Preparing A Presentation


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How to prepare a presentation or lecture

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Preparing A Presentation

  1. 1. Preparing a Presentation
  2. 2. <ul><li>Select & Research Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Create Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Write a Catchy Opening </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the Listener Interested </li></ul><ul><li>Use a Variety of Support </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Create an Easy to Remember Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Support : Notes & Visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Select and Research a Topic <ul><li>Imposed or free topic </li></ul><ul><li>Sources for research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bookstore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers/parents/relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yourself (experience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Establish Goals <ul><li>The desired outcome should be : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience centered: “You will learn or know” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the following formula </li></ul><ul><li>“At the conclusion of this presentation, you will know or be able to . . . “ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Goal Statements : examples <ul><li>At the end of my presentation, you will know the four steps for achieving financial independence. </li></ul><ul><li>My purpose today is to explain accounting procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Today I am going to discuss the history of management since 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of my presentation is to help you analyze stress. You will learn the three main causes of stress and two remedies for stress on the job. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Analyze Audience <ul><li>Knowledge - Who is my audience ? </li></ul><ul><li>Interest - What are their needs, wants, desires, characteristics ? </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You - What do I need to know to get through to them ? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What the audience will want to know about you : <ul><li>Who are you ? - Your philosophy? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you about ? - Guiding principles . </li></ul><ul><li>Where did you learn those principles ? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you present the information? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Create Outline of Main Points <ul><li>What are my messages ? </li></ul><ul><li>= Balance between what I want to convey and what the listener needs to hear to be interested and convinced. </li></ul><ul><li>No more than four main points </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate pattern </li></ul>
  9. 9. Some Common Outline Structures <ul><li>A I D A </li></ul><ul><li>A = Attention </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: grabbing headline </li></ul><ul><li>I = Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Keep listener interested </li></ul><ul><li>D = Desire </li></ul><ul><li>Build desire, paint dream </li></ul><ul><li>A = Action </li></ul><ul><li>Move listener into action </li></ul><ul><li>S P I N </li></ul><ul><li>S = Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the situation </li></ul><ul><li>P = Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the problems </li></ul><ul><li>I = Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Show the implications </li></ul><ul><li>N = Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Make the listener realize </li></ul><ul><li>he needs the solution that </li></ul><ul><li>You are offering him </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>PAR- CASE STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>P = Problem </li></ul><ul><li>A = Action </li></ul><ul><li>R = Results </li></ul><ul><li>State the problem and its </li></ul><ul><li>implications, provide the </li></ul><ul><li>actions taken to resolve the </li></ul><ul><li>problem and describe the </li></ul><ul><li>result achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>METAPHOR/STORIES </li></ul><ul><li>Use a metaphor or story where </li></ul><ul><li>the characters and situation </li></ul><ul><li>mirror the real people and </li></ul><ul><li>Situations. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a great way to let the </li></ul><ul><li>listener come to the right </li></ul><ul><li>conclusion of their own. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1. Big Point First <ul><li>AccountNow is the </li></ul><ul><li>best accounting </li></ul><ul><li>software for our </li></ul><ul><li>organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easiest to learn </li></ul></ul>2. Chronological <ul><li>Install software </li></ul><ul><li>Update software </li></ul><ul><li>Customize the software </li></ul>3. Spatial <ul><li>We will examine sales in : </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern region </li></ul><ul><li>Central region </li></ul><ul><li>Western region </li></ul>5. Break the presentation into key topic areas and then have several bullets to support each. Make sure to preserve a logical flow :
  12. 12. 4. Categorical <ul><li>New responsibilities for </li></ul><ul><li>Vice presidents </li></ul><ul><li>Middle managers </li></ul><ul><li>First line managers </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors </li></ul>5. Cause Effect <ul><li>Increased stress </li></ul><ul><li>Results in higher turnover </li></ul>6. Comparison/Contrast <ul><li>1. Old Hiring System </li></ul><ul><li>Advertise </li></ul><ul><li>Screen </li></ul><ul><li>Extend offer </li></ul><ul><li>2. New Hiring System </li></ul><ul><li>Review qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><li>Advertise </li></ul><ul><li>Screen </li></ul><ul><li>Job preview </li></ul>
  13. 13. Create a Catchy Introduction <ul><li>Get attention quickly right up front : Bold claim, Big promise, Question, Something bizarre, puzzling or contradictory, create curiosity, state major problem, … </li></ul><ul><li>Gain interest & rapport Show that what you are going to talk about is relevant to the listener </li></ul><ul><li>State purpose / preview main points What Why When How Where Who </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Establish credibility as early on as possible Use social proof and power of authority by mentioning endorsements, alliances with well respected people, testimonials, references, licenses, certifications, credentials, … but be careful not to go overboard in tooting your own horn. </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade with case-studies, facts, statistics , Be specific when quoting numbers. Research has shown that case-studies are especially effective at building credibility and persuading. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Keep the listener interested <ul><li>Establish relevancy early on </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions (= force listener to think, collect “yes’s”) </li></ul><ul><li>Tap into the listener’s emotions (with story or metaphor that touches his heart or trigger remembrances of similar experiences) </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger emotions by asking to remember past experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Paint vivid mental representations that make the senses come alive </li></ul><ul><li>Create curiosity ( with questions and statements that leave the listener wondering what the answers are or what happened) </li></ul>
  16. 16. How to keep the listener interested - examples <ul><li>Stop for a moment. Can you remember a time when you accomplished something really significant, really important ? And how it felt ? The excitement ? The sense of achievement ? Now imaging using these strategies successfully for the first time and realize that this is how you will feel then. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine stepping out your back door onto the warm sand and looking out to a brilliant orange sunset, feeling a warm breeze on your face as gulls fly overhead, and then walking along the beach, taking in that special smell of the salt air, watching the deep blue water well up into giant frothy waves breaking along the coast for as far as the eye can see. … </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like to know the two greatest … ? Then mention one, but never mention the 2 nd one : keep the listener wondering, hooked. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sell Your Messages <ul><li>If you don’t know the audience well, speaking to their desires may be somewhat difficult. But, you can appeal to universal core desires : being loved, feeling important, sex, shelter, food, security, power, … </li></ul>
  18. 18. Emphasize Main Points and Provide Support for Every Point <ul><li>State the point, referring to number and label </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the point using vivid, descriptive language </li></ul><ul><li>Add visual support material : (Overhead Transparency or Gestures) </li></ul><ul><li>Example : State: Maintain eye contact in interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain: Indicates you are interested. </li></ul><ul><li>Support: Statistics: 70% or more eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration: Impression with & without eye contact. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Use a Variety of Easily Visualized Support <ul><li>At least 3 or more of the following : </li></ul><ul><li>statistics examples </li></ul><ul><li>illustrations testimony </li></ul><ul><li>quotations definitions </li></ul><ul><li>analogies </li></ul>
  20. 20. Statistics Manager Time Exchanging Information -- Luthans, Hodget, & Rosenkrantz, 1988
  21. 21. Example <ul><li>Sample of new office furniture </li></ul>
  22. 22. Illustration
  23. 23. Testimony <ul><li>“The Camry is comfortable and gets great gas mileage.” </li></ul><ul><li>P. Roberts, Dallas TX </li></ul><ul><li>“The new Camry Coupe with the V6 has great pick up and handling.” </li></ul><ul><li>A. Greene, Lubbock TX </li></ul>
  24. 24. Quotation <ul><li>&quot;Almost every general in Desert Shield had fought in Vietnam, and we all remembered feeling abandoned by our countrymen.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norman Schwarzkopf </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Definition <ul><li>Paradigm: </li></ul><ul><li>An outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Analogy <ul><li>Obtaining a job is like catching a fish. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Writing Mechanics : Churchill Method of Scripting <ul><li>Fold your paper in half </li></ul><ul><li>Write only the line you say. </li></ul><ul><li>Read it like you will speak it </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse it and record it </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite it </li></ul><ul><li>When I was seven, </li></ul><ul><li>We drove to my cousins for dinner, </li></ul><ul><li>And to showoff Fat Dad’s new car </li></ul><ul><li>A 1960 Ford Fairlane </li></ul><ul><li>I fell asleep in the back seat </li></ul><ul><li>And my folks left me sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>As they went on up to the house, </li></ul><ul><li>When I woke up </li></ul><ul><li>I stumbled from the car </li></ul><ul><li>And headed for the porch. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Fundamental Writing Mechanics <ul><li>M.E.S.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Senses: sight, sound, taste, touch & smell </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth sense—imagination. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaving a strong story. </li></ul><ul><li>Simile </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>Echo </li></ul><ul><li>Alliteration </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Compounding Scream </li></ul>
  29. 29. Writing Mechanics I <ul><li>Simile = </li></ul><ul><li>A figure of speech comparing two things often using “like” or “as” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Frozen like a treed raccoon.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Like ice water thrown on you in a hot shower.” </li></ul><ul><li>Like a shepherd caring for a wounded lamb.” </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor = </li></ul><ul><li>A figure of speech where a word or phrase denoting one thing is used for another. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Safety was a flannel shirt that smelled….” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The lesson was love.” </li></ul><ul><li>The ear is a blind & inattentive lover. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Writing Mechanics II <ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing two or more things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating phrases that have poetic rhyming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Echo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating a phrase, in the same or different context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alliteration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning a series of words with the same letter or sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compounding SCREAM strategy </li></ul>
  31. 31. Speech Strategy I <ul><li>Co-opting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-opt means to use another’s thoughts or opinions for your purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enthymeme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthymeme, Greek root meaning in the mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using words or objects that allow the audience to draw on their memories. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocal Perambulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dark Scary Cellar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a process of tension and release to enhance the audiences ability to experience emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Pause </li></ul><ul><li>Power of the Eye </li></ul>
  32. 32. Speech Strategy II <ul><li>Use presuppositions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g : “You’ll be surprised to discover how you can make even more money than you thought you would.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You will probably think, feel, ask yourself, …” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ you will agree that, …” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speak “advantages” Translate characteristics into confirmed advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that you will get ‘Advantage 1’, because … ok ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use syllogisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A/ All people want to be … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B/ This new industry … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO NEED TO SAY C ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And, or, but, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While … you will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because - therefore - that’s why </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tell things by implication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I wonder if you know that the main advantage, -- To make sure that you understand perfectly well …” </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Create Conclusion <ul><li>Restate purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize main point </li></ul><ul><li>State expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Close memorably </li></ul>
  34. 34. Technical Support : Notes <ul><li>List notes on 3 X 5 cards </li></ul><ul><li>Number the cards </li></ul><ul><li>Use large print </li></ul><ul><li>Write summary of introduction, main points, support material, and conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Add transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Include reminder to use visuals </li></ul>
  35. 35. Technical Support : Visuals <ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail to self & bring on floppy (have backup) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use disks w/plastic sleeves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate sounds and animations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use conservative color schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead, charts, or other visuals </li></ul><ul><li>2 visual minimum—use as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Follow 666 rule </li></ul>
  36. 36. Practice the Presentation <ul><li>Entire presentation </li></ul><ul><li>As you will present it </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum 3 times </li></ul>
  37. 37. Take Control of Your Movement
  38. 38. Communicate ! <ul><li>Forget perfect grammar : communicate like you would do in real life. Make every one of them feel you are talking to her or him personally ! </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative with punctuation, pauses, emphasizing key points, … </li></ul><ul><li>Build up the value of the information you are sharing. Create value. Tell the listener what it took to provide the information, how he can benefit from it, what it may lead to ... </li></ul>