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Pragyan Talk 100227 Pragyan Talk 100227 Presentation Transcript

  • Regaining Intellectual Leadership Ramesh
Jain
 jain@ics.uci.edu
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 1
  • A
New
Star 
 Who is on Left? Who is on Right? Where is K R Sridhar from? REC, Trichy. Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 2
  • Discussion
Today
 •  Personal
note
 •  India:
Then
and
Now
 •  Some
facts
 •  Sharing
and
disseminaAng
Experiences
 •  Role
of
Technology
 •  An
Opportunity
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 3
  • Personal
Note:
A
passage
 •  Spent
first
12
years
of
life
reading
in
candle
light.

 Now
…
read
on
Kindle
among
other
things.
 •  As
a
Regional
College
of
Engineering
(Nagpur)
 student,
was
against
leaving
India.

But,

ended
 up
(with
the
privilege
of)
experiencing
the
East
 and
the
West
and
more.
 •  Would
love
to
contribute
my
bit.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 4
  • A
journey
in
life
begins
with
understanding:
 •  Where
you
are,

 •  Where
you
want
to
be,
and

 •  What
are
constraints
and
techniques
 available.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 5
  • And
Then
 •  Be
Passionate
about
the
goal,
 •  Think
out‐of‐the‐box,

 •  Be
irreverent,
and
 •  Think
the
Unthinkable
and
just
do
it.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 6
  • Einstein
 •  Learn
from
yesterday,
live
for
today,
hope
for
 tomorrow.
The
important
thing
is
not
to
stop
 quesAoning.

 •  Once
we
accept
our
limits,
we
go
beyond
 them.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 7
  • Leadership
of
India:
Well
recognized
 India
had
the
start
of
the
whole
world
in
the
beginning
of
 things.
She
had
the
first
civiliza8on;
she
had
the
first
 accumula8on
of
material
wealth;
she
was
populous
with
 deep
thinkers
and
subtle
intellects;
she
had
mines,
and
 woods,
and
a
frui?ul
soul.

 Mark Twain Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 8
  • Nalanda
 •  The
first
great
university
in
recorded
history.
 •  Started
in
5th
Century.

 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 9
  • Today
the
country
that
created
 Nalanda:
 •  Literacy
rate
61%
‐‐
147th
out
of
177
Countries
 •  No
Indian
University
in
top
100
in
the
World
 •  Even
among
Asian
universiAes
the
first
name
 appears
at
30th
place.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 10
  • Mohenjo‐daro
and
Harappa
 2600
BC
 •  Top
ciAes
in
the
world.
 •  Beber
planned
than
most
ciAes
in
India
today.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 11
  • Mohenjo‐daro
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 12
  • Harappa
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 13
  • India
Today
 
 •  In
Per
Capita
income:
165th
($3,100)
out
of
 212
countries.
 •  1.5
Personal
Computers
per
100
people


 –  US
has
76.2


 –  Switzerland
has
86.2
(Source:
 hbp://www.naAonmaster.com/red/graph/ med_pc_percap‐media‐number‐pcs‐per‐ capita&b_map=1)
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 14
  • Thousands
of
Entrepreneurs 
 •  “our
naAon,
though
it
has
no
drinking
water,
 electricity,
sewage
system,
public
 transportaAon,
sense
of
hygiene,
discipline,
 courtesy,
or
punctuality,
does
have
 entrepreneurs.

Thousands
and
Thousands
of
 them.”
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 15
  • InnovaAons
in
India
 (Vikas
Bajaj
in
New
York
Times
Ar4cle) 
 •  Mr.
Raghavan
and
others
say
India
is
held
back
by
a
 financial
system
that
is
reluctant
to
invest
in
 unproven
ideas,
an
educa4on
system
that
 emphasizes
rote
learning
over
problem
solving,
and
 a
culture
that
looks
down
on
failure
and
 unconven4onal
career
choices.
 •  Did
you
see

Three
Idiots?
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 16
  • What
is
the
most
important
 invenAon
in
the
last
1000
years?
 •  Einstein:
Theory
of
relaAvity.
 •  Turing:
Digital
Computer.
 •  Curie:
X‐rays
 •  Gutenberg:
Moveable
print
 •  Edison:
Electric
Bulb
 •  .
 •  .
 •  .
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 17
  • It
is
all
about
 ExperienAal
 
CommunicaAon
 



among
Humans
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 18
  • Events Life = + Experiences
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 19
  • Recording
Experiences
 •  Modes
 –  Visual
 –  Aural
 –  Text
 –  Log
of
acAviAes
 –  TacAle
 •  Technology
and
Sharing
Experiences
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 20
  • Share
experiences : Languages 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 21
  • Across
Time : Writing 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 22
  • Making
it
portable : Paper 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 23
  • DemocraAzaAon : Gutenberg’s Movable Press 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 24
  • Telegraph:
Instantaneous
Remote
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 25
  • Telephone:
Remote
Speech
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 26
  • Photography:
Recording
Visual
 Experience
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 27
  • Audio
Recording:
Electrical
Signals
 enter
recording
space 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 28
  • Radio:
Live
Broadcast 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 29
  • Television:
Live
Broadcast
combines
 two
Media
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 30
  • Digital
Processing
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 31
  • Internet:
The
Game
Changer 
 Medium is the message. – McLuhan was right THEN. Medium is just that – Medium. Pragyan, February 27, 2010 NOW © Ramesh Jain 32
  • CommunicaAng
Experiences:
 
 SpaAal
and
Temporal 
 Inventions Application Impact Languages Communicate symbolic experiences Written Languages Record Symbolic experiences (time) Paper Portability (space) Most influential Print Invention in history distribution (time and space) Mass Telegraph Remote narrow communication (space) Telephone Remote analog communication (space) Radio Analog broadcasting of sound (space) Television Combining two senses – media (space) Recording media Photos, audio, video (time) Digital processing Machine enhancement and processing Future of Internet Communication Interactive Multimedia communication Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 33
  • The
only
source
of
knowledge
is
 experience.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 34
  • Knowledge
SocieAes
 The
empires
of
the
future
are
the
empires
of
 the
mind.

























































 

 
 

 

 
 
 

 


























Winston
Churchill
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 35
  • Digital
World:
Knowledge
 RevoluAon
 •  Limited
to
less
than
15%
populaAon
of
the
 world. 

 •  Touches
less
than
2%
of
populaAon
in
 developing
countries.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 36
  • Digital
Dividend:
An
Opportunity
 •  Technology
is
liberal
in
rewards
and
 ruthless
in
punishment

 –  Rich
get
richer
and
poor
stay
poor
 •  At
each
technology
inflecAon
point,
new
 leaders
emerge.
 •  We
are
in
a
major
technology
inflecAon
 period.

Some
aggressive
countries
have
a
 great
opportunity.
 Can that country be India? Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 37
  • Widening
Gap
 •  Income
disparity
raAo
in
the
18th
Century
 between
the
richest
and
the
poorest
 countries
was
a
mere
2:1,
today
it
is
more
 than
100:1.

 •  In
1988,
median
income
in
the
richest
10
 percent
of
countries
was
77
Ames
that
in
 the
poorest
10
percent;
by
1999
the
gap
 had
grown
to
122
Ames.

 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 38
  • Some
InteresAng
Facts:

Then
and
now

 •  India
and
China
 – Accounted
for
40%
of
world
trade
in
1840
 – Accounted
for
3.4%
of
world
trade
in
1998
 •  India
established
the
first
University
in
the
 world
in
Nalanda‐Taxilla
 – India
published
less
than
2%
of
world’s
 scienAfic
research
papers
(includes
Indian
 journals)
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 39
  • Turning
Time:
Almost
600
Year
Ago
 •  Columbus
was
searching
for
fame
and
fortune
–
 was
going
to
India
for
 –  Spices
 –  Wealth
 –  Technology
 –  Source
of
knowledge
 •  Gutenberg
invented
the
prinAng
technology
 that
started
 –  Growth
of
wealth
in
west
 –  DominaAon
of
western
technology
 –  Influence
of
western
knowledge
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 40
  • Why
is
Gutenberg’s
Moveable
Print
so
 influenAal?
 •  Brought
knowledge
creaAon
and
access
to
 masses.
 •  Resulted
in
increased
awareness
of
scienAfic
 approaches.
 •  Reduced
misinformaAon
and
influence
of
 religions.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 41
  • India
missed
the
last
disrupAve
 ‘knowledge
revoluAon’. 
 How
can
it
parAcipate
and
lead
the
 current
disrupAve
wave
brought
on
 by
recent
innovaAons? 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 42
  • DisrupAve
Stages
in
CompuAng:1
 Data Data: Numbers, Text, (Computation) Statistics, Sensors (Video) Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 43
  • CompuAng
1:
Data
 •  Device:
Mainframe
and
workstaAons
 •  Main
applicaAons:
 –  ScienAfic
and
engineering
 –  Business
 •  Users:

 –  Sophis8cated
 –  Expected
to
be
trained
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 44
  • DisrupAve
Stages
in
CompuAng:2
 Information Information: Search, Specialized sources (Communication) Data Data: Numbers, Text, (Computation) Statistics, Sensors (Video) Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 45
  • CompuAng
2:
InformaAon
and
 CommunicaAon
 •  Device:
PC
and
Internet
 •  Main
applicaAons:
 –  InformaAon
 –  CommunicaAon
 •  Users:

 –  Common
people
in
‘developed
world’
 –  Easy
access
using
keyboards
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 46
  • DisrupAve
Stages
in
CompuAng:3
 Experience Experience: What Next? Direct observation or (Insights) participation Information Information: Search, Specialized sources (Communication) Data Data: Numbers, Text, (Computation) Statistics, Sensors (Video) Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 47
  • CompuAng
3:
Experience
 •  Device:
Mobile
phones
 •  Main
applicaAons:
 –  Experience
management
 –  ExperienAal
communicaAon
 •  Users:

 –  Humans
 –  No
language
issues
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 48
  • Mobiles
everywhere
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 49
  • DistribuAon
of
Mobile
Phones 
 Rank Country or region Number of mobile phones Population % of population Last updated — World 4,100,000,000 6,797,100,000[1] 60.6 Dec 2008[2] 1 China 747,380,000 1,335,330,000 55.97 Dec 2009[3] 2 India 525,147,922 1,174,040,000 44.73 Dec 2009[4] 3 United States 276,610,580 308,505,000[1] 89.0 June. 2009[5] 4 Russia 207,900,000 141,915,979 143.2 Feb. 2009[6] 5 Brazil 173,960,000 191,480,630 90.84 Dec. 2009[7][8] [9] 6 Indonesia 140,200,000 231,369,500 60.53 Dec. 2008[10] 7 Japan 107,490,000 127,530,000 84.11 Mar. 2009[11] 8 Germany 107,000,000 81,882,342 130.15 2009[12] 9 Pakistan 97,579,940 168,500,500 59.60 Dec 2009[13] 10 Italy 88,580,000 60,090,400 147.41 Dec.2008[14] 11 Mexico 79,400,000 109,610,000 72.44 Mar.2009[15] 12 United Kingdom 75,750,000 61,612,300 122.95 Dec. 2008[16] 13 Vietnam 70,000,000 87,375,000 80.11 2009[17] 14 Philippines 67,900,000 92,226,600 73.62 Dec. 2008[18] 15 Turkey 66,000,000 71,517,100 92.29 2009[19] 16 Nigeria 64,000,000 154,729,000 41.36 Dec. 2009[20] 17 France 58,730,000 65,073,842 90.25 Dec. 2008[21] 18 Ukraine 55,170,908 46,143,700 119.56 April. 2009[22] 19 Thailand 51,377,000 65,000,000 79.0 2008 20 Spain 50,890,000 45,828,172 111.05 Dec. 2008[23] Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 50
  • What
is
a
Mobile
Phone?
 Mobile phone used to be a phone. It is : •  Phone •  Camera and an album •  Music system •  Video Game console •  Communication device •  Personal BUTLER •  Computer •  Information source •  … much more Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 51
  • A
Mobile
Phone
is
 Everybody’s loyal personal multimedia communication and experience associate. Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 52
  • A
Great
Opportunity
 Leading
the
World
in
bringing
next
 genera4on
compu4ng:
the
Folk
 Compu4ng. 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 53
  • Opportunity:
Folk
CompuAng
 Taking
CompuAng
to
Masses
–
focus
on
people
 in
remote
parts
of
even
underdeveloped
parts
 of
the
world.

 Social
Networking
as
a
driving
applicaAon.
 May
solve
many
interesAng
problems.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 54
  • Challenges
 •  InteracAon
environment,
 •  Content
CreaAon,
 •  Content
Management,
and

 •  Content
Access.
 Key: Content created by culturally similar people is more useful. Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 55
  • InteracAon
Environment
 Keyboard
is
the
BIGGEST
problem.
 Use
natural
communicaAon:
 Audio,
Visual,
TacAle.
 Good
first
step
towards
Folk
 CompuAng.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 56
  • Content
CreaAon
 •  Literacy
=
Knowledge
 •  All
the
worlds
knowledge
is
primarily
in
text.
 •  Cameras
and
microphones
are
easier
to
use
 than
keyboard
and
even
pen.
   Develop interactive content creation tools for masses using phones.   Can we develop ‘Word’ like Photoshop and Director? Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 57
  • Content
Management:
Challenges 
 •  MulAmedia
 •  Different
Languages
 •  Event‐Object‐based
Indexing
 •  Fast
access
on
Mobile
devices
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 58
  • Access:
Must
be
Natural 
 •  On
Mobile
phone
like
devices
 •  My
mother
should
be
able
to
‘ask’
 –  Natural
language
–
not
only
keywords
 –  Voice/Image/Touch
interfaces
 •  Culturally
sensiAve
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 59
  • InformaAon
and
CommunicaAon
 Technology
for
Development
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 60
  • Global
Projects
in
ICT
for
Development
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 61
  • Limited
Success
of
most
such
 approaches.
Why? 
 •  PC
Based.


 –  Very
few
PCs
(less
than
0.5
per
100
people)
 –  PC
are
difficult
to
learn
for
‘users’
 •  Approaches
were
not
very
‘natural’
for
‘users’
 –  Tried
to
push
approaches
successful
in
developed
 world
 •  Failed
to
understand
needs
of
people
and
 develop
appropriate
applicaAons.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 62
  • mKrishi
approach
 An
innovaAve
approach
by
TCS. 
 I
am
working
with
them
in
this. 
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 63
  • Taking
the
PROBLEM
to
an
EXPERT
 Using
Modern
Technology
 •  PaAent
to
Doctor
 •  Field
to
Agriculture
Expert
 •  ConstrucAon
to
Engineers
 •  …
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 64
  • mKrishi
Architecture
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 65
  • Sensors
in
the
field
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 66
  • Query
No.
1519
 In Text: Grapes have turned pink in color. Please suggest the reason and medicine to be applied. Expert’s Response Meaning: Causes of Pink berry: (1) Haphazard use of fertilizer (2) Deficiency in Sulphur or access Potash (3) Pest on flowers (4) Excess use of Gibberellic acid. Pragyan, February 27,5Gm/Litre of Calcium Nitrate. Remedy: Use 2010 © Ramesh Jain 67
  • Query
No.
1519
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 68
  • Expert
Console
 Info specific From public to crop website Sensor data – if applicable Voice query Ready references for expert Picture Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 69
  • Commercial Launch Summary State of Uttar Pradesh - 70 - Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 70
  • Name
4
most
popular
companies
that
emerged
 in
the
last
4
years. 
 •  Flickr
 •  YouTube

 •  Facebook
 •  Twiber
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 71
  • Name
3
most
popular
Internet
 concepts
in
the
last
3
years. 
 •  Social
Networks
 •  Micro‐blogging
(Ambient
Awareness)
 •  Tags
 Interestingly, they did not come from Google Yahoo Microsoft or Academia. Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 72
  • InteresAng!!! 
 •  Flickr
 •  Social
Networks
 •  YouTube
 •  Microblogging
 •  Facebook
 •  Tags
 •  Twiber
 What does this tell us? Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 73
  • Messages
are
clear 
 People want: •  New
media:

Text
based
media
is
not
enough.
 •  Experiences:
People
want
to
experience
and
 share
experiences
–
with
minimal
latency.
 •  Socialize:
Family
and
friends
remain
a
strong
 influence
in
all
facets
of
life.
 –  Family
and
friends
are
closer
to
each
other
today
 than
ever!!!
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 74
  • I have a dream … Next
GeneraAon
of
Social
 Networks
 For
Masses
in
developing
countries
 using
Folk
CompuAng
on
Mobile
 Phones.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 75
  • Knowledge
and
InnovaAon
Sharing
 Networks
 •  InnovaAon
Systems
PerspecAve.
 •  Social
Networking,
B2B,
Wiki,
Twiber
 •  Put
people
in
the
centre
 •  System
becomes
‘intelligent’
facilitator
of
 learning,
interacAons,
communicaAons,
and
 collaboraAons.
 •  Organic
development
to
suit
local
context
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 76
  • KISAN:
Knowledge
and
InnovaAon
 Sharing
Agriculture
Network
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 77
  • Create
KISN
for
 
 •  Agriculture
 •  Health
 •  EducaAon
 •  Societal
problems
 •  .
.
.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 78
  • SelecAng
RaAonal
over
MysAcal 
 Jawaharlal Nehru •  “The
future
belongs
to
science
and
those
who
make
friends
with
 science.”
 •  “No
country
or
people
who
are
slaves
to
dogma
and
 the
dogmaAc
mentality
can
progress,
and
unhappily
 our
country
and
people
have
become
 extraordinarily
dogmaAc
and
lible‐minded”


 More true today than when he said this about 60 years ago. Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 79
  • Time
is
Right
 •  We
are
at
a
major
‘Technology
InflecAon’
point.
 •  India
maybe
the
best
place
to
do
research
in
the
 new
wave.
 •  This
may
be
the
best
Ame
to
seed
processes
 leading
to
revoluAonary
results.
 •  Products
developed
for
India
are
relevant
to
80%
 of
the
world
–
all
developing
countries.
 Pragyan, February 27, 2010 © Ramesh Jain 80
  • You
are
in
India
at
the
Right
Time. 
 Be
ambiAous,
driven,
and
bold
and
you
 will
bring
back
the
Intellectual
 Leadership
to
India. 
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