Consequences (e.g. reinforcement/ Punishment or some org. outcome) Behavior (e.g. overt such as rushing off or covert such as an attitude) Feedback For clarifications (e.g. kinesthetic or Psychological) Interpretation Of stimulus (e.g. Motivation, learning and personality) Registration of stimulus (e.g. Sensory and neural mechanisms) Confrontation Of specific Stimulus (e.g. Supervisor or new Procedure) STIMULUS OR SITUATION PERSON
We will tend to perceive things according to our beliefs more than as they really are, and react accordingly.
This is how placebos work. We will also ‘become’ drunk when we drink what we believe is alcohol.
Wilson and Abrams (1977) found that people’s heart rate changed in the same way as when drunk when talking to an attractive member of the opposite sex after taking what they had been told was alcohol (but was not).
Any book which is published will have been read possibly hundreds of times, including by professional proof readers. And yet grammatical and other errors still get into print. Why? Because the mind is very kind and corrects the errors that our eyes see.
When we consider a person good (or bad) in one category, we are likely to make a similar evaluation in other categories.
It is as if we cannot easily separate categories. It may also be connected with dissonance avoidance, as making them good at one thing and bad at another would make an overall evaluation (which we do anyway) difficult.
Edward Thorndike found, in the 1920s, that when army officers were asked to rate their charges in terms of intelligence, physique, leadership and character, there was a high cross-correlation.
Just because I dress like a rock star, it does not mean I can sing, dance or play the guitar (come to think of it, the same is true of some real rock stars!).
We notice difference between things, not absolute measures.
Put your left hand in a bowl of cold water and your right in hot water. Leave them there for a while, then plunge both together into a bowl of lukewarm water. Surprise! The left feels hot whilst the right will feel cold.
This is the principle of Perceptual Contrast by which our senses work. Put light next to dark and it seems lighter. A stale smell will seem worse after a sweet smell. The same effect also applies to more our complex cognitive constructions.
When a person has uncomfortable thoughts or feelings, they may project these onto other people, assigning the thoughts or feelings that they need to repress to a convenient alternative target.
I do not like another person. But I have a value that says I should like everyone. So I project onto them that they do not like me. This allows me to avoid them and also to handle my own feelings of dislike.
An unfaithful husband suspects his wife of infidelity.
A woman who is attracted to a fellow worker accuses the person of sexual advances.
Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people whereby we attribute a defined set of characteristics to this group. These classifications can be positive or negative, such as when various nationalities are stereotyped as friendly or unfriendly.
It is easier to create stereotypes when there is a clearly visible and consistent attribute that can easily be recognized. This is why people of color, police and women are so easily stereotyped.
Stereotyping goes way beyond race and gender. Consider conversations you have had about people from the next town, another department in your company, supporters of other football teams, and so on.