wavering of mind, the question ofwhen will this come to an end, etc. All this is the result of water being added to the fire. If a housewife says, since areaction takes places and a sound comes, water need not be put on the fire in thehearth. It would mean that fire in the hearth will continue to burn. Perhaps, it willnever be put off. But a wise housewife would say, ‘whatever the sound or reaction, Imust extinguish the hearth-fire since I do not need it after cooking the food.’ Thewisdom of the devotee lies in his determination not to be bothered by the sound or thereaction, but keep firm on his resolve to extinguish the fire. This is the primarydifference between the spiritual endeavour and entertainment.Yoga Discipline a Must The famous PÈta¤jalÏ YogasÊtra begins with the words ‘athayogÈnushÈsanam’. A free rendering of these words into English would run as-nowbegins the discipline of the yoga. May it be yoga or meditation, the path of thedevotee is marked by discipline. Why is discipline so important and necessary? Theanswer is: this is the way on which first comes pain. Mind fails to stick to it. Itcontinues to waver. There is restlessness. To check the mind and to overcome allother obstacles, you will have to follow certain do’s and don’ts. These stipulations area must. For example, you will have to keep your eyes closed. You will have toobserve silence. This implies discipline and regulations to be observed. These arenecessary because we all know that mind will not remain concentrated without allthese. Suppose there are no such stipulations and regulations and you are given thefreedom either to keep silence or continue with whatever conversation you want. Howmany of you will prefer to observe silence? If you are given the option to meditate aslong as you wish and go to sleep when you wish and continue to sleep as long as youwish. How long will you continue with meditation? We all know the answer! It is difficult for man to meditate. We do not have much control over our bodyand mind. We wish to, but we cannot because our body and mind do no cooperate.Mind wavers. Discipline is necessary to keep both the body and mind to keep on theright path.A Little Suffering : Immense Joy The path of yoga and meditation is such as brings pain and suffering, dilemmasand restlessness in the beginning. However, those who go across willingly and
laughingly without bothering for the pain in the foot or aching back or restlessness ofmind ultimately achieve the ecstasy. This ecstasy is immense and immeasurable. Howis the path of entertainment? It looks rather fine to begin with, and mind gets easilyattracted to it. However, this is only for a brief while. Later on, pain and suffering inmountain-like proportions await us. A little bit of pleasure and many times moresuffering. This is what is in store ahead if mind is given freedom to indulge inentertainment and to run after the fulfillment of desires. On the way to spiritualendeavour, there is a little suffering in the beginning, but later on it is followed bymany times more joy and ecstasy. What is the pain or suffering? Just a little. What we now feel is either a bit ofpain in the foot or headache or backache or a little restlessness. Have you never feltsuch a pain in life earlier? It might have happened many times before. You mighthave fallen ill on several occasions. What was the result of that ailment? Nothingmuch. But the way we are now endeavouring to tread is marked by a little pain in thebeginning, a little bit of dilemma and suffering. I appreciate that you might not havesat in this posture earlier. Thus a little bit of pain is natural. However, if you gothrough it joyously, you will then go steady further on the way.Concentration of Mind : Result of DhyÈna It is a generally accepted assumption that concentration of mind is meditation. Ifmeditation were just concentration of mind, it would have been quite an easier thing.But meditation does not mean mere concentration of mind. Meditation is not mereconcentration. By meditating, mind gets concentrated: this is the effect of meditation.But this is not meditation itself. Through meditation concentration can be achieved,but concentration does not imply meditation.Emptiness of Mind : Result of DhyÈna The second assumption about meditation is that making mind empty, makingmind calm is meditation. The ability to empty mind of all ideas and feelings and tomake it calm is also said to imply meditation. It also implies that relaxation of mind ismeditation. If making mind empty of thoughts and ideas and feelings were meditation,it would have been a very easy thing. In that case, there would have been no needeither to sit on the ground in a specific posture or to look and concentrate on thebreath. If one wants just a calm mind, an empty mind, one should just go and sleepunder a fan. Body might feel at ease. And, when you are in deep slumber, your mindis generally empty, your mind with no ideas and feelings. In fact, such a mental stateis called deep slumber. Mind is not free of feelings and ideas until it keeps dreaming.And, when there are no ideas and feelings in the mind, you go to deep slumber. If emptying your mind of all thoughts and feelings were meditation, then bothsleep and meditation would have been synonymous. They would have been one andthe same thing. But, they are not one and the same thing; there is a lot of differencebetween the two. What is that difference? Emptiness of mind is a state that comesduring the meditation. In a way, it is an effect of the meditation. It can also be calledan achievement of dhyÈna. However, you empty your mind of all thoughts and youhave meditated, it is not so.DhyÈna : Return to Primordial State
Now the question arises: what is dhyÈna? How can we define it? Everything hasits own primordial state. For example, the inherent nature or original state of water iscoolness. If you want to heat it up, you will have to make some effort for it. It willhave to be placed on fire. Water will hot up only if we heat it either with the help ofelectricity or solar energy. But if we leave the water to itself, it will soon go back toits original state. And, the original nature of water, as we said earlier, is coolness.What is the inherent nature of fire? Heat or warmth. Similarly, there is also an originalstate of your being. To come back to that original state is called dhyÈna. What will you have to do to return to the original state? You will have to overpower your mind; You will have to remain conscious; Soul will have to be purified; Resolution will have to be made; Body will have to be given up; Mind will have to concentrate; Feeling of friendship will have to be developed; Body and mind will have to be kept separate; Pure vegetarian and sÈtvik (healthy) food will have to be taken; Self will have to be tested; Mind will have to be firm; Thoughts will have to be centralized; Become inactive and inert; and Masks will have to be removed. Now if I ask you a question, the answer to it will help you a lot. What will haveto be done to make hot water cool? Nothing at all, because coolness is the originalnature of water. Something will have to be done only if we have to warm or hot it up.You will have to either put on fire or switch on the electric heater or put it in the sun.But if you have to cool it, place it anywhere and do nothing. It will cool down of itsown.Original State : Doing Nothing Are you following what I say? If fire is to be extinguished (made cool),something will have to be done. If the fire burns and you wish that it keeps burning,just do nothing and let it burn. In other words, no conscious effort is required for athing to return to its original state of being. The original state implies the inherentnature of the given thing or which is not the effect of an external cause. The originalstate means the state in which a particular things remains of its own. If water is cold,there is not external reason for it being so. Of course, it will heat up only because ofsome reason, as an effect of a cause. No reason or cause is needed to make or let itremain cool. Water is cold because its original, inherent nature is so. This is its nature.Similarly, will you have to make an effort to return to your original state? Nothing,absolutely nothing.Difficulty of Doing Nothing
It is very easy to say ‘do nothing’, but it is equally difficult to put this intopractice, i.e. to do nothing. Apparently it seems the easiest of thing to do nothing.After all, it asks you to do nothing. Just look at yourself for five minutes and you willrealize that our body does so many things during a brief spell of five minutes. It mightbe quite difficult for the body to remain inactive, doing nothing for five minutes.Mind is much more alert and active than body. Think of what your body did duringthe past five minutes. Sometimes your hand went beneath the feet and many timesyour foot was beneath the hand. Sometimes your finger went into your ear and atother times it combed your hair. It was quite rare that you sat still. How many thingsdid your body do during the last five minutes? First, you have to do nothing with your body. Then, your power of speech hasalso to be made inactive. Now I have asked you to observe silence. I can see some ofyou observe this only as long as they apprehend that I am near about and looking atthem, but as soon as they get an opportunity to go away from my sight and they aresure that no one is looking at them, they begin conversation. Still, body and speechare under our control at least to some extent, say five to ten per cent. But what is to bedone with the mind? OK, you are asked not to do anything with your mind. The moreyou think of not doing anything, the more this mind will run hither and thither.Yoga’s Inactivity and Original State Body-mind-speech is yoga. When all these three-body, mind and speech-aremade inactive, only then man can be called to be in his original state. Now you will donothing with your body. Be completely still and calm. You will not speak at all. Andwhen your mind will also become still, you will realize the transformation goinginside you. What will you feel? Peace or restlessness? Joy or sorrow? Ecstasy? Whatis your original state-whether it is peaceful or restlessness or full of joy or sorrow orfull of ecstasy?DhyÈna and Sleep There is somewhat similarity between dhyÈna and sleep. When you are indhyÈna, you are in a position of inactivity, doing nothing. You are in the sameposition when you are asleep. However, there is a major difference as well. Duringsleep you are unaware of yourself because you are in a state of unconsciousness.However, during meditation, you are fully aware of yourself because you are in a stateof consciousness. In other words, if consciousness is added to sleep, the latter willbecome dhyÈna or medita- tion. To put the same idea in different words, add someunconsciousness with the meditation, and it will become sleep. DhyÈna or meditation thus implies a state of nothing- ness, of doing absolutelynothing. Still, one remains fully aware, conscious during this state. Our mind ishabitual of often remaining in two states. One, it should do something- think, reflect,speak, listen, walk or any such other activity. You might have felt that as you get upin the morning, mind starts functioning of its own. You look at this or that thing, youread and write and you do various other things. If you have no important thing to do,you will start watching television or listening to the radio or go out for a walk. And ifyou still have nothing to do, you will ring up someone and just disturb him or her. Butyou must do something because you cannot remain inactive. And, if you decide to donothing, no phone call or television or radio, you will just go to sleep. This impliesyou will either be indulgent or just go to sleep. DhyÈna or meditation is a stage in
between these two, a sort of middle path. It is neither indulgence nor sleep. It iscomplete detachment but full consciousness, state of alertness.Inhaling and Exhaling As we have seen above, dhyÈna means to return to one’s original state of peace,ecstasy and consciousness. Neither body will be involved in doing anything nor powerof speech will be active nor mind will be active. All the three-body, speech andmind-will become completely inactive and still, but your self will remain fullyconscious. This is called dhyÈna. Emptiness coupled with conscious- ness. You arefully conscious yet you are not in a position to do anything. If we want to reach thisstate, our breathing can be of much help to us. It provides a lot of co-operation.Breathe naturally, spontaneously. Let it come in and go out as it does in its ownnatural way. Now some people will say that they have to look at the breathing buttheir mind does not concentrate on this. Why not? You can also concen- trate yourmind on anything else, any colour, any form, but you must make the mind concentrateon something. Someone also asked me a question that we try to concentrate our mind on breathon my asking, but if it is to be concentrated, why not concentrate it on God, on theName Divine. Let me tell you that you can concentrate your mind on God or God’sname or on some incantation instead of on breath, and I am sure you will succeedbecause the former is a much easier task than the latter one. However, our aim is notjust to concentrate the mind. Our aim is to reach a state of complete inertia, absoluteinactivity and still remain fully conscious. The form, colour, mantras, etc. cannot take you to the position where I wish youto reach. On the other hand, the breath can easily take you there. That is why we takethe help of breath-control. In case you recite some given incantation, it will not bemeditation, it will be recitation. I agree, recitation, recitation of divine Name is notbad. It is something commendable. But this is not meditation. And, we are here formeditation. Therefore, you have to supplement breath-control with nothing, absolutelynothing else. It should be a pure, spontaneous natural breathing. Someone else had asked me that mind is difficult to focus, it wavers time andagain. He had asked for an answer: what should he do? Whatever you will do is sureto help mind waver even more. Wavering of mind is an activity. How can we annulthis activity with another activity? The only way out is inactivity, complete inertia. Ifthe mind runs hither and thither, let it go. You should keep your body still. The moreyou will keep the body still, the more it will be helpful to keep the mind focused. Ourbody and mind are two only for saying, otherwise they are in essence one. Theycannot be separated, one from the other. It would be like try to separate water fromthe steam. The latter is the product of the former and cool down the latter and it willtake the former shape. In other words, both are the two different states of one matter.Unity of Body and Mind SwÈmÏ SatyÈnand SaraswatÏ says that body is the gross form of mind which issubtle. In other words, mind is the subtle form of body which is gross in nature.Whatever happens in and to the body has an immediate effect on the mind. You mighthave realized that whenever there is pain in any part of the body, the mind getsdisturbed and becomes restless. Similarly, if the mind is disturbed or upset, the bodywill share the same feeling. All this goes to show that body and mind are one. If you
study a little deep, you will understand this sense of unity between the two. That iswhy when your body is healthy, this helps to keep your mind stable and focused. I donot mean here that you must not move your body or change a bit of your posture ifthere is a lot of pain. In that case you are free to change your posture somewhat. Butbe careful of what you have to do while changing the posture. Your attention, yourmind should remain focused on breath as you do this. In other words, change theposture while still looking at the breath. Eyes should also remain closed. You willrealize this will help in providing peace to mind. Second, if mind is disturbed, do not feel upset or restless because of this. If mindis upset and does not concentrate, our undue consciousness of it will become anotherreason for this restlessness. It will amount to the same if I say that I get highlyannoyed because I get annoyed repeatedly. Why do I feel angry with myself? This isbecause I get angry quite often. Anger leading to anger! If your mind is upset, pleasedo not feel very upset or disturbed on this count. Do not bother for the momentwhether the mind is calm or upset. It should be all right with you in both situations.Your primary, your sole duty now is to look at the breath. I shall also look at thebreath, whether my mind is calm or disturbed.Consciousness/Alertness Now look, what time approximately it should be. This is the time around whichmost of you might normally be returning home from your shops. It is not very latestill. Some people might yet be taking their dinner. Still look at the faces of some ofthe participants: they feel sleepy. Some can be seen yawning. Why this? The answeris: whenever the mind gets a bit disturbed, it knows of only one thing and that is sleep.Whenever you find yourselves in such a state, try to come out of it. Once you enterthat state of mind, you are gone. Some people ask me if they have only to meditate,why sitting in a given posture and why not lying down? My answer to them is that it is possible to meditate while lying down. But whatwill happen then? You will not realize when you come out of that meditation ordhyÈna. Two or three hours of meditation. And, you will not know what might havebeen happening on your right or left. You feel sleepy even when you sit and sleep isnatural when you lie down. So meditation is possible while lying down, but at thisstage our mind is not so enlightened that we can do so in that state. So my advice isthat we should do it while sitting. Even in the sitting posture when you feel that it hasbeen quite long sitting or you feel sleepy while sitting, it is advisable to stand up.Meditate standing on your place. You can meditate in a standing posture as well. It isnot obligatory for you to sit, you can meditate while standing. If you feel difficulty insitting without any support, you can take the support. If someone, for example, has aknee problem, he can make use of a chair. The only precaution is to keep yourselfawake and alert/conscious.Conclusion I hope all of you have understood what I told you about dhyÈna. What isdhyÈna? Become inert but remain alert and awake. To arrive at that stage, our breathwill help us a lot. How does it help? Why is it necessary to merely look at thebreathing. Why not anything else? We shall take up these questions tomorrow. Thiswill suffice for today. Now, once again, we will sit inert and in peace for five minutesand meditate for a while.
Some Important Instructions Along with dhyÈna (meditation) yoga, has also to be done regularly. For yogaexercise, it will be better to wear loose clothes. Tight jeans trousers, necktie, etc. arenot helpful, rather they are hindrances. Put on loose dress. Similarly, ladies may alsowear the kind of loose dress that suits them. Then we shall start yoga exercises. Theregular yoga practice makes it easier to sit in a dhyÈna posture. Pure vegetarian andsÈtvik (healthy) food is also necessary along with yoga. Non-vegetarian and spicy(rajasÏ and tÈmasÏ) food is an obstacle on the way to meditation.
CHAPTER IV DHY¶NA : ITS PRACTICAL FORM AND ACHIEVEMENT-II Yesterday we has some reflections on dhyÈna (medita- tion) and tried to explainas to what is meant by dhyÈna. Today we have to understand how our breathing helpsus reach this stage. Why did we choose breath alone? We could have possibly chosensomething else as well, e.g., some incantation, some form, but we finally decided infavour of breath. Why? What is so special in breath? What made us finally choosebreath?Background of DhyÈna²Method There are some special reasons for this choice of ours. In a way, we can also saythat there is no particular reason for this. Why is this method as it is? The answer is:this method is as it is because it has reached us from our spiritual mentors; thismethod has evolved as such. There is an old Jaina text called ¶chÈra×ga SÊtra.¶chÈrya ¶tmÈ RÈm, who was the spiritual mentor of Dr. Shiv Muni who happens tobe the present ¶chÈrya and head of the ƒrama‡ic Sa×gh, has been the first JainaÈchÈrya. He was a great savant : he was a great scholar and an enlightened being aswell. What is the characteristic of knowledge? One such characteristic is that aknowledgeable, an enlightened person should never get involved in polemic.Whenever he finds the possibility of polemic, he should take along dialogue. ¶chÈrya ¶tmÈ RÈm was known as a great scholar and an enlightened person. Itis said that when he was an old man of 83 years, he fell down on the floor and thebone of one of his feet got broken at three places. His spontaneous reaction was that ifit had broken into three, let it be. He was beyond all pain and pleasure, joy andsorrow, appreciation and denunciation. People around him advised that he must go infor operation. When they insisted a lot, he agreed to go in for operation. But he putforward a condition. He will get his foot operated but will not take anaesthesia. Iwould like to see the doctor how he operates my foot. There was those days a German doctor by the name of Virgin. He operated uponthe ¶chÈrya’s foot. The operation took about three and a half hours to complete. The¶chÈrya sat calm and continued to watch how the doctor went with the operation. Infact, to begin with, the doctor was not willing to operate without giving anaesthesia tothe patient: he was afraid lest some calamity should happen to him. However, the¶chÈrya remained adamant, saying that he may go ahead with the operation if hewants to do but it will have to be without anaesthesia. He even told the doctor that hewas not in need of any operation. At last the doctor gave in and operated upon his footwithout giving him any anaesthesia. The ¶chÈrya sat calm and watched through everymovement of the doctor. At last the operation was completed. The ¶chÈrya asked thedoctor to ring up his home as his wife seems to have forgotten to lock home. Thedoctor wondered and asked how he knew this as he sat far away from the doctor’shome. The ¶chÈrya again asked him to be quick and ring up his wife as she was aboutto leave home. At the moment she stood in his bed room. He also told that their bedroom was in that particular direction in their home. The doctor rang up his house. Whatever the ¶chÈrya had told was true.
This is what we call the third eye, the divine eye. This is the capability to seewhat is not visible to the physical eye. ¶chÈrya ¶tmÈ RÈm in his exegesis of the SÊtras has described this method, butnobody has been able to compre- hend it. Several years have gone by since he passedaway, but nobody has since then taught this way to meditation. ¶chÈrya Shiv Muni,the author of this book, went through this literature and discovered this method. WhenShiv Muni was working for his doctoral degree, he realized that all the TÏratha×karsof Jainism did nothing except meditation. It is not the case only with Jainism, youlook at any religious tradition and you will find meditation discussed there. This madehim resolve to comprehend the view of ¶chÈrya ¶tmÈ RÈm and discover the method.He did succeed, but he was not yet satisfied. The research continued and continuedand ultimately he found this method in the ¶chÈra×ga SÊtra. It is this method whichwe are going to practice today.Method of Inhalatation and Exhalation To remain alert and conscious while still being inert and inactive is calleddhyÈna or meditation. What we mean here is that consciousness be rationed whileremaining inert and inactive. This is dhyÈna or meditation. The dhyÈna is a stagemidway between indulgence and sleep. Breath helps us reach the stage of completedenial, inertia and inactivity. How does it help? In a way, breathing is an activity. Itseems as if we breathe in and breath out, and continue doing so repeatedly. However,breathing while still being an activity is not an activity. How? Let me explain this.Suppose a person gets unconscious. Will he in that state be able to take his food byhimself? Can he drink water? No, he cannot take food or water. Can he move about?No, he cannot move about, either. In fact, he cannot perform any of the necessaryactivities of body. Still that unconscious person breathes. This implies that you do notmake any effort to breathe. It may sound strange to say you breathe but still you donot breathe, i.e., make no effort to breathe. Breathing goes no naturally. The activityof breathing in and breathing out continues of its own. In case you were to take thebreath and sometime you forgot to breathe, this might have caused a serious problem.It has been a favour by God that He did not leave this duty into you. In that case youwould have forgotten to breathe at same point of time and consequently this life mighthave gone by now. Man forgets so many things and it is natural he might haveforgotten one day to breathe. And, this would not have given him an opportunity torepent. Breathing is a natural activity. If I say you breathe and If I say breathing comesin and out of its own, both the statements can be accepted as true. Actually, you haveto make no conscious effort to breathe. When you are asleep, you cannot do anything,but you breathe. You do not know of it, but breathing continues. This means, this isnot you who take the breathe, but breathing goes on of its own. This also implies thatbreathing is both an activity and inactivity. It can be said to be an activity, but actuallyit is an inactivity. It can be said that you do it, but actually it goes on of its own. Solong body is conscious, it will continue to breathe for its own sake and of its own. What happens when you look at the breath? You move from the world of actionto the world of inaction. You do nothing with the body and the mind is made toconcentrate on the breath which means that your mind is also not doing anything.Mind merely looks at the inhalation and exhalation of breath and does nothingbecause the breathing goes of its own. Similarly, the body is also not doing anything
because breathing is a natural process for which body has to do nothing. Remainingconscious, breathing, and being in the present means doing nothing. You should halt awhile here. Breath is like a pathway, a bridge which leads us from indulgence tonothingness, from action to inaction. That is why we have chosen the breath. Whatwould have happened had we chosen a mantra, an incantation? We should haverepeatedly recited that and that would have become an action, an activity in itself. Hadthe choice been of a portrait, we could have imagined it time and again and tried toconcentrate our mind on that. That would also have become an activity. For thisreason, we have chosen the breath. There is another beautiful thing about breath. Youmay or may not consciously wish it, but breathing must bring you in the present. Is itpossible for you to look at the breath you took say ten minutes earlier? You may wishit very much, you cannot do it. Similarly, it you wish to look just now at the breaththat you intend taking say after ten minutes from now, you cannot do that either. Thenwhich breath can you see? You can look at the breath that you are just now breathingin and breathing out. In other worlds, if you have to look at the breath, you will haveto bring yourself to the present. We can also say that whenever you are with thebreathing, you are in the present. You cannot be either in the past or the future.Nobody ever asked you to discard either past or future, but looking at the breath madeyou discard both and live and in the present.Breath : A Complete Life The first good thing about breathing, as we told you, has been that it bring you ²quite spontaneously ² to the present. The second good thing about it is that the wholelife is linked with breathing. Whatever you might do in life, breathing is ever withyou. You may go anywhere in the world, you may be in India or America, you may beawake or asleep, you may be having your food or walking about, you may be doinganything, breath is there always with you. You might have seen, whenever a child is born ² he may be born in a rich familyor a poor family, he may have born in India or anywhere else in the world ² he weepsthe first thing after coming into the world. As he weeps, everybody else laughs. Incase he does not weep, everybody else might have to weep. If he does not weep, thedoctor sure is to hit or pinch him lightly so as to make him weep. The doctor knowsthat his failure to make the child weep is sure to cause grief to others. What I mean tosay here is that the first thing that the child does after his birth is weeping. And, heweeps quite loudly. Why? What is the problem with him? Why does he weep? What do you think? Why does the child weep? šHis lungs expand.› If the lungs expand, there is no need to weep; he can laugh also. šHe weeps because he enters into new environments.› Enters into new environments. The poor little thing. Inside it is utter darknesswhile outside it is light. This being better environment, he should laugh. šHe weeps for coming into light from darkness.› I think this fact of coming out of darkness into light should make him happy.Then why does the poor thing weep?
šHe feels the pain.› Does he feel pain? Does it pain to take birth? šHe has now to breathe in through his nose. This is why he weeps.› He has to breathe in through nose.... He does not know this. That is why hebreathes in and out through his mouth. šThe reason is his separation from mother.› Separation from mother... got away from mother. Suffers from pangs ofseparation? I think, once away, he does not bother as to who gave him birth. šHe weeps because now he has been burdened with worldly responsibilities.› Worldly responsibilities, you say. Ok, once he is born into this world, he willnaturally grow up into youth. He will have to go to school, study and then ultimatelyget married to someone. I think it is enough burden for him!! šHe weeps and cries for his soul.› What? He weeps and wails for his soul to come? It sounds ridiculous. Strangethat he weeps for his soul to come into his body as he has already taken birth! The question still remains. Why does the child weep? All right, I shall myselfanswer the question. Otherwise, I am sure varied and strange answers will keeppouring, ranging from the expansion of lungs to crying out for the soul to the pangs ofseparation. What is the reality behind this? In fact, the child seems to us to beweeping, otherwise he does not weep at all. He sounds to be weeping, but actually hedoes not weep. We presume he is weeping. So long as he is in his mother’s womb, itis natural for him to do whatever his mother does. When his mother breathes, he alsotakes breath. When his mother takes the meal, it reaches him automatically. Now hehas come out. So long as he remained in his mother’s womb, his lungs werecompletely shrunk, absolutely non²functional. As he comes out of his mother’s body,he cries loudly. In fact, it is no weeping or crying. It is the opening up of the lungs butwe seem to take as if he were weeping. When the child is born, the thing that he does after coming out of his mother’sbody is to breathe in. And do you know what is the last thing that a person does beforehe dies? He breathes out, but cannot breathe in. He stops breathing.Birth and Death We learn that life begins with breathing and it ends with the stopping ofbreathing. In other words, breathing is life and end to breathing is death. In betweenthese two points lies our worldly existence. All joys and sorrows of life, all laughterand weeping, all meetings and separations, all friendships and enmity, all good andevil thoughts of mind are related to breath. This means when you look at the breath,you look at the entire life. Breathing is not just breath going in and out. Entire life of ours is related tobreath. Just the feelings of mind change, pace of breathing also changes. Breathingand body, breathing and mind, breathing and prÈ‡a, all these things are deeply andintimately connected with each other. We can also say that breathing is a thread whichties body-speech-mind together. When you are with the breath, you are with youentire self, your entire entity. The whole entity of your stops with you in the present.
You might have thus realized when you began the process of looking at the breathing,what happened to your thoughts in a matter of moment. Did they come in abundanceor they got decreased. We have just to see if more or less thoughts come to us afterthat. The answer obviously is that they became less. Why did they get less? Did youthink of this? Whenever you happened to be with you breathing, whenever you lookedat your breathing, what happened to the thoughts? To begin with, they were quite amany, but what started happening gradually? They got less and less Earliest, theirpace was quite fast. Then this pace became slow. Why this change ² in numbers and inpace? The answer is simple : the mind got connected with breathing. When mind getsconnected with breathing, what change did you see in the number and pace ofthoughts? It happened so because mind got related with breathing.Preparation Within and Without First of all, we sit in any posture of our choice. We keep our back, waist andneck straight. We close our eyes. We put our hands on our knees or just place them inthe lap. We take the spectacles off. This is the preparation without. The second preparation is the preparation within. What is that? You put yourmind on the breathing in and out. On the basis of these two preparations, mindspontaneously concentrates. Thus, meditation is called a happening, it is not an action.It happens of its own. It cannot be done with forced effort. However, you have toprepare a background for it to happen. We discussed the similarity between meditation and sleep in the preceding pages.Let me add here that there is one more similarity between the two. You cannot makeyourself sleep with any forced effort: sleep comes of its own. For example, you go tosleep at night. Before that, you fix your bed, change your dress, take on the quilt orsomething if the weather so demands or put the fan on if the weather is hot. Then youlie down on the bed and close your eyes. Now it is for the sleep to come or not tocome. If you do not get sleep, you cannot force it. You cannot compel it. The harderefforts you will make for getting sleep, the farther it will go. You just leave yourselfrelaxed in the bed, you do not know when you are overtaken by sleep. Similar is the case with meditation. You cannot let it happen by force. Youcannot force your mind to stop thinking. This is not possible. You can only preparethe background. On the basis of that background meditation will happen when it hasto happen. Thus, meditation is a happening, and in making this happen, breathing hasa vital role to play.Significance of Sound of Breathing Then what did we do today? We have now added sound of breathing to theprocess of concentrating on breathing. Now a question will crop up in the mind ofmany as to why did we add only sound of breathing? On the one hand, we say thatthere should be no incantation, no recitation, but we have added sound of breathing.Why? What was the necessity of adding it? Was breathing alone no sufficient? Ofcourse, breathing alone was sufficient. The addition of sound of breathing to it addspace to your progress. We shall move faster on the way. What is sound so²aham? Let us first try and understand its meaning? It is not aword, it is a sound. There is, of course, difference between sound and word. What is
that difference? Sound is not a part of any language whereas any given word comesfrom one or the other language. For example, the bell rings. The sound that comesfrom the ringing of the bell is sound. However, if you want to put that sound in words,you will have to answer how does the bell ring? The answer will be²tan..nn..nn. Now,this tann....nn.. is a word. It is not a sound. There is difference between sound andword. If you speak tann...nn..nn, it is not like the sound of the bell. Is it? No. Still, ifyou want to express the sound of the bell in words, the word is tann...nn..nn. That isthe nearest possible word to convey the sound. That is why we have used this word.You will not use in its place the word dam...dam simply because it does not match atall with the sound of the bell. One thing is sure, there is difference between the soundof the bell and the nearest possible word we use to express it.SoahaŠ : Not a Word But Sound SoahaŠ is not a word. It is a sound. But where did this sound come from? Thissound has come from nowhere. It is present within you. As and when you breathe in,this sound šso› is already present within you. And as you breathe out, the sound ofšAhaŠ› is also within you. You may or may not do it, this is a continuous, eternalsound. Ad and when the breath goes in, the sound of šso› happens and as and whenthe breath goes out, the sound of šAhaŠ› happens. And this happens continuously. Now you will say, if this is ever happening, why is it not audible to us? We havenot heard this until now. We did sit with eyes closed several times, but we neverrealized this. The fact is that this sound is very subtle and we live in lot of hustle andbustle. It is as if you stand in a busy market and someone from back gives you a softcall. You will not hear this : it will not reach your ears. Then the same fellow criesloudly. You look back and recognize the person standing behind calling you.Noise Within and Without If there is much noise outside, the soft, subtle voice will not be audible to you.Similarly, this sound of šsoahaŠ› is happening within you, but we live amidst much ofa noise. There is a lot of noise in the outside world, but relatively this is not much. Itis rather small. Much more and in fact several times more noise is happening within ²the noise of ideas and of desires. How can you listen to that soft voice in thatmaddening noise? This is continuously happening inside but still we do not hear it.That is why we have added it to the breath from outside: we shall pronounce šso›while breathing in, but shall do so only in mind. And, we shall similarly say šahaŠ› aswe breathe out. What is the use of adding the sound from without? It helps us attune ourselveswith the sound within. We get attuned to it. And gradually as you continue with ourpractice, you will not then add the sound from without. You will get a spontaneousfeeling that as you breathe in, you listen to a sound of šso› and as you breathe out, asound of šahaŠ› is heard. This is all a matter of practice. With the passage of time andgradually after some more practice, you will be able to listen to this sound fromwithin even when you stop breathing for a while. This sound within is eternal,continuing for ever. That is why we have added this sound from without to thebreathing. We could have looked at the breath alone. Why this sound? Breath is subtleand still it is gross. More subtle than breath is this sound. And in this camp, we haveto move from the gross world to the subtle one.From Subtle to the Subtlest
Speech is more subtle than body. Mind as well as the ideas within is more subtlethan the speech more subtle is consciousness which is indicative of the stage ofcomplete silence. Very subtle. More subtle than the subtlest. We cannot call it evensubtle : it is subtle and still it is not so. Thus, if we want to go to the subtle world, thissound helps us a lot. That is why we have added this sound of šsoahaŠ› withbreathing. Now some people might ask that they could have meditated by placing an imageof a deity before us instead of concentrating on breathing and that sound. Now, see,both breathing and sound of šsoahaŠ› are realities of the present moment. They arenot figment of imagination. In case, we had to concentrate on an image of God, whatwe might have to do? We shall have to imagine. None of us, neither you nor me, haveseen God. What does God look like? Does God have two hands or four hands? Shouldwe have an image of standing God or sitting God? Should God have eyes closed oropen? This is real problematic. One of you might say that my god is of blackcomplexion. The other can possibly say that his god is of a fair complexion. If onesays that his god has eyes closed, the other might say that his deity has eyes open. This will create a problem. But there is no problem in the case of breathing.Breathing is the same in the case of everybody of us. One may belong to anycommunity, any background, one may be a Hindu or a Muslim or a Christian, there isno difference at all in their breath : it is the same in the case of every one of them.Breathing is a universal phenomenon. There is no controversy about it. And, it is areality of the present. One does not have to imagine it. We need not to suppose thatwe are breathing in or out. There is no need for any imagination or supposition. Thisis a fact, a reality. It is present now. We breathe in and we breathe out. Similarly, one might say that there could have been another word in place ofšsoahaŠ›. In case we replace it by any other word, it would mean imposing it fromwithout. As for the word šsoahaŠ›, we can say that it is added from outside, but at thesame time we can also say that we do not add it from outside. In fact, this ishappening continuous- ly for ever within you. That is why we have added this tobreath because this also makes us realize the present.Conclusion I Hope you have understood by now as to why did we take breath for thispurpose and why did we add to it the sound of šsoahaŠ›. You might have learnt thatwe did so for a purpose. Now you are looking at the breath, you may please continuedoing so. As I have advised you, I shall request you please be careful of those things.You may breathe in a natural, spontaneous way and with that add the sound ofšsoahaŠ›, but this sound is within your mind, a silent one.Concluding Discussion Now we shall take up one or two questions and find answers to them. Somepeople say that the duration of the meditation should be lessened a bit. Now the fact ofthe matter is that when you are fed up with something you do not like doing it thetime seems to pass of quits slow. On the other hand, when you are interested in thething you are doing, the time seems to pass of quickly. Take one example : you arealone on a journey. How do you feel? How long the journey is. You have a jovialcompany on the same journey. Jokes and light conversation goes on. Time flies as yougossip about. Time seems to fly because your mind was interested in all that you were
doing, you were involved in. Now how many of you feel that it was enough formeditation : please tell me with all seriousness and truth. Those who will say the truthwill ultimately learn something. Let me tell you that when it is the beginning of theend or death of mana, the feeling that overtakes you first of all is that of sadness, ofdespondency. If you feel like getting fed up, it implies that the process of the death ofyour mana has started. It is a fact that when mana begins to die, sadness begins to takeover. As it is, mana or mind lives on novelty. What does mind like the most?Something new. Take, for example, the food you like the most. Suppose you like thevegetable of ladyfinger the most. As you had for the second time, you did like it a lot,but not as much as the first time. When you had it for the third time, it was just ok. Ifyou are offered it once again, you might have it without much interest or taste. But ifit is offered once again, you will prefer to go away without taking food. However tasty a dish might be, you will enjoy it the best the first time you takeit, but gradually your taste in it will not remain the same. It will become less with thepassage of time. This is what has been called by Marshal the law of utility. Accordingto this, your interest in a thing declines with the passage of time. You do not like forever either the ladyfinger or the sweetmeats or the ice cream. There is nothing whichappeals to mind for ever. Mind aspires for something new. Take the example of a person you like a lot. You might feel like living with himfor ever. You will feel very good in his company for a day, for a few days, but aftersome days you will feel that it is enough now. But it is not possible in our life tochange everything. There are limita- tions in certain matters. But it is universalcharacteristic of mind that it is ever interested in something new. It ever aspires forsomething new. Now when you began meditating, there was nothing in it whichresembled with something new. You are breathing in and breathing out, and it is as ithas always been. It is the same breath, the same šsohaŠ›. That is why we feel that it isenough. You feel fed up.Mind Getting Fed Up : Mind’s Death In a way mind’s getting fed up is a good sign. It implies that the process of thedeath of mind has begun. First of all, mind gets fed up, and if it happens to passthrough this stage, it is sure to reach the stage of ecstasy. Am I right or not? During meditation, you breathe in and breathe out through thethroat, is it proper or not? No, you have to do nothing. As several of you had asked the question, how thebreath has to be taken in, where to concentrate on the breath ² when the breath is atthis or that place in the throat. No, you have to concentration all you attention on thetop of your nostrils. So you may do as you all have been asked to. You will not makeany changes of your own. Is it all right? Hope you all understand. šEverything is all right, but it will be better if quantity of food provided isincreased a little. Look, we feel quite hungry at night. It makes us feel uncomfortableduring the night. Thus, we cannot have good sleep. Your most devoted disciple.› Thisreads a slip written by one of the participants. Now the fact of the matter is that when you have nothing else to do, first of allthe mind will go to food. This is something very natural. Still if someone of you hasquite serious problem, he or she is welcome to see me. However, it does not mean that
you come in a long queue for this very purpose. It will be no surprise if all of youmight get up to share the same problem. The fact is that the food being provided to you is enough for you. We havebecome habitual of eating much more than we need. Whatever you eat at home,perhaps only twenty-five per cent of that is enough for the body. The body does notneed more than that, and we should not eat that. At times you might have felt, thebelly is full, but mind still needs a bit more. Mind craves for more and more andmore. Still anybody with some serious discomfort is welcome to see me. šOne such camp should be organized in the jungle in our Rajasthan. And itshould last at least a fortnight. I shall feel delighted living in the forest.› So saysanother slip. Sure, if any of you wish that such camps should be organized at some particularplaces, such people should get in touch with me. I shall tell them as to what needs tobe done and how to proceed further.