Persuasive Speaking

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How to formulate a message and to deliver it correctly and in a persuasive manner

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Persuasive Speaking

  1. 1. Persuasive Speaking Communication: Making Connections , Fourth Edition William J. Seiler and Melissa L. Beall
  2. 2. Persuasive Speaking <ul><li>Think about five instances when someone has tried to persuade you today. </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Persuasion is a communication process involving both verbal and nonverbal messages that attempts to affect, influence, reinforce, or change listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors.
  4. 4. I. <ul><li>A. The ultimate goal of all persuasion is action or change. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Persuasion is not a “one-shot deal” and often occurs over time. </li></ul>
  5. 5. I. <ul><li>C. When a speaker’s main goal is to achieve change or action, he/she will pursue one of four subgoals: adoption, discontinuance, deterrence or continuance of a particular behavior. </li></ul>
  6. 6. I. <ul><li>C. 1. Adoption asks listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of an attitude, belief, or value while performing the action suggested by the speaker. </li></ul>
  7. 7. I. <ul><li>2. Discontinuance is the opposite of adoption in that you want your audience to stop doing something. </li></ul>
  8. 8. I. <ul><li>3. Deterrence is an action subgoal that asks the listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of an attitude, belief, or value by avoiding a certain behavior. (What kinds of topics lend themselves to this subgoal?) </li></ul>
  9. 9. I. <ul><li>C. 4. Continuance asks listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of an attitude, belief, or value by continuing to perform a certain behavior. </li></ul>
  10. 10. II. Choosing a topic for a persuasive speech is important. <ul><li>A. Some topics lend themselves more readily to persuasive speaking than others. </li></ul>
  11. 11. II. <ul><li>A. 1. Select a topic in which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you are interested, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know something about, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>want to speak about, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to speak about, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or, are personally concerned about </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. II. <ul><li>A. 2. Select a worthwhile subject of potential concern to your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Select a topic with a goal of influence or action. </li></ul>
  13. 13. II. <ul><li>A. 4. Select an issue that is current, but avoid one that is common knowledge or has been discussed widely unless you plan to add a new perspective to it. </li></ul>
  14. 14. II. <ul><li>B. There are three types of questions usually addressed by a persuasive speech. </li></ul>
  15. 15. II. <ul><li>B. 1. A question of fact asks what is true or false. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Because they are so cut and dried, there is little debate about these types, thus, questions of fact are weak topics for a persuasive speech. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. II. <ul><li>B. 1. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Persuasive speeches may be based on complicated answers to questions of fact or justifications for answers that are unclear. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. II. <ul><li>B. 1. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Some persuasive speeches may attempt to answer questions of fact that are not completely verifiable. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. II. <ul><li>B. 2. A question of value asks whether something is good or bad, desirable or undesirable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. The answers to questions of value may seem to be based solely on personal opinion, but that is not really the case. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. II. <ul><li>B. 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Effective persuasive speakers will have evidence to support their positions and will be able to justify their opinions. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. II. <ul><li>B. 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. A speaker’s position on a question of value may be difficult to defend because of the differing opinions of many people. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. II. <ul><li>B. 3. A question of policy goes beyond seeking judgmental responses to seeking courses of action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. A question of policy asks if something should or should not be done. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. II. <ul><li>B. 3. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Persuasive speakers can defend an existing policy, suggest modifications of an existing policy, suggest a new policy to replace an old one, or create a policy where one does not exist. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. II. <ul><li>B. 3. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. When focusing on a question of policy, persuasive speakers should look at need, plan, and suitability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) If you believe that things are not fine as they are, then you must argue that there is a need for change. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. II. <ul><li>B. 3. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. (2) When you advocate change, you must provide a plan or solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. (3) You must defend your plan by explaining its suitability for the situation. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. III. Stephen Toulmin developed a model to help us understand everyday persuasive arguments.
  26. 26. III. <ul><li>A. The claim is what the persuader wants or hopes will be believed, accepted, or done. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The data is the evidence required to support the claim. </li></ul>
  27. 27. III. <ul><li>C. The warrant is the explanation of the relationship between the claim and the data. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Listeners respond to claims in three ways. </li></ul>
  28. 28. III. <ul><li>D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. They can accept the claim at face value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. They can reject the claim outright at its face value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. They can either accept or reject the claim according to their evaluation of data and warrant. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. IV. It is important to establish your credibility, or believability, based upon the audience’s evaluation of you as a persuasive speaker.
  30. 30. IV. <ul><li>A. Competence is judged by the amount of knowledge, degree of involvement, and extent of experience you display. </li></ul>
  31. 31. IV. <ul><li>A. 1. You can demonstrate your involvement by establishing how and why you are familiar with the topic. </li></ul>
  32. 32. IV. <ul><li>A. 2. You can establish your competence by relating personal experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>3. You can create your competence by citing your research. </li></ul>
  33. 33. IV. <ul><li>B. An audience’s judgment of your character is based upon their perceptions of your trustworthiness and dependability. </li></ul>
  34. 34. IV. <ul><li>B. 2. A speaker’s ethics , or system of moral principles, plays a key role in the character judgment of the persuasive speaker. </li></ul>
  35. 35. IV. <ul><li>B. 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Accurately citing sources when information is not your own assists in building your ethical stance. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. IV. <ul><li>B. 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Do not falsify nor distort information in order to make your point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Always show respect for your audience. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. IV. <ul><li>B. 3. Charisma is the appeal that the speaker has with the audience. </li></ul>
  38. 38. V. It is critical that we become effective consumers of persuasive speaking.
  39. 39. V. <ul><li>A. As listeners, we have both the right and the responsibility to get accurate, reliable, and worthwhile information. </li></ul><ul><li>B. As listeners, we need to evaluate the information carefully. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Evaluating persuasive attempts <ul><li>Identify a situation in which you doubted the truth of a message. </li></ul><ul><li>What caused you to have doubts? </li></ul>
  41. 41. VI. Speakers need to carefully prepare and develop their persuasive speeches. <ul><li>A. Careful research of your topic is important. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Several decisions are critical in regard to the organization of your speech. </li></ul>
  42. 42. VI. <ul><li>B. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. You will need to determine if you should present one or both sides of the argument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. You will need to decide when you should present your strongest arguments. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. VI. <ul><li>B. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. You will need to decide what is the best way to organize your speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive speakers need to ask and answer many questions prior to the presentation in order to be effective. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. VI. <ul><li>C. Select your supporting materials carefully. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Appeals to needs attempt to move people to action by calling on physical and psychological requirements and desires. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. VI. <ul><li>C. 2. Attempts to move people to action through the use of evidence and proof are called logical appeals. </li></ul>
  46. 46. VI. <ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Deductive reasoning is a sequence of thought that moves from general information to a specific conclusion. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. VI. <ul><li>C. 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning- it is a sequence of thought that moves from the specific to the general. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. VI. <ul><li>C. 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Causal reasoning is a sequence of thought that links causes with effects. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. VI. <ul><li>C. 2. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Reasoning by analogy is a sequence of thought that compares similar things or circumstances in order to draw a conclusion. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. VI. <ul><li>C. 3. Attempts to move people to action by playing on their feelings - for example, by making them feel guilty, unhappy, afraid, happy, proud, sympathetic, or nostalgic - are known as emotional appeals. </li></ul>
  51. 51. VI. <ul><li>C. 4. Speakers need to use persuasive strategies to win over their listeners. </li></ul>
  52. 52. VI. <ul><li>C. 4. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. The persuasive speaker will always keep the listener in mind as he or she reinforces the arguments. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Preparing the persuasive speech <ul><li>There’s no magic in persuasive speaking. Instead, speakers must carefully think about an prepare their speeches to have the greatest appeal to the listeners. </li></ul>
  54. 54. VII. There are several fallacies , arguments that do not follow the rules of logic and therefore are not believable, in the development of arguments.
  55. 55. VII. <ul><li>A. Fallacies of reason are one of the basic types of fallacies with several subdivision. </li></ul>
  56. 56. VII. <ul><li>A. 1. A common fallacy, questionable cause , occurs when a speaker alleges something that does not relate to, or produce,the outcome claimed in the argument. </li></ul>
  57. 57. VII. <ul><li>A. 2. When someone attacks a person rather than an argument or ideas, that person is resorting to a fallacy called an ad hominem .. </li></ul>
  58. 58. VII. <ul><li>B. Fallacies of evidence look at the support. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. A major misuse of information involves the use of fact and opinion. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. VII. <ul><li>B. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Another misuse or avoidance of facts is the use of irrelevant information to divert attention from the real issue which is known as a red herring . </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. VII. <ul><li>B. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. A common critical thinking fallacy, the hasty generalization , occurs when a speaker doesn’t have sufficient data and thus argues or reasons from a specific example. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Errors in reasoning <ul><li>Fallacies are errors in reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in reasoning can leave both speaker and listener “out on a limb.” </li></ul><ul><li>We need to carefully think about both our claims and our data. </li></ul>
  62. 62. VII. The following criteria are used to evaluate the competence of the speaker and the effectiveness of the persuasive speech.
  63. 63. VIII. <ul><li>A. Topic selection should merit the audience’s attention, show relationships between the topic and speaker, and between the topic and the listeners, and be delivered adequately in the time available. </li></ul>
  64. 64. VIII. <ul><li>B. Some general requirements should be that the purpose is clearly established, meets the time requirements, cites sources of information, and is relevant to the assignment. </li></ul>
  65. 65. VII. <ul><li>C. A speaker must shape the speech to suit the audience, try to get them involved, include a goal for listeners to think about, and show the audience why the topic is both important and relevant to them. </li></ul>
  66. 66. VIII. <ul><li>D. Supporting materials should help make the audience believe in the information and appeal to the audience’s needs, logic, and emotions. </li></ul>
  67. 67. VIII. <ul><li>D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Supporting materials should include a variety of factual information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Supporting materials may include visual aids when appropriate. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. VIII. <ul><li>D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Supporting materials should be documented, cited correctly, and up- to-date. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Supporting materials should always help the speaker establish and maintain credibility. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. VIII. <ul><li>E. When judging the organization, the evaluator looks for a carefully planned, well-developed persuasive speech that takes a unified approach to the material presented. </li></ul>
  70. 70. VIII. <ul><li>F. The delivery techniques show evidence that the speaker is aware of what the audience is interested in hearing. </li></ul>
  71. 71. VIII. <ul><li>F. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Effective delivery also demonstrates that the speaker is involved and enthusiastic about the topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Effective delivery also shows the speaker is interested in sharing the material with the listeners. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. VIII. <ul><li>G. Effective use of language is critical to effective persuasive communication. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Effective persuasive speakers <ul><li>Choose worthy topics </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the time limits </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt the topic to the listeners </li></ul><ul><li>Provide excellent supporting materials </li></ul><ul><li>Organize their ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Employ effective delivery </li></ul>

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