Notes: By looking at the history of Massillon we can better understand the history of Ohio at large. Image Sources (http://www.history-map.com/picture/003/Massillon-Ohio.htm, http://www.oh.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/14-digit/county_map.html)
Notes: The State of Ohio was once part of the Northwest Territory which was created under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. (Retroactive validation under Eisenhower in 1953.) Interesting quote regarding the Northwest Ordinance from Along the Ohio Trail online Publication: “It is said that the three greatest documents in American history are the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. In fact, much of the Constitution came about as a direct result of writings in the Northwest Ordinance. The Bill of Rights (the first 10 amendments of the Constitution -1789) actually had its beginning in the six articles of the Northwest Ordinance. Some of these similarities include: freedom of religion, trial by jury, no cruel or unusual punishment, freedom from slavery or involuntary servitude.” http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=8 Image Sources: (http://www.kokomo.lib.in.us/glhs/history/landsurvey.html , http://www.auditor.state.oh.us/publications/general/alongtheohiotrail.pdf
Notes: The first people in Ohio, allegedly about 11,000 years ago, were hunters. Their stone tools have been found along with skeleton remains of long-extinct animals like mammoths and mastodons. Scholars believe that Ohio was inhabited centuries later by the Adena people, the earliest mound builders. Some inhabitants after the Adena people were called the Hopewell Indians, who built burial mounds, fortifications, and ceremonial earthworks, some of which are now preserved in state parks. The Hopewell culture which was a group of Native Americans who lived and farmed along rivers and major waterways. Evidence of their habitation include “Exotic raw materials, such as shells from the Gulf of Mexico, copper from the Great Lakes region, mica from the Carolinas, and obsidian from the Rocky Mountains, (which) have been found at Ohio Hopewell culture sites. These items were probably brought by people from across the continent as religious or ceremonial offerings to pilgrimage sites within present-day Ohio, such as the Newark Earthworks.” http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/northamerica/hopewell.html http://www.city-data.com/states/Ohio-History.html Image Source (http://www.ohioasamerica.org/index.php/select-unit/chapter-2/maps-chapter-2/map-7-chapter-2)
Notes: These photographs show the Octagon and Great Circle Earthworks in Newark, Ohio. The photographs were probably taken between the 1950s and the 1970s. The Octagon and Great Circle Earthworks were constructed by people of the Hopewell Culture as ceremonial spaces. * * It is significant to note inhabitants (even early Native Americans) change the land . Click on movie icon for hyperlinked video of how prehistoric cultures changed the land (ex. Burnings to create Prairies for hunting advantages, this will be significant in later discussions re: canals in Massillon) http://www.ohioasamerica.org/index.php/select-unit/chapter-2/primary-sources-and-artifacts-chapter-2/aerial-newark-chapter-2 http://www.ohioasamerica.org/index.php/select-unit/chapter-2/videos-chapter-2/video-4-chapter-2
Notes: The state of Ohio is considered to be in the “Midwest” region of the United States. By clicking on the hyper-linked map we can zoom into our location from a big picture view to analyze the more specific characteristics of Ohio itself. You will see as we zoom in for a closer look that Ohio is bordered to the north by Lake Erie, and to the East and South by the Ohio River. These bodies of water were significant in the settling and development of the State of Ohio. The Iroquois people named the River an Iroquois word meaning “great water.” It sounded similar to “O-Yo” and so it translated to what we now refer to as the “Ohio” River. http://maps.google.com/maps?q=Massillon http://www.auditor.state.oh.us/publications/general/alongtheohiotrail.pdf
Notes: Many early settlers in Ohio settled from the East Coast and desired to escape the harsh winters. Ohio is one of only four states in which over 50% of its land is classified as “prime farmland.” Ohio Fever: “ Even as New Englanders were flocking to upstate New York and western Pennsylvania, others more daring were moving to Ohio. A large number of early Ohio settlers came from Germany or Northern Ireland. Bernard Bailyn in Voyagers to the West notes that between 1717 and 1760, 100,000 to 150,000 Scots-Irish arrived in the Port of Philadelphia. By the 1770s, the German and Scots-Irish were swarming into western Pennsylvania and down the Shenandoah Valley into Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Carolinas. Many ended this restless odyssey as squatters on lands north of the Ohio River. Settlements along the Ohio River did not, however, attract many New Englanders. They moved instead to an area in Ohio called the &quot;Western Reserve,&quot; known in New England as New Connecticut. New Englanders began moving to the Reserve in massive numbers only after the War of 1812. The Erie Canal, which was opened in 1825, became the great highway from New England to the West. Manifests of canal boats in the 1830s often read, &quot;Flour, wool, and hides eastbound, farmers westbound.&quot; In one month, four thousand farm families passed through the canal.” http://www.agclassroom.org/kids/stats/ohio.pdf http://www.usgennet.org/family/bliss/states/migrate.htm http://www.ethicurean.com/2008/10/09/ohio-farmland/ http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=1743&page=3 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbnid=nfCtcOnAH2HHIM:&imgrefurl=http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ohfrankl/Franklin/early8.html&docid=3YdoSGMvZXCykM&imgurl=http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ohfrankl/Franklin/early/JohnG.SharpkidsAug1877.jpg&w=4109&h=3227&ei=KlPiTqv6LaWP0QHVhL3rBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1072&vpy=229&dur=1&hovh=199&hovw=253&tx=99&ty=120&sig=106708583294891385570&page=2&tbnh=161&tbnw=212&start=10&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:17,s:10&biw=1366&bih=544
Notes: Ohio land was some of the first to be subject to the outlines of the ordinance. Ohio became the practice area for establishing settlements. Territories that were settled next benefited from the trials and errors of settling Ohio first. Each tract of land in Ohio Country has its own survey and as we will see when we look at Massillon, its own settlement story. http://www.auditor.state.oh.us/publications/general/alongtheohiotrail.pdf
Notes: There were 1,759 Officers and 24,521 enlisted men from Ohio who participated in the war of 1812. http://www.warof1812.ohio.gov/ Ohio contributed ~ 320,000 soldiers for the Union army, five Ohio born officers from which would later serve as the President of the U.S. “Nearly 7,000 Buckeye soldiers were killed in action. President Lincoln had a habit on the eve of a battle of asking how many Ohio men would participate. When someone inquired why, Lincoln remarked, ‘Because I know that if there are many Ohio soldiers to be engaged, it is probable we will win the battle, for they can be relied upon in such an emergency.’” http://files.usgwarchives.net/oh/newspapers/civilwar/civilw1.txt http://www.ohiocivilwar150.org/
Notes: “ From the end of the Civil War to the end of WWI Ohio was one of the chief players in America’s industrial growth. Location, natural resources, cheap energy, unrivaled transportation, and a plentiful labor supply made Ohio industry competitive…Though remaining an important agricultural state, Ohio’s shift toward industrialization was pronounced, resultin gin enlarged cities who swelling populations included large numbers of immigrants.” (Knepper, 301) Image Source: (http://www.toledoblade.com/frontpage/2003/03/02/A-tradition-of-industrial-growth.html, http://www.co.greene.oh.us/dod/SmallCommunities.html)
Notes: Some interesting facts about Ohio: It has been home to 7 U.S. presidents (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, Warren G. Harding.) the Wright Brothers, Neil Armstrong, Steven Spielberg, Paul Newman, Annie Oakley, Arsenio Hall, Clark Gable, and Thomas Edison. Ohio is known as the Buckeye State
Notes: The Travel Journal of Charity Rotch penned during a four month trip by carriage from Connecticut to southern Ohio during the winter of 1811 describes conditions of travel, and Charity Rotch's impression of people and places she encountered along the way. When Charity and Thomas Rotch reached Cincinnati, they turned north toward Columbus and Cambridge and eventually reached Steubenville where Thomas Rotch met Bezaleel Wells (Established Canton) who encouraged Rotch to purchase several hundred acres of land in the area of present-day Massillon, Ohio. The Rotches returned to Connecticut, sold their property there and relocated to north east Ohio, traveling over the Allegheny Mountains with 400 Merino sheep in late 1811. Thomas Rotch began construction on a permanent house in the town of Kendal that he established in present-day north east Massillon in 1813. This was known as Spring Hill House and was used as part of the Underground RailRoad. http://www.dipity.com/kendalohio/Kendal-Stark-County-Ohio/
Notes: “… on acct of the health of his Wife whose lungs were not equal to NE winters Thos Rotch left Hartford Ct^ in the winter of 1810-1811 & explored Ohio ,…his object to look out a suitable place to erect a woolen Manufactory and lands suitable for the raising of sheep. In Apr. he returned to Hartford and made arrangements to remove to Ohio & started 400 his flock of ^ Merino Sheep for the then far west on the 17th of Sept and crossed the Ohio at Steubenville where a pasture was procured for the sheep & late in the Mo of Nov explored & purchased 3 qt sec that had been entend that embraced the fall of Sippo Creek above the Folger Qt together with entering to 2500 acres of land and before the month of May all the lands of value were entered in the neighborhood that were then considered worth purchasing. The plat of Kendal bears date April 20th 1812 Which was the first enterprise of any note in this neighborhood this and the following year a saw mill was built, a woolen factory & about 30 dwelling occasioned by houses were erected the derangements ^the war left us without a circulating medium & the country productions of the^ were of very little value beyond the consumption of its inhabitants until the opening of the Ohio Canal when that improvement was located. Massillon was laid that out upon its banks drawing to^ point the enterprise and energies that had commenced the earlier settlement backed up by an agricultural community not supported by industry, & economy by any section of the United States in the center of a wheat growing region which has no parallel.” http://www.dipity.com/kendalohio/Kendal-Stark-County-Ohio/
Notes: James Duncan (a retired see captain) settled in Kendal and began acquiring land and developing it. “While he lived on the farm he began improvements on the Massillon tract by building a sawmill and gristmill, and in 1822 he put in a full set of machinery for the manufacturing of woolen cloth. Mr. Duncan seemed to have the imagination and daring to make something out of anything. For example, there was a serious business depression. Wheat was worth 25 cents per bushel and there was no market for it. Some were persuaded to distill it into whiskey. He determined to try the Southern market and employed the Quaker, Charles Coffin, to build a flat boat which was launched on the Tuscarawas River, and loaded it with wheat and a good deal of whiskey along with other produce. On arriving at Cincinnati he sold the boat and the cargo for a large advance and walked home because “the coach was going at too slow a pace.” Image Source: http://www.massillonmuseum.org/research_massillonhistory_duncan.html
Notes: Massillon, Ohio is located at 40°:47’ Latitude and -82°: 28’ Longitude. By clicking on the hyper-linked map we can zoom in to our location from a big picture view to analyze the more specific characteristics of Massillon itself. You will see as we zoom in for a closer look that Massillon is located in Northeastern Ohio, which is in Western Stark County. http://maps.google.com/maps?q=Massillon
Notes: We are located in the Tuscarawas River Watershed. This means that we live in a region where our ground water runs to the river to the West of the center of our city. Waterways have played a significant role in the development of cities. http://www.epa.ohio.gov/portals/35/tmdl/TuscarawasRiverTMDL_fact_sheet_sep09.pdf
Notes: These are copies of a Kendal and Massillon Plot Map. Can you see how the surveying procedures established in the settling of Ohio influenced the designated plot lines? Image Sources: Margy Vogt, A History of Massillon Ohio. Pages 5 & 23.
Notes: Surprisingly enough, when the canal came through it did not use he path of the Tuscarawas River, but rather in order to control it better, the actual canal ran To the East of it. This mural is painted on a building in Massillon today. The canal actually ran behind this building at one time. Just as we witnessed how the Hopewell culture changed the land for their own usage, so did the early inhabitants of Massillon. Image Sources: Mrs. Barton Smith, Upon These Hills page 38. http://www.ericgrohemurals.com/projects/eriecanal.html
Notes: Industry grew and showed a varied presence in early Massillon. Mrs. Barton Smith, Upon These Hills, Page 43 http://steamtraction.farmcollector.com/Miscellaneous/Russell-Steam-Traction-Engines-100-Years-of-Threshers-Road-Rollers-Tractors.aspx
Notes: Because Ohio was under Militia Law after the war of 1812, the Kendal Rifle Blues was a company made of Kendal residents who practiced muster and combat skills at Union Square (pictured above around 1900). Image Source: (http://www.indeonline.com/communities/x916857527/Pictures-from-the-Past-Origin-of-Massillon)
Notes: “ Massillon the first town in the county to hold a mass meeting for the support of the president at the Declaration of War Between the States. A company of Massillon Light Guards was on duty early in the war. Camp Massillon, located in today’s Oak Knoll Park, was one of two camps established in Stark County…” (Smith, 41) Oak Knoll Park, pictured above is located across from the Boys and Girls Club of Massillon on 6 th St SW. It also boasts the oldest steel bridge in Ohio. Image Source: Photos I took of present day site.
Notes: Massillon honors its Veterans via a Memorial Park outside the Municipal Building and Courthouse. It honors veterans from Stark County from the War of 1812, Vietnam, WWI, WWII, and the Korean Conflict. Civil War veterans are honored one block north in the Massillon Museum. Image Source: Photos I took of Memorial Park.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Brickley, Homer. “A Tradition of Industrial Growth.” The Toledo Web 2 March, 2003. http://www.toledoblade.com/frontpage/2003/03/02/A-tradition-of-industrial-growth.html Cherok, Richard J. “No Harmony in Kendal: The Rise and Fall of an Owenite Community.” Ohio History Journal Volume 108. http://www.ohiohistory.org/ohstemplate.cfm Crewson, W. S. (1939), THE INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY OF MASSILLON, OHIO, IN RETROSPECT. School Science and Mathematics, 39: 814–817. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1939.tb04030.x Crosby, Aimee, Susan Dietz. “Ohio As America: Ohio’s Story at Your Fingertips.” Web 4 Dec. 2011. http://www.ohioasamerica.org/ Grohe, Eric. “Eric Grohe Murals and Designs.” 2004. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. http://www.ericgrohemurals.com/index.html Inde Staff Posting. Photo by George McCall. May 3, 2011 http://www.indeonline.com/communities/x916857527/Pictures-from-the-Past-Origin-of-Massillon Kelley, Darlene. “Historical Collections of Ohio - Diaries of S. J. Kelly” Web. 13 Nov. 2011. http://files.usgwarchives.net/oh/newspapers/civilwar/civilw1.txt Knepper, George W. “Ohio and Its People.” Kent State University Press. November, 2003. Ohio Farm Bureau Federation. Web. 22 Nov. 2011. http://www.agclassroom.org/kids/stats/ohio.pdf Map of Ohio and Its Suburbs (Massillon) 2011. Map. w ww.googlemaps.com . Web. 2 Nov. 2011. Rotch, Thomas, Charity Rotch and Irvine Whales. “The Rotch Wales Papers.” Web. Massillon Memory. http://www.ohiomemory.org/cdm4/index_p15005coll39.php?CISOROOT=/p15005coll39 Smith, Mrs. Barton E. Upon These Hills. Daughters of The American Revolution, Massillon Chapter. 1962. State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. Tuscarawas River TMDL Report. September 2009. http://www.epa.ohio.gov/portals/35/tmdl/TuscarawasRiverTMDL_fact_sheet_sep09.pdf Vogt, Margy. “Towpath to Towpath: A History of Massillon, Ohio.” Bates Printing, Massillon, Ohio. 2002. Vosseler, Bill. Farm Collector Magazine . Ogden Publications, Topeka, Kansas. Fall 2006. Web. http://steamtraction.farmcollector.com/Miscellaneous/Russell-Steam-Traction-Engines-100-Years-of-Threshers-Road-Rollers-Tractors.aspx West-Dean, Tanya, W. David Speas. “Along the Ohio Trail: A Short History of Ohio Lands.” The Ohio Auditor of State’s Office. Columbus: OH. 2003. http://www.auditor.state.oh.us/publications/general/alongtheohiotrail.pdf Web. 4 Nov. 2011.
2. The State of Ohio
3. Original Inhabitants of Ohio
4. Arial views Of Hopewell Culture’s Earthworks in Newark, OH
5. A broader look at Ohio
6. Why People Came “ The country back of the Appalachian Mountains and on both sides of the Ohio (River), is now well-known to be one of the finest in North America…it must undoubtedly become a populous and powerful dominion.” – Benjamin Franklin, 1749
7. How They Settled
8. Ohio’s Early War Presence
9. How it Developed Horse-drawn wagons delivering petroleum products for Sun Oil were a common sight on the streets of Toledo in the late 19th century This was the site of a woolen mill that provided fabric for soldiers' uniforms during the War of 1812, and currently houses Clifton Mill, the oldest continuously operating mill in Ohio.
10. The State of Ohio
11. The Journey to Massillon Thomas and Charity Rotch left Philadelphia on January 29, 1811 on a four month trip to examine the possibility of relocating to Ohio.
12. Early Inhabitants of Kendal Correspondences in the hand of the Rotch and Whales families have been scanned by the MPL. The following was written by Mr. Whales and documents the settlement details of Thomas and Charity Rotch who started “Kendal” – which later became Massillon
13. Early Inhabitants of Massillon Mr. James Duncan, founder of Massillon, was a retired sea captain. Mayeh Folger, another investor in the origins of Massillon was a retired sea captain. Thomas Rotch’s father had a fleet of ships (2 of which were involved in the Boston Tea Party). Do you think this combined experience helped Massillon embrace canalway travel that was to come?
14. The City of Massillon
15. The City of Massillon
16. The History of Massillon
17. The History of Massillon
18. How it Developed Steam Traction Engine built by the Russell Brothers of Massillon who won first place at the Ohio State Fair in 1845 with their thrashing machine. The Hess-Snyder Plant produced such things as stoves, furnaces, windmills, pumps, and chimney ventilator, etc.
19. Massillon’s War Presence
20. Massillon’s War Presence
21. Massillon’s War Presence
22. A Few Conclusions <ul><li>Just like in the settling of Ohio itself; </li></ul><ul><li>People moved to Massillon to better their experiences </li></ul><ul><li>As people inhabited the area they changed the land </li></ul><ul><li>Location and access to water played a significant role in the continued development of Massillon </li></ul><ul><li>Industry helped the economic development of Massillon </li></ul><ul><li>Massillon had a significant military presence in many wars </li></ul>
23. Bibliography Brickley, Homer. “A Tradition of Industrial Growth.” Cherok, Richard J. “No Harmony in Kendal: The Rise and Fall of an Owenite Community.” Ohio History Journal Volume 108. Crewson, W. S. (1939), THE INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY OF MASSILLON, OHIO, IN RETROSPECT. Crosby, Aimee, Susan Dietz. “Ohio As America: Ohio’s Story at Your Fingertips.” Grohe, Eric. “Eric Grohe Murals and Designs.” Massillon Independent Kelley, Darlene. “Historical Collections of Ohio - Diaries of S. J. Kelly” Knepper, George W. “Ohio and Its People.” Ohio Farm Bureau Federation. Google Maps Rotch, Thomas. “The Rotch Wales Papers.” Smith, Mrs. Barton E. “Upon These Hills.” State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. Vogt, Margy. “Towpath to Towpath: A History of Massillon, Ohio.” Vosseler, Bill. Farm Collector Magazine . West-Dean, Tanya, W. David Speas. “Along the Ohio Trail: A Short History of Ohio Lands.”