Family therapy - counselling techniques


Published on

In this manual you will find a brief history and description of the main visions and schools of FAMILY THERAPY..
More important however is the included survey of techniques used in family counselling and the concrete examples of therapy structure.

Published in: Business
No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Family therapy - counselling techniques

  1. 1. AN INTRODUCTION TOFAMILY THERAPYTags: Family Therapy - Practical Guide – Manual – Theory – Summary - Course – counselling – counsellor
  2. 2. PrefaceAll information in this manual was collected for personal use from freely accessible sites on the internet, alot of it was found in the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia.The same applies to all pictures used, which I downloaded from public domain sites.Since I feel many people will benefit and appreciate being allowed to get easy access to this kind ofinformation ordered in short, easily accessible chapters, I decided to make it available for free toeverybody.Should any of the authors of the borrowed texts feel that the present manual is not compatible with theway in which they planned to make their work available to the public, then I hereby invite them to contactme at and let me know which part of the manual should be replaced byinformation from other sources.Please check on or for a printed version of this manual.2
  3. 3. FAMILY THERAPY CONTENTSFamily Therapy – Wikipedia 5 • 1 History and theoretical frameworks 6 • 2 Techniques 9 • 3 Publications • 4 Licensing and degrees 10 o 4.1 Values and ethics in family therapy • 5 Founders and key influences 11 • 6 Summary of Family Therapy Theories & Techniques • 7 Academic resources • 8 Professional Organizations • 9 See also • 10 References 19 • 11 External linksBrief Strategic Family Therapy 21Strategic Family Therapy – Kimberly Gail 23Solution Focused Brief Therapy – Wikipedia 24 • 1 Basic Principles • 2 Questions • 3 Resources • 4 History of Solution Focused Brief Therapy • 5 Solution-Focused counselling • 6 Solution-Focused consulting • 7 ReferencesBrief (psycho-) Family Therapy – Wikipedia 29Extended Family Therapy or Bowenian Family Systems Therapy I - Wikipedia 31 • Introduction 31 • Differentiation of Self 33 • Triangles 36 • The Nuclear Family Emotional Processes 38 • The Family Projection Process 41 • The Multigenerational Transmission Process 45 • Sibling Position 48 • Emotional Cutoff 50 • Societal Emotional Processes 52 • Normal Family Development 54 • Family Disorders 54 • Goals of Therapy 55 • Techniques • Family Therapy with One Person 3
  4. 4. Bowen’s Family Systems Therapy II 56 • More about triangles 62Salvador Munichin’s Structural Family Therapy - I 66Salvador Munichin’s Structural Family Therapy - I 68Virginia Satir’s Humanistic Family Therapy 70Behavourial & Conjoint Family Therapy 72Milan Systemic Family Therapy or “Long Brief Therapy” 75Response Based Therapy – Wikipedia 76Narrative Family Therapy I - Wikipedia 78Narrative Family Therapy II 83Definitions 84Basic Family Therapy Techniques 86 • Techniques for Information Gathering 87 • Joining 88 • Diagnosing 89 • Family System Strategies 89 • Intervention Techniques 90 • Communication Skill Building Techniques 95Structure of a Family Therapy Session 96Stages and steps of Problem Centred Systems Therapy - Can.Fam.Physician 97A guideline for family assessment 97Structure of Family Therapy 100Systemic Family Therapy Manual 103Basic Family Therapy Techniques in alphabetical order 153Summary of Family Therapy Theories and Techniques 164Family Therapy Survey 1674
  5. 5. FAMILY THERAPYFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFamily therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch ofpsychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. Ittends to view change in terms of the systems of interaction between family members. It emphasizes familyrelationships as an important factor in psychological health.What the different schools of family therapy have in common is a belief that, regardless of the origin of theproblem, and regardless of whether the clients consider it an "individual" or "family" issue, involving families insolutions is often beneficial. This involvement of families is commonly accomplished by their direct participation inthe therapy session. The skills of the family therapist thus include the ability to influence conversations in a waythat catalyzes the strengths, wisdom, and support of the wider system.In the fields early years, many clinicians defined the family in a narrow, traditional manner usually includingparents and children. As the field has evolved, the concept of the family is more commonly defined in terms ofstrongly supportive, long-term roles and relationships between people who may or may not be related by blood ormarriage.Family therapy has been used effectively in the full range of human dilemmas; there is no category of relationshipor psychological problem that has not been addressed with this approach. The conceptual frameworks developed byfamily therapists, especially those of family systems theorists, have been applied to a wide range of humanbehaviour, including organizational dynamics and the study of greatness.Contents • 1 History and theoretical frameworks • 2 Techniques • 3 Publications • 4 Licensing and degrees o 4.1 Values and ethics in family therapy • 5 Founders and key influences • 6 Summary of Family Therapy Theories & Techniques • 7 Academic resources • 8 Professional Organizations • 9 See also • 10 References • 11 External links 5
  6. 6. History of Marital TherapyGurman, A. S. & Fraenkel, P. (2002). The history of couple therapy: A millennial review. Family Process, 41, 199-260.G&F point out that couples therapy (formerly marital therapy) has been largely neglected, even though family therapists do 1.5-2 times as much couple work as multigenerational family work. They also note this is not such a bad ratio, as 40% of peoplecoming to therapy attribute their problems to relationship issues. G&F define Four Phases in the History Couples Therapy:Phase I - 1930 to 1963Atheoretical • 1929 to 1932 - Three marital clinics opened; they were service and education oriented, and saw mostly individuals • The closest thing to theory was what was borrowed from psychoanalytic - interlocking neurosis • 1931 the first marital therapy paper was published • Theory was marginalized due to a lack of brilliant theorists, and a lack of distinction from individual analysisPhase II - 1931 to 1966Psychoanalytic Experimentation • Therapists are seen as telling truth from distortion, rather than creating a truth • Mostly individual sessions, but some conjoint; still treated like seeing two individual clients in the same room though • Some started to downplay the role of the therapist • Family was outshining couples work, and the couple techniques werent innovative or particularly effectivePhase III - 1963 to 1985Family Therapy Incorporates • Family therapy overpowers couples, even though a number of big name people really mostly saw couples o Jackson Coined concepts like quid pro quo, homeostasis, and double bind for conjoint therapy o Satir Coined naming roles members played, fostered self-esteem and actualization, and saw the therapist as a nurturing teacher o Bowen Multigenerational theory approach, with differentiation, triangulation, and projection processes, with the therapist as an anxiety-lowering coach - societal projection process was the forerunner of our modern awareness of cultural differences Copied from the web. o Haley Power and control (or love and connection) were key. Avoided insight, emotional catharsis, conscious power plays. Saw system as more, and more important, than the sum of the partsPhase IV - 1986 to nowRefining and Integrating • 1986 was the publication of G&K book • New Theories were tried and refined, like Behavioral Marital Therapy, Emotionally Focused Marital Therapy, and Insight-Oriented Marital Therapy. All four have received good empirical support. Couples therapy was used to treat depression, anxiety, and alcoholism. • Efforts were focused on preventing couples problems with programs like PREP • Feminism, Multiculturalism, and Post-Modernism impacted the field • Eclectic integration, brief therapy, and sex therapy ideas were incorporated into our work Copied from the web. •
  7. 7. History and theoretical frameworksFormal interventions with families to help individuals and families experiencing various kinds of problems havebeen a part of many cultures, probably throughout history. These interventions have sometimes involved formalprocedures or rituals, and often included the extended family as well as non-kin members of the community (see forexample Hooponopono). Following the emergence of specialization in various societies, these interventions wereoften conducted by particular members of a community – for example, a chief, priest, physician, and so on - usuallyas an ancillary function.[1]Family therapy as a distinct professional practice within Western cultures can be argued to have had its origins inthe social work movements of the 19th century in England and the United States.[1] As a branch of psychotherapy,its roots can be traced somewhat later to the early 20th century with the emergence of the child guidance movementand marriage counselling.[2] The formal development of family therapy dates to the 1940s and early 1950s with thefounding in 1942 of the American Association of Marriage Counsellors (the precursor of the AAMFT), and throughthe work of various independent clinicians and groups - in England (John Bowlby at the Tavistock Clinic), the US(John Bell, Nathan Ackerman, Christian Midelfort, Theodore Lidz, Lyman Wynne, Murray Bowen, Carl Whitaker,Virginia Satir), and Hungary (D.L.P. Liebermann) - who began seeing family members together for observation ortherapy sessions.[1][3] There was initially a strong influence from psychoanalysis (most of the early founders of thefield had psychoanalytic backgrounds) and social psychiatry, and later from learning theory and behaviour therapy -and significantly, these clinicians began to articulate various theories about the nature and functioning of the familyas an entity that was more than a mere aggregation of individuals.[2]The movement received an important boost in the mid-1950s through the work of anthropologist Gregory Batesonand colleagues – Jay Haley, Donald D. Jackson, John Weakland, William Fry, and later, Virginia Satir, PaulWatzlawick and others – at Palo Alto in the US, who introduced ideas from cybernetics and general systems theoryinto social psychology and psychotherapy, focusing in particular on the role of communication (see BatesonProject). This approach eschewed the traditional focus on individual psychology and historical factors – that involveso-called linear causation and content – and emphasized instead feedback and homeostatic mechanisms and “rules”in here-and-now interactions – so-called circular causation and process – that were thought to maintain orexacerbate problems, whatever the original cause(s).[4][5] (See also systems psychology and systemic therapy.) Thisgroup was also influenced significantly by the work of US psychiatrist, hypnotherapist, and brief therapist, MiltonH. Erickson - especially his innovative use of strategies for change, such as paradoxical directives (see also Reversepsychology). The members of the Bateson Project (like the founders of a number of other schools of family therapy,including Carl Whitaker, Murray Bowen, and Ivan Böszörményi-Nagy) had a particular interest in the possiblepsychosocial causes and treatment of schizophrenia, especially in terms of the putative "meaning" and "function" ofsigns and symptoms within the family system. The research of psychiatrists and psychoanalysts Lyman Wynne andTheodore Lidz on communication deviance and roles (e.g., pseudo-mutuality, pseudo-hostility, schism and skew) infamilies of schizophrenics also became influential with systems-communications-oriented theorists andtherapists.[2][6] A related theme, applying to dysfunction and psychopathology more generally, was that of the"identified patient" or "presenting problem" as a manifestation of or surrogate for the familys, or even societys,problems. (See also double bind; family nexus.)By the mid-1960s a number of distinct schools of family therapy had emerged. From those groups that were moststrongly influenced by cybernetics and systems theory, there came MRI Brief Therapy, and slightly later, strategictherapy, Salvador Minuchins Structural Family Therapy and the Milan systems model. Partly in reaction to someaspects of these systemic models, came the experiential approaches of Virginia Satir and Carl Whitaker, whichdownplayed theoretical constructs, and emphasized subjective experience and unexpressed feelings (including thesubconscious), authentic communication, spontaneity, creativity, total therapist engagement, and often included theextended family. Concurrently and somewhat independently, there emerged the various intergenerational therapiesof Murray Bowen, Ivan Böszörményi-Nagy, James Framo, and Norman Paul, which present different theories aboutthe intergenerational transmission of health and dysfunction, but which all deal usually with at least threegenerations of a family (in person or conceptually), either directly in therapy sessions, or via "homework", "journeyshome", etc. Psychodynamic family therapy - which, more than any other school of family therapy, deals directlywith individual psychology and the unconscious in the context of current relationships - continued to develop 7
  8. 8. through a number of groups that were influenced by the ideas and methods of Nathan Ackerman, and also by theBritish School of Object Relations and John Bowlby’s work on attachment. Multiple-family group therapy, aprecursor of psychoeducational family intervention, emerged, in part, as a pragmatic alternative form of intervention- especially as an adjunct to the treatment of serious mental disorders with a significant biological basis, such asschizophrenia - and represented something of a conceptual challenge to some of the "systemic" (and thus potentially"family-blaming") paradigms of pathogenesis that were implicit in many of the dominant models of family therapy.The late-1960s and early-1970s saw the development of network therapy (which bears some resemblance totraditional practices such as Hooponopono) by Ross Speck and Carolyn Attneave, and the emergence ofbehavioural marital therapy (renamed behavioural couples therapy in the 1990s; see also relationship counselling)and behavioural family therapy as models in their own right.[2]By the late-1970s the weight of clinical experience - especially in relation to the treatment of serious mentaldisorders - had led to some revision of a number of the original models and a moderation of some of the earlierstridency and theoretical purism. There were the beginnings of a general softening of the strict demarcationsbetween schools, with moves toward rapprochement, integration, and eclecticism – although there was,nevertheless, some hardening of positions within some schools. These trends were reflected in and influenced bylively debates within the field and critiques from various sources, including feminism and post-modernism, thatreflected in part the cultural and political tenor of the times, and which foreshadowed the emergence (in the 1980sand 1990s) of the various "post-systems" constructivist and social constructionist approaches. While there was stilldebate within the field about whether, or to what degree, the systemic-constructivist and medical-biologicalparadigms were necessarily antithetical to each other (see also Anti-psychiatry; Biopsychosocial model), there was agrowing willingness and tendency on the part of family therapists to work in multi-modal clinical partnerships withother members of the helping and medical professions.[2][6][7]From the mid-1980s to the present the field has been marked by a diversity of approaches that partly reflect theoriginal schools, but which also draw on other theories and methods from individual psychotherapy and elsewhere –these approaches and sources include: brief therapy, structural therapy, constructivist approaches (e.g., Milansystems, post-Milan/collaborative/conversational, reflective), solution-focused therapy, narrative therapy, a rangeof cognitive and behavioural approaches, psychodynamic and object relations approaches, attachment andEmotionally Focused Therapy, intergenerational approaches, network therapy, and multisystemic therapy(MST).[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Multicultural, intercultural, and integrative approaches are beingdeveloped.[16][17][18][19][20][21] Many practitioners claim to be "eclectic," using techniques from several areas,depending upon their own inclinations and/or the needs of the client(s), and there is a growing movement toward asingle “generic” family therapy that seeks to incorporate the best of the accumulated knowledge in the field andwhich can be adapted to many different contexts;[22] however, there are still a significant number of therapists whoadhere more or less strictly to a particular, or limited number of, approach(es).[23]Ideas and methods from family therapy have been influential in psychotherapy generally: a survey of over 2,500 UStherapists in 2006 revealed that of the ten most influential therapists of the previous quarter-century, three wereprominent family therapists, and the marital and family systems model was the second most utilized model aftercognitive behavioural therapy.[24]As we move through the 21st century, the internet is fostering the growth of online programs that make courses andprograms in family therapy more widely accessible. Using mass media techniques to increase public understandingof issues in family therapy has added a new frontier for amplification in the future.8
  9. 9. TechniquesFamily therapy uses a range of counselling and other techniques including: • communication theory • media and communications psychology • psychoeducation • psychotherapy • relationship education • systemic coaching • systems theory • reality therapyThe number of sessions depends on the situation, but the average is 5-20 sessions.A family therapist usually meets several members of the family at the same time. This has the advantage of makingdifferences between the ways family members perceive mutual relations as well as interaction patterns in thesession apparent both for the therapist and the family.These patterns frequently mirror habitual interaction patterns at home, even though the therapist is now incorporatedinto the family system.Therapy interventions usually focus on relationship patterns rather than on analyzing impulses of the unconsciousmind or early childhood trauma of individuals as a Freudian therapist would do - although some schools of familytherapy, for example psychodynamic and intergenerational, do consider such individual and historical factors (thusembracing both linear and circular causation) and they may use instruments such as the genogram to help toelucidate the patterns of relationship across generations.The distinctive feature of family therapy is its perspective and analytical framework rather than the number ofpeople present at a therapy session. Specifically, family therapists are relational therapists: They are generally moreinterested in what goes on between individuals rather than within one or more individuals, although some familytherapists—in particular those who identify as psychodynamic, object relations, intergenerational, EFT, orexperiential family therapists—tend to be as interested in individuals as in the systems those individuals and theirrelationships constitute.Depending on the conflicts at issue and the progress of therapy to date, a therapist may focus on analyzing specificprevious instances of conflict, as by reviewing a past incident and suggesting alternative ways family membersmight have responded to one another during it, or instead proceed directly to addressing the sources of conflict at amore abstract level, as by pointing out patterns of interaction that the family might have not noticed.Family therapists tend to be more interested in the maintenance and/or solving of problems rather than in trying toidentify a single cause. Some families may perceive cause-effect analyses as attempts to allocate blame to one ormore individuals, with the effect that for many families a focus on causation is of little or no clinical utility.PublicationsFamily therapy journals include: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Family Process, Journal of FamilyTherapy, Journal of Systemic Therapies, The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, ThePsychotherapy Networker, The Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, The Australian Journal of Family Therapy, TheInternational Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, Journal for the Study of Human Interaction andFamily Therapy, 9
  10. 10. Licensing and degreesFamily therapy practitioners come from a range of professional backgrounds, and some are specifically qualified orlicensed/registered in family therapy (licensing is not required in some jurisdictions and requirements vary fromplace to place). In the United Kingdom, family therapists are usually psychologists, nurses, psychotherapists, socialworkers, or counsellors who have done further training in family therapy, either a diploma or an M.Sc.. However, inthe United States there is a specific degree and license as a Marriage and Family therapist.Prior to 1999 in California, counsellors who specialized in this area were called Marriage, Family and ChildCounsellors. Today, they are known as Marriage and Family Therapists (MFT), and work variously in privatepractice, in clinical settings such as hospitals, institutions, or counselling organizations.A masters degree is required to work as an MFT in some American states. Most commonly, MFTs will first earn aM.S. or M.A. degree in marriage and family therapy, psychology, family studies, or social work. After graduation,prospective MFTs work as interns under the supervision of a licensed professional and are referred to as anMFTi.[25]Marriage and family therapists in the United States and Canada often seek degrees from accredited Masters orDoctoral programs recognized by the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family TherapyEducation(COAMFTE), a division of the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy. For accreditedprograms, click here.Requirements vary, but in most states about 3000 hours of supervised work as an intern are needed to sit for alicensing exam. MFTs must be licensed by the state to practice. Only after completing their education and internshipand passing the state licensing exam can a person call themselves a Marital and Family Therapist and workunsupervised.License restrictions can vary considerably from state to state. Contact information about licensing boards in theUnited States are provided by the Association of Marital and Family Regulatory Boards.There have been concerns raised within the profession about the fact that specialist training in couples therapy – asdistinct from family therapy in general - is not required to gain a license as an MFT or membership of the mainprofessional body, the AAMFT.[26]Values and ethics in family therapySince issues of interpersonal conflict, power, control, values, and ethics are often more pronounced in relationshiptherapy than in individual therapy, there has been debate within the profession about the different values that areimplicit in the various theoretical models of therapy and the role of the therapist’s own values in the therapeuticprocess, and how prospective clients should best go about finding a therapist whose values and objectives are mostconsistent with their own.[27][28][29] Specific issues that have emerged have included an increasing questioning of thelongstanding notion of therapeutic neutrality,[30][31][32] a concern with questions of justice and self-determination,[33]connectedness and independence,[34] "functioning" versus "authenticity",[7] and questions about the degree of thetherapist’s "pro-marriage/family" versus "pro-individual" commitment.[35]10
  11. 11. Founders and key influencesSome key developers of family therapy are: • Alfred Adler (phenomenology) • Nathan Ackerman (psychoanalytic) • Tom Andersen (Reflecting practices and dialogues about dialogues) • Harlene Anderson (Postmodern Collaborative Therapy and Collaborative Language Systems) • Harry J Aponte (Person-of-the-Therapist) • Gregory Bateson (1904–1980) (cybernetics, systems theory) • Ivan Böszörményi-Nagy (Contextual therapy, intergenerational, relational ethics) • Murray Bowen (Systems theory, intergenerational) • Steve de Shazer (solution focused therapy) • James Dobson (Christian psychologist) Focus on the Family • Milton H. Erickson (hypnotherapy, strategic therapy, brief therapy) • Richard Fisch (brief therapy, strategic therapy) • James Framo (object relations theory, intergenerational) • Edwin Friedman (Family process in religious congregations) • Harry Goolishian (Postmodern Collaborative Therapy and Collaborative Language Systems) • John Gottman (marriage) • Robert-Jay Green (LGBT, cross-cultural issues) • Jay Haley (strategic therapy, communications) • Lynn Hoffman (strategic, post-systems, collaborative) • Don D. Jackson (systems theory) • Sue Johnson (Emotionally focused therapy, attachment theory) • Bradford Keeney (cybernetics, resource focused therapy) • Walter Kempler (Gestalt psychology) • Bernard Luskin (media psychology, Public understanding of issues through media) • Cloe Madanes (strategic therapy) • Salvador Minuchin (structural) • Braulio Montalvo (structural)[citation needed] • Virginia Satir (communications, experiential, conjoint and co-therapy) • Mara Selvini Palazzoli (Milan systems) • Ross Speck (network therapy) • Robin Skynner (Group Analysis) • Paul Watzlawick (Brief therapy, systems theory) • John Weakland (Brief therapy, strategic therapy, systems theory) • Carl Whitaker (Family systems, experiential, co-therapy) • Michael White (narrative therapy) • Lyman Wynne (Schizophrenia, pseudomutuality)Principal Leaders in the Field: • Salvador Minuchin • John Elderkin Bell • Jay Haley • Philip Guerin • Murray Bowen • Don Jackson • Nathan Ackerman • Carl Whitaker • Virginia Satir • Betty Carter • Ivan Boszmormenyi-Nagy • Michael White 11
  12. 12. Salvador MinuchinBorn and raised in Argentina, Salvador Minuchin began his career as a family therapist in the early 1960s when hediscovered two patterns common to troubled families: some are "enmeshed," chaotic and tightly interconnected, whileothers are "disengaged," isolated and seemingly unrelated. When Minuchin first burst onto the scene, his immediateimpact was due to his dazzling clinical artistry. This compelling man with the elegant Latin accent would provoke,seduce, bully, or bewilder families into changing -- as the situation required -- setting a standard against which othertherapists still judge their best work. But even Minuchins legendary dramatic flair didnt have the same galvanizingimpact as his structural theory of families.In his classic text, Families and Family Therapy (Minuchin, 1974) Minuchin taught family therapists to see what theywere looking at. Through the lens of structural family theory, previously puzzling interactions suddenly swam into focus.Where others saw only chaos and cruelty, Minuchin helped us understand that families are structured in "subsystems"with "boundaries," their members shadowing to steps they do not see.In 1962 Minuchin formed a productive professional relationship with Jay Haley, who was then in Palo Alto. In 1965Munuchin became the director of the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic, which eventually became the worlds leadingcenter for family therapy and training. At the Philadelphia Clinic, Haley and Minuchin developed a training program formembers of the local black community as paraprofessional family therapists in an effort to more effectively related to theurban blacks and Latinos in the surrounding community.In 1969, Minuchin, Haley, Braulio Montalvo, and Bernice Rosman developed a highly successful family therapy trainingprogram that emphasized hands-on experience, on-line supervision, and the use of videotapes to learn and apply thetechniques of structural family therapy. Minuchin stepped down as director of the Phildelphia Clinic in 1975 to pursue hisinterest in treating families with psychosomatic illnesses and to continue writing some of the most influential books in thefield of family therapy. In 1981, Minuchin established Family Studies, Inc., in New York, a center committed to teachingfamily therapists. Minuchin retired in 1996 and currently lives with his wife Patricia in Boston.Jay HaleyA brilliant strategist and devastating critic, Jay Haley was a dominating figure in developing the Palo Alto Groupscommuncations model and stategic family therapy, which became popular in the 1970s. He studied under three of themost influential pioneers in the evolution of family therapy - Gregory Bateson, Milton Erickson, and Salvador Minuchin,and combined ideas from each of these innovative thinkers to form his own unique brand of family therapy.In 1953 Haley was studying for a masters degree in communication at Stanford University when Gregory Batesoninvited him to work on the schizophrenia project. Haley met with patients and their families to observe thecommunicative style of schizophrenics in a natural environment. This work had an enormous impact in shaping thedevelopment of family therapy.Haley developed his therapeutic skills under the supervision of master hypnotist Milton Erickson from 1954 to 1960.Haley developed a brief therapy model which focused on the context and possible function of the patients symptoms andused directives to instruct patients to act in ways that were counterproductive to their maladaptive behavior. Haleybelieved that it was far more important to get patients to actively do something about their problems rather than help themto understand why they had these problems.Haley was instumental in bridging the gap between strategic and structural approaches to family therapy by lookingbyond simple dyadic relationships and exploring his interest in trangular, intergenerationsl relationships, or "perversetriangles." Haley believed that a patients symptoms arose out of an incongruence between manifest and covert levels ofcommunication with others and served to give the patient a sense of control in their interpersonal relationships.Accordingly, Haley thought that the healing aspect of the patient-therapist relationship involved getting patients to takeresponsibility for their actions and to take a stand in the therapeutic relationship, a process he called "therapeuticparadox."Haley conducted research at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto until he joined Salvador Minuchin at thePhiladelphia Child Guidance Clinic in 1967. At the Philadelphia Clinic, Haley pursued his interests in training andsupervision in family therapy and was the director of family therapy research for ten years. He was also an active clinicalmember of the University of Pennsylvanias Department of Psychiatry. In 1976, Haley moved to Washington D.C. andfounded the Family Therapy Institute with Cloe Madanes, which has become one of the major training institutes in thecountry. Haley retired in 1995 and currently lives in La Jolla, California.12
  13. 13. Murray BowenAmong the pioneers of family therapy, Murray Bowens emphasis on theory and insight as opposed to action andtechnique distinguish his work from the more behaviorally oriented family therapists (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. FamilyTherapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon). Bowens therapy is an outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory andoffers the most comprehensive view of human behavior and problems of any approach to family therapy. The core goalunderlying the Bowenian model is differentiation of self, namely, the ability to remain oneself in the face of groupinfluences, especially the intense influence of family life. The Bowenian model also considers the thoughts and feelingsof each family member as well as the larger contextual network of family relationships that shapes the lie of the family.Bowen grew up in Waverly, Tennessee, the oldest child of a large cohesive family. After graduating from medical schooland serving five years in the military, Bowen pursued a career in psychiatry. He began studying schizophrenia and hisstrong background in psychoanalytic training led him to expand his studies from individual patients to the relationshippatterns between mother and child. From 1946 to 1954, Bowen studied the symbiotic relationships of mothers and theirschizophrenic children at the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas. Here he developed the concepts of anxious andfunctional attachment to describe interactional patterns in the mother-child relationship.In 1954, Bowen became the first director of the Family Division at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Hefurther broadened his attachment research to include fathers and developed the concept o triangulation as the centralbuilding block o relationship systems (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn& Bacon). In his first year at NIMH, Bowen provided separate therapists for each individual member of a family, butsoon discovered that this approach fractionated families instead of bringing them together. As a result, Bowen decided totreat the entire family as a unit, and became one of the founders of family therapy.In 1959, Bowen began a thirty-one year career at Georgetown Universitys Department of Psychiatry where he refined hismodel of family therapy and trained numerous students, including Phil Guerin, Michael Kerr, Betty Carter, and MonicaMcGoldrick, and gained international recognition for his leadership in the field of family therapy. He died in October1990 following a lengthy illness.Nathan AckermanNathan Ackermans astute ability to understand the overall organization of families enabled him to look beyond thebehavioral interactions of families and into the hearts and minds of each family member. He used his strong will andprovocative style of intervening to uncover the familys defenses and allow their feelings, hopes, and desires to surface.Ackermans training in the psychoanalytic model is evident in his contributions and theoretical approach to familytherapy. Ackerman proposed that underneath the apparent unity of families there existed a wealth of intrapsychic conflictthat divided family members into factions (Nichols & Schwartz, Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn &Bacon 1998). Ackerman joined the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, and became the chief psychiatrist of the ChildGuidance Clinic in 1937.Initially, Ackerman followed the child guidance clinic model of having a psychiatrist treat the child and a social workersee the mother (Nichols & Schwartz, Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon 1998). However,within his first year of work at the clinic, Ackerman became a strong advocate of including the entire family whentreating a disturbance in one of its members, and suggested that family therapy be used as the primary form of treatmentin child guidance clinics (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon).Ackerman was committed to sharing his ideas and theoretical approach with other professionals in the field. In 1938Ackerman published The Unity of the Family and Family Diagnosis: An Approach to the Preschool Child, both of whichinspired the family therapy movement. Together with Don Jackson, Ackerman founded the first family therapy journal,Family Process, which is still the leading journal of ideas in the field today. In 1955 Ackerman organized the firstdiscussion on family diagnosis at a meeting of the American Orthopsychiatric Association to facilitate communication inthe developing field of family therapy.In 1957 Ackerman established the Family Mental Health Clinic in New York City and began teaching at ColumbiaUniversity. He opened the Family Institute in 1960, which was later renamed the Ackerman Institute after his death in1971. 13
  14. 14. Virginia SatirVirginia Satir is one of the key figures in the development of family therapy. She believed that a healthy family lifeinvolved an open and reciprocal sharing of affection, feelings, and love. Satir made enormous contributions to familytherapy in her clinical practice and training. She began treating families in 1951 and established a training program forpsychiatric residents at the Illinois State Psychiatric Institute in 1955.Satir served as the director of training at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto from 1959-66 and at the EsalenInstitute in Big Sur beginning in 1966. In addition, Satir gave lectures and led workshops in experiential family therapyacross the country. She was well-known for describing family roles, such as "the rescuer" or "the placator," that functionto constrain relationships and interactions in families (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts andMethods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon).Satirs genuine warmth and caring was evident in her natural inclination to incorporate feelings and compassion in thetherapeutic relationship. She believed that caring and acceptance were key elements in helping people face their fears andopen up their hearts to others (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn &Bacon). Above all other therapists, Satirs was the most powerful voice to wholeheartedly support the importance of loveand nurturance as being the most important healing aspects of therapy. Unfortunately, Satirs beliefs went against themore scientific approach to family therapy accepted at that time, and she shifted her efforts away from the field to traveland lecture. Satir died in 1988 after suffering from pancreatic cancer.Ivan Boszmormenyi-NagyIvan Boszmormenyi-Nagys emphasis on loyalty, trust, and relational ethics -- both within the family and between thefamily and society -- made major contributions to the field of family therapy since its inception in the 1950s (Nichols &Schwartz, Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon 1998). A student of Virginia Satir and anaccomplished scholar and clinician, Nagy was trained as a psychoanalyst and his work has encouraged many familytherapists to incorporate psychoanalytic ideas with family therapy.Nagy is perhaps best known for developing the contextual approach to family therapy, which emphasizes the ethicaldimension of family development. Based on the psychodynamic model, contextual therapy accentuates the need forethical principles to be an integral part of the therapeutic process. Nagy believes that trust, loyalty, and mutual support arethe key elements that underlie family relationships and hold families together, and that symptoms develop when a lack ofcaring and liability result in a breakdown of trust in relationships (Nichols & Schwartz, Family Therapy: Concepts andMethods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon 1998). The therapists role is to help the family work through avoided emotionalconflicts and to develop a sense of fairness among family members.In 1957, Nagy established the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute (EPPI) and served as codirector and cotherapistalong with social worker Geraldine Spark. Nagy was also an active researcher of schizophrenia and family therapy andcoauthored Invisible loyalties: Reciprocity in intergenerational family therapy (Boszormenyi-Nagy & Spark, 1973). Sincethe closing of EPPI, Nagy has continued to develop his contextual approach to family therapy and remains associatedwith Hahnemann University in Pennsylvania.John Elderkin BellPerhaps one of the first family therapists was John Elderkin Bell, who began treating families in the early 1950s. Bellsingenious approach to family therapy involved developing a step-by-step, easy-to-follow plan of attack to treat familyproblems in stages. Bells treatment approach was an outgrowth of group therapy and was aptly named family grouptherapy. In 1951 Bell discovered that John Bowlby, a well-respected clinician, was applying group psychotherapytechniques to treat individual families. Bell decided to follow Bowlbys approach, and did not discover until many yearslater that Bowlby had only used this treatment approach with one family.Bell believed that the treatment of families should follow a series of three stages designed to encourage communicationamong family members and to solve family problems. In the first stage, the child-centered phase, Bell encouragedchildrens involvement by facilitating the expression of their thoughts and feelings. In the parent-centered stage, parentsresponded to their childrens concerns and often related difficulties they experienced with their childrens behavior. Thefamily-centered stage was the final phase of treatment, and Bell continued to stimulate communication among familymembers and to help solve family problems.Unfortunately, Bells pioneering efforts in the field of family therapy are less well-known as compared to other familytherapists. Bell did not publish his ideas until the 1960s, and he did not establish family therapy clinics or trainingcenters.14
  15. 15. Philip GuerinA student of Murray Bowen, Philip Guerins own innovative ideas led to his developing a sophisticated clinical approachto treating problems of children and adolescents, couples, and individual adults (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. FamilyTherapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon). Guerins highly articulated model outlines several therapeuticgoals, which emphasize the multigenerational context of families, working to calm the emotional level of familymembers, and defining specific patterns of relationships within families. Guerins family systems approach is designed tomeasure the severity of conflict and to identify specific areas in need of improvement.In 1970 Guerin became the Director of Training of the Family Studies Section at Albert Einstein College of Medicine andBronx State Hospital, a family therapy training center originally organized by Israel Zwerling and Marilyn Mendelsohn.Guerins pioneering efforts and exceptional leadership resulted in his establishing an extramural training program inWestchester in 1972 and founding the Center for Family Learning in New Rochelle, New York, one of the mostexceptional family therapy programs for training and practice in the nation (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy:Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon).In addition to being a distinguished clinician, Guerin has authored some of the most influential and valuable books andarticles in the field of family therapy. Two of his best are: The Evaluation and treatment of marital conflict: A four-stageapproach (Guerin, 1987) and Working with relationship triangles: The one-two-three of psychotherapy (Guerin, Fogarty,Fay & Kautto, 1996).Don JacksonThe vibrant and creative talent of Don Jackson contributred to his success as a writer, researcher, and cofounder of theleading journal in the field of family therapy, Family Process. A 1943 graduate of Stanford University School ofMedicine, Jackson strongly rejected the psychoanalytic concepts that formed the basis of his early training. Instead, hefocused his interest on Batesons analysis of communication and behavior, which shaped his most important contributionsto the developing field of family therapy.By 1954, Jackson had developed a rudimentary family interactional therapy out of his pioneering work with the Palo Altogroup and research on schizophrenia (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn& Bacon). Jackson observed the mutual impact of schizophrenic patients and their families in the home environment, andquickly recognized the importance of treating the family unit instead of removing patients for individual treatment. Hisearly work centered on the effects of patients therapy on the entire family, and he developed the concept of familyhomeostasis to describe how families resist change and seek to maintain redundant patterns of behavior. Jackson alsosuggested that family members react to schizophrenic members symptoms in ways that serve to stabilize the familysstatus quo and often result in inflexible ways of thinking and maintain the symptomatic behavior (Nichols & Schwartz,1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon).In 1958, Jackson established the Mental Research Institute and worked with Virginia Satir, Jules Riskin, Jay Haley, JohnWeakland, Paul Watzlawick and Bateson. By 1963, Jacksons model of the family involved several types of rules thatdefined the communication patterns and interactions among family members. Jackson believed that family dysfunctionwas a result of a familys lack of rules for change, and that the therapists role was to make the rules explicit and toreconstruct rigid which maintained family problems. In 1968, tragically Jackson died by his own hand at the age of 48.Carl WhitakerCarl Whitakers creative and spontaneous thinking formed the basis of a bold and inventive approach to family therapy.He believed that active and forceful personal involvement and caring of the therapist was the best way to bring aboutchanges in families and promote flexibility among family members. He relied on his own personality and wisdom, ratherthan any fixed techniques, to stir things up in families and to help family members open up and be more fully themselves(Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon). Whitakers confrontiveapproach earned him the reputation as the most irreverent among family therapys iconoclasts.Whitaker viewed the family as an integrated whole, not as a collection of discrete individuals, and felt that a lack ofemotional closeness and sharing among family members resulted in the symptoms and interpersonal problems that ledfamilies to seek treatment. He equated familial togetherness and cohesion with personal growth, and emphasized theimportance of including extended family members, especially the expressive and playful spontaneity of children, intreatment. A big, comfortable, lantern-jawed man, Whitaker liked a crowd in the room when he did therapy. Whitakeralso pioneered the use of cotherapists as a means of maintaining objectivity while using his highly provocative techniques 15
  16. 16. to turn up the emotional temperature of families (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4thed. Allyn & Bacon).Beginning in 1946, Whitaker served as Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at Emory University, where he focusedon treating schizophrenics and their families. He also helped to develop some of the first major professional meetings offamily therapists with colleagues such as John Warkentin, Thomas Malone, John Rosen, Bateson, and Jackson. In 1955,Whitaker left Emory to enter into private practice, and became a professor of Psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin in1965 until his retirement in 1982. Whitaker died in April 1995, leaving a heartfelt void in the field of family therapy.Betty CarterAn ardent and articulate feminist, Betty Carter was instrumental in enriching and popularizing the concept of the familylife cycle and its value in assessing families. Carter entered the field of family therapy after being trained as a socialworker, and emphasized the importance of historical antecedents of family problems and the multigenerational aspects ofthe life cycle that extended beyond the nuclear family. Carter further expanded on the family life cycle concept byconsidering the stages of divorce and remarriage (Nichols & Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods.4th ed. Allyn & Bacon).Carters interest in family therapy was stimulated by taking part in a family therapy field placement at the AckermanInstitute as part of her M.S.W. requirements at Hunter College. She quickly became an avid student of the Bowenianmodel, and served on the staff of the Family Studies Section at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Bronx StateHospital with Phil Guerin and Monica McGoldrick. Carter left the Center for Family Learning to become the foundingdirector of the Family Institute of Westchester in 1977. Carter served as Codirector of the Womens Project in FamilyTherapy with Peggy Papp, Olga Silverstein, and Marianne Walters, and has been an outspoken leader about the genderand ethnic inequalities that serve to keep women in inflexible family roles.Currently, Carter is an active clinician and specializes in marital therapy and therapy with remarried couples (Nichols &Schwartz, 1998. Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods. 4th ed. Allyn & Bacon). Her work with couples focuses onhelping her clients to understand their situation and to address unresolved family issues. Carter incorporates tasks, such asletter writing, which serve to intensify and speed up the communication process and help couples move out of rigidpatterns of behavior.Michael WhiteMichael White, the guiding genius of narrative family theapy, began his professional life as a mechanical draftsman. Buthe soon realized that he preferred people to machines and went into social work where he gravitated to family therapy.Following an initial attraction to the cybernetic thinking of Gregory Bateson, White became more interested in the wayspeople construct meaning in their lives than just with the ways they behaved.In developing the notion that peoples lives are organized by their life narratives, White came to believe that stories dontmirror life, they shape it. Thats why people have the interesting habit of becoming the stories they tell about theirexperience.Narrative therapists break the grip of unhelpful stories by externalizing problmes. By challenging fixed and pessimisticversions of events, therapists make room for fliexibility and which new and more optimistic stories can be envisioned.Finally, clients are encouraged to create audiences of support to witness and promote their progress in restoring their livesalong preferred lines.Whites innovative thinking helped shape the basic tenets of narrative therapy, which considers the broader historical,cultural and political framework of the family. In the narrative approach, therapists try to understand how clientspersonal beliefs and perceptions, or narratives, shape their self-concept and personal relationships. Individual clients offamilies are then encouraged to reconstruct their narratives to facilitate more adaptive views of themselves and moreeffective interpersonal interactions. Whites leadership of the narrative movement in family therapy is based not only onhis imaginative ideas but also on his inspriational persistence in seeing the best in people even when theyve lost faith inthemselves. White is well-known for his persistence in challenging clients negative self-beliefs and for his relentlessoptimism in helping people to develop healthier interpretations of their life experiences. Whites tenaciously positiveattitude has undoubtably contributed to his enormous success as a therapist.Currently, White lives in Adelaide, South Australia. Together with his wife, Cheryl, White works at the Dulwich Centre,a training and clinical facility that also publishes the Dulwich Newsletter, which White uses to explore his ideas with thefield.16
  17. 17. MODELS AND SCHOOLSFamily therapists and counselors use a range of methods and over the years a number of models or schools offamily therapy have developed.A well-known classification of these approaches is described by Gurman and Kniskern (1991): 1. Behavioural Family Therapy 2. Bowen theory 3. Brief Therapy: MRI 4. Contextual Therapy 5. Eriscksonian Family Therapy 6. Focal Family Therapy 7. Milan Systemic Therapy 8. Family Psychoeducational Therapy 9. Strategic Therapy 10. Structural Therapy 11. Symbolic-Experiential TherapySome contemporary family therapies:Structural Family Therapy (Minuchin, 1974, Colapinto, 1991)In this type of therapy, the structural therapist believes that change of behaviour is most important. Therapy beginswith the therapist “joining” with the family. He or she has the purpose to enhance the feeling of worth of individualfamily members. The therapist must attune himself or herself to the families value systems and existing hierarchies.After “joining”, the therapist challenges “how things are done“ and begins restructuring the family by offeringalternative, more functional ways of behaving.Conjoint Family Therapy (Satir, 1967)Conjoint family therapy works with personal experiences and helps experiencing the value of the individual withinthe family system. Therapists use all levels of communication to express the relational qualities present in thefamily to achieve change in family system. This approach uses many feeling and communication exercises andgames, for example family sculpture.Contextual Therapy (Boszormenyi-Nagy, 1991)In the contextual approach the word “context“ indicates the dynamic connectedness of a person with her or hissignificant relationships, the long-term relational involvement as well as the person’s relatedness to his or hermultigenerational roots. The therapist encourages family members to explore their own multilaterality.Strategic Therapy (Madanes, 1981)In this approach, the therapist considers the therapy in terms of step-by-step change in the way from one type ofabnormal organisation to another type before a more normal organisation is finally achieved. For a strategictherapist two questions are basic: How is the symptom “helping” the family to maintain a balance or overcome acrisis? How can the symptom be replaced by a more effective solution of the problem? 17
  18. 18. Brief TherapyThis name refers not only to the duration of the therapy, but it represents comprehensively a way of orientation intherapeutic practice. Problem formation and maintenance is seen as parts if vicious-circle process, in whichmaladaptive “solutions“ behaviours maintain the problem. Alteration of these behaviours /or beliefs/ shouldinterrupt the cycle and initiate the resolution of the problem.Milan Systemic Therapy (Boscolo et al, 1987)Basic assumption of Milan Systemic Therapy is that mind is social. The symptomatic behaviour is conceived as apart of the transactional patterns of the system. Significance of any particular behaviour or event may be derivedfrom its social context. The therapists consider that the way to eliminate the symptom which is present in the familyis to change the rules and beliefs. Change is achieved in clarifying the ambiguity in relationships.Narrative Therapy (Freedman, Combs, 1996)The followers of the narrative approach consider that experience rooted in the life events is elaborated in the form ofa story, which gives to these events a meaning reflecting the systems of belief. In the therapy process, the “lifestory” of a family is connected with the internal and external culture of the family. Change is enabled by retellingthe story, in the course of which meanings attributed to the events can change or alternate. resources • Family Process • Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN: 1062-1024 (Print) 1573-2843 (Online), Springer • Journal of Marital and Family Therapy • Journal of Family Psychology • Family Relations • Contemporary Family Therapy • Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy • Family Matters, Australian Institute of Family Studies • Journal of Comparative Family Studies, ASIN: B00007M2W5, Univ of Calgary/Dept Sociology • Journal of Family Studies, ISSN: 1322-9400, eContent Management Pty Ltd • [1] Journal of Family Therapy, AFT (Association for family Therapy & Systemic Practice in the UK) • [2] Context Magazine, AFT, UK • [3] Karnac Systemic Thinking and Practice SeriesProfessional Organizations • American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy • American Family Therapy Academy • European Family Therapy Association (EFTA) • International Association of Marriage and Family Counsellors • National Council on Family Relations • The Ackerman Institute for the Family18
  19. 19. See also • Alternative dispute resolution • Internal Family Systems Model • CAMFT • Interpersonal psychotherapy • Child abuse • Interpersonal relationship • Conflict resolution • Mediation • Deinstitutionalisation • Multisystemic Therapy (MST) • Domestic violence • Positive psychology • Dysfunctional family • Relationships Australia • Family Life Education • Strategic Family Therapy • Family Life SpaceReferences 1. ^ a b c Broderick, C.B. & Schrader, S.S. (1991). The History of Professional Marriage and Family Therapy. In A. S. Gurman & D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of Family Therapy. Vol. 2. NY: Brunner/Mazel 2. ^ a b c d e Sholevar, G.P. (2003). Family Theory and Therapy. In Sholevar, G.P. & Schwoeri, L.D. Textbook of Family and Couples Therapy: Clinical Applications. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc. 3. ^ Silverman, M. & Silverman, M. Psychiatry Inside the Family Circle. Saturday Evening Post, 46-51. 28 July 1962. 4. ^ Guttman, H.A. (1991). Systems Theory, Cybernetics, and Epistemology. In A. S. Gurman & D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of Family Therapy. Vol. 2. NY: Brunner/Mazel 5. ^ Becvar, D.S., & Becvar, R.J. (2008). Family therapy: A systemic integration. 7th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 6. ^ a b Barker, P. (2007). Basic family therapy; 5th edition. Wiley-Blackwell. 7. ^ a b Nichols, M.P. & Schwartz, R.C. (2006). Family therapy: concepts and methods. 7th ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. 8. ^ Sprenkle, D.H., & Bischof, G.P. (1994). Contemporary family therapy in the United States. Journal of Family Therapy, 16(1): 5-23(19) 9. ^ Dattilio, F.R. (Ed.) (1998). Case Studies in Couple and Family Therapy: Systemic and Cognitive Perspectives. Guildford Press: New York. 10. ^ Gurman, A.S. & Fraenkel, P. (2002). The history of couple therapy: a millennial review. Family Process, 41(2): 199-260(62) 11. ^ Couple therapy Harvard Mental Health Letter 03/01/2007. 12. ^ Attachment and Family Systems. Family Process. Special Issue: Fall 2002 41(3) 13. ^ Denborough, D. (2001). Family Therapy: Exploring the Fields Past, Present and Possible Futures. Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. 14. ^ Crago, H. (2006). Couple, Family and Group Work: First Steps in Interpersonal Intervention. Maidenhead, Berkshire; New York: Open University Press. 15. ^ Van Buren, J. Multisystemic therapy. Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. retrieved 29 Oct. 2009 16. ^ McGoldrick, M. (Ed.) (1998). Re-Visioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice. Guilford Press: New York. 17. ^ Dean, R.G. (2001). The Myth of Cross-Cultural Competence. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services. 82(6): 623-30. 18. ^ Krause, I-B. (2002). Culture and System in Family Therapy. London; New York: Karnac. 19. ^ Ng, K.S. (2003). Global Perspectives in Family Therapy: Development, Practice, and Trends. New York: Brunner- Routledge. 20. ^ McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J. & Garcia-Preto, N. (2005). Ethnicity & Family Therapy, 3rd Ed.: Guilford Press. 21. ^ Nichols, M.P. & Schwartz, R.C. (2006). Recent Developments in Family Therapy: Integrative Models; in Family therapy: concepts and methods. 7th ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. 22. ^ Lebow, J. (2005). Handbook of clinical family therapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. 23. ^ Booth, T.J. & Cottone, R.R. (2000). Measurement, Classification, and Prediction of Paradigm Adherence of Marriage and Family Therapists. American Journal of Family Therapy. 28(4): 329-346. 24. ^ The Top 10: The Most Influential Therapists of the Past Quarter-Century. Psychotherapy Networker.: 2007, March/April (retrieved 7 Oct 2010) 19
  20. 20. 25. ^ "Therapy Center:Credentials". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 26. ^ Doherty W (2002). "Bad Couples Therapy and How to Avoid It: Getting past the myth of therapist neutrality". Psychotherapy Networker 26 (Nov-Dec): 26–33. 27. ^ Doherty, W., & Boss, P. (1991). Values and ethics in family therapy. In A. S. Gurman & D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of Family Therapy. Vol. 2. NY: Brunner/Mazel 28. ^ Dueck A (1991). "Metaphors, models, paradigms and stories in family therapy". In Vande Kemp H. Family therapy: Christian perspectives. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. pp. 175–207. ISBN 0-8010-9313-9. 29. ^ Wall J, Needham T, Browning DS, James S (Apr 1999). "The Ethics of Relationality: The Moral Views of Therapists Engaged in Marital and Family Therapy". Family Relations (National Council on Family Relations) 48 (2): 139–49. doi:10.2307/585077. JSTOR 585077. 30. ^ Grosser GH, Paul NL (Oct 1964). "Ethical issues in family group therapy". Am J Orthopsychiatry 34 (5): 875–84. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1964.tb02243.x. PMID 14220517. 31. ^ Hare-Mustin RT (Jun 1978). "A feminist approach to family therapy". Fam Process 17 (2): 181–94. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.1978.00181.x?journalCode=famp. PMID 678351. 32. ^ Gottlieb, M.C. (1995). Developing Your Ethical Position in Family Therapy: Special Issues. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (103rd, New York, NY, August 11–15, 1995). 33. ^ Melito, R. (2003). Values in the role of the family therapist: Self determination and justice. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 29(1):3-11. 34. ^ Fowers BJ, Richardson FC (1996). "Individualism, Family Ideology and Family Therapy". Theory & Psychology 6 (1): 121–51. doi:10.1177/0959354396061009. 35. ^ USA Today 6/21/2005 Hearts divide over marital therapy. 36. ^ Gehart, D. R., & Tuttle, A. R. (2003). Theory-based treatment planning for marriage and family therapists: Integrating theory and practice. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole/Thomson. 37. ^ Goldenberg, I., & Goldenberg, H. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. 38. ^ Gurman, A. S. (2008). Clinical handbook of couple therapy. New York: Guilford Press. 39. ^ a b Sexton, T. L., Weeks, G. R., & Robbins, M. S. (2003). Handbook of family therapy: The science and practice of working with families and couples. New York: Brunner-Routledge.External linksIncluded in this list are the main professional associations in the US and internationally; they reflect to some degreethe different theoretical, ideological, and cross-cultural views of family therapy theory and practice. • American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy: main professional association in US • American Family Therapy Academy: main research-oriented professional association in US • Association for Family Therapy and Systemic Practice in the UK • Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy: the de facto professional association for Australia and NZ • Bowen Theory from the Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. • California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists • European Family Therapy Association • International Family Therapy Association • Historical overview of the field; Therapist profiles; Timeline from Allyn and Bacon/Longman publishing. • Family Support Partnership - An Overview of Family Therapy and Mediation • Dulwich Centre: Gateway to Narrative Therapy & Community Work • [4] • "Mind For Therapy" group devoted to creative origins of Family Therapy • Glossary of Family Systems and intergenerational concepts • MFT at Notre Dame de Namur University, Belmont CA• Social Construction Therapies Network20
  21. 21. Brief Strategic Family TherapyThe family is defined by an organizational structure that is characterized by degrees of cohesiveness, love, loyalty,and purpose as well as high levels of shared values, interests, activities, and attention to the needs of its members.Families may be considered a system, organized wholes or units made up of several interdependent and interactingparts. Each member has a significant influence on all other members. For positive change in an identified client,therefore, family members have to change the way they interact. Family therapists work with the presentrelationships rather than the past. They are interested in the balance families maintain between bipolar extremes thatcharacterize dysfunctional families.Strategic refers to the development of a specific strategy, planned in advance by the therapist, to resolve thepresenting problem as quickly and efficiently as possible.DESCRIPTIONBrief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is a short-term, problem-focused therapeutic intervention, targeting childrenand adolescents 6 to 17 years old, that improves youth behaviour by eliminating or reducing drug use and itsassociated behaviour problems and that changes the family members’ behaviours that are linked to both risk andprotective factors related to substance abuse. The therapeutic process uses techniques of:Joining—forming a therapeutic alliance with all family membersDiagnosis—identifying interactional patterns that allow or encourage problematic youth behaviourRestructuring—the process of changing the family interactions that are directly related to problem behavioursPROGRAM BACKGROUNDBSFT was developed at the Spanish Family Guidance Center in the Center for Family Studies, University of Miami.BSFT has been conducted at these centers since 1975. The Center for Family Studies is the Nation’s oldest andmost prominent center for development and testing of minority family therapy interventions for prevention andtreatment of adolescent substance abuse and related behaviour problems. It is also the Nation’s leading trainer ofresearch-proven, family therapy for Hispanic/Latino families.INDICATEDThis program was developed for an indicated audience. It targets children with conduct problems, substance use,problematic family relations, and association with antisocial peers.CONTENT FOCUSALCOHOL, ANTISOCIAL/AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR, ILLEGAL DRUGS, SOCIAL ANDEMOTIONAL COMPETENCE, TOBACCOThis program addresses family risk and protective factors to problem behaviour, including substance useamong adolescents.Parents as a primary target population:The program involves family systems therapy, involving all family members. It seeks to change the way familymembers act toward each other so that they will promote each other’s mastery over behaviours that are required forthe family to achieve competence and to impede undesired behaviours.INTERVENTIONS BY DOMAININDIVIDUAL: Life and social skills trainingFAMILY : Home visits, Parent education/family therapy, Parent education/parenting skills trainingTask-oriented family education sessions combining social skills training to improve family interaction (e.g.,communication skills)PEER : Peer-resistance education 21
  22. 22. KEY PROGRAM APPROACHESPARENT-CHILD INTERACTIONS : All of the key strategies are focused on improving the interactions betweenparents and child.PARENT TRAINING : A key change strategy is to empower parents by increasing their mastery of parenting skills.SKILL DEVELOPMENT : The program fosters conflict resolution skills, parenting skills, and communicationskills.TECHNIQUES USED• Joining—forming a therapeutic alliance with all family members• Diagnosis—identifying interactional patterns that allow or encourage problematic youth behaviour• Restructuring—the process of changing the family interactions that are directly related to problem behavioursTHERAPYThe program involves creating a counsellor-family work team that develops a therapeutic alliance with each familymember and with the family as a whole; diagnosing family strengths and problematic interactions; developingchange strategies to capitalize on strengths and correct problematic family interactions; and implementing changestrategies and reinforcing family behaviours that sustain new levels of family competence. Strategies includereframing, changing alliances, building conflict resolution skills, and parental empowerment.HOW IT WORKSBSFT can be implemented in a variety of settings, including community social services agencies, mental healthclinics, health agencies, and family clinics. BSFT is delivered in 8 to 12 weekly 1- to 1.5-hour sessions. The familyand BSFT counsellor meet either in the program office or the family’s home. Sessions may occur more frequentlyaround crises because these are opportunities for change. There are four important BSFT steps:Step 1:Organize a counsellor-family work team. Development of a therapeutic alliance with each family member andwith the family as a whole is essential for BSFT. This requires counsellors to accept and demonstrate respect foreach individual family member and the family as a whole.Step 2:Diagnose family strengths and problem relations. Emphasis is on family relations that are supportive and problemrelations that affect youths’ behaviours or interfere with parental figures’ ability to correct those behaviours.Step 3:Develop a change strategy to capitalize on strengths and correct problematic family relations, therebyincreasing family competence. In BSFT, the counsellor is plan- and problem-focused, direction-oriented (i.e., moving from problematic to competent interactions), and practical.Step 4:Implement change strategies and reinforce family behaviours that sustain new levels of family competence.Important change strategies include reframing to change the meaning of interactions; changing alliances andshifting interpersonal boundaries; building conflict resolution skills; and providing parenting guidance andcoaching.BARRIERS AND PROBLEMSProblem: The most common problem is engaging and retaining whole families in treatment.Solution: Specialized engagement strategies have been developed to deal with the problem.Problem: A common problem in implementing a whole-family intervention involves limited availability of familymembers.Solution: Sessions often must occur during evening hours and on weekends.22
  23. 23. Strategic Family TherapyStrategic family therapy is a family-oriented therapy that involves a patients daily family environment as a majorpart of treatment. Pressure from family, society and peers can create rifts in even the strongest families creatingdysfunction. The goal is to fix the problem creating disruption and preserving the family unit no matter what.Strategic Family Therapy (Madanes and Haley) designs a strategy for each specific problem. Clear goals set,symptoms deprived of their relationship-controlling function. Therapist controls the therapy.Every interaction is a struggle for control of the relationships definition. Symmetrical (similar, often competitive)vs. complementary (different, often counterresponding) interactions. Metacommunication and repetitive interactionsexamined. Prescriptive and descriptive paradoxical assignments.Madanes: "pretend techniques." Circular questioning. Positive connotation (as reframe of symptomatic behaviour).Haley ModelJay Haley and Salvador Minuchin are considered the pioneers of strategic family therapy. In the 1950s and 1960s,Haley and other therapists began experimenting with alternative models of working with families that relied onsolution-focused techniques. The solution-focused approach was favored over traditional psychoanalysis.The therapy is based on the idea that people dont develop problems in isolation. Strategic therapy implementstechniques that meet the specific need of a family and their interaction.Behavior ProblemsChildren between the ages eight and 17 are vulnerable to developing behavior problems. When this happens it canthrow family dynamics into a state of chaos. Strategic family therapy is a solution-oriented approach. They focus ongetting to the root of the problem rather than what caused it. The therapist works on helping their clients turn theirlives around by creating a carefully planned strategy, execution and monitoring progress. The therapy is based onfive stages: identify problems that can be solved, establish goals, create interventions that meet these objectives,analyze the responses, and examine the results. The therapy emphasis is on the social situation not the individual.Solving problems, meeting family goals and help change a persons dysfunctional behavior.Family InteractionStrategic family therapy considers the family unit as a system. Families function just like any other system. Theynaturally establish rules and interactions that affect every member. When the affected family members problems arerecognized and addressed, the entire family becomes part of the solution process. The idea behind this method isthat the family has the most influence on a persons life.TherapyAll the family members participate within a safe, therapeutic setting. The therapist attempts to recreate typicalfamily interactions and conversation through provocative questioning techniques so that the problems can bepresented and addressed accordingly. It also give family members a chance to see how their interactions andresponses can contribute to a dysfunctional situation. The therapy works on helping families discover their uniqueability to solve their problems using internal resources they werent aware they had.Who Does it Help?All families face challenges. ADD/ADHD, depression and substance abuse are a few of examples of issues that canaffect a family unit. If a child were dealing with any of the previous issues and had become estranged from thefamily, the therapist would bring everyone together in a clinical setting to watch how they interact. Then he couldwork closely with everyone in the family to implement and execute solutions to help correct the dysfunctionalbehavior. 23
  24. 24. Solution focused brief therapyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSolution focused brief therapy (SFBT), often referred to as simply solution focused therapy or brief therapy, is atype of talking therapy that is based upon social constructionist philosophy. It focuses on what clients want toachieve through therapy rather than on the problem(s) that made them to seek help. The approach does not focus onthe past, but instead, focuses on the present and future. The therapist/counsellor uses respectful curiosity to invitethe client to envision their preferred future and then therapist and client start attending to any moves towards itwhether these are small increments or large changes. To support this, questions are asked about the client’s story,strengths and resources, and about exceptions to the problem.Solution focused therapists believe that change is constant. By helping people identify the things that they wish tohave changed in their life and also to attend to those things that are currently happening that they wish to continue tohave happen, SFBT therapists help their clients to construct a concrete vision of a preferred future for themselves.The SFBT therapist then helps the client to identify times in their current life that are closer to this future, andexamines what is different on these occasions. By bringing these small successes to their awareness, and helpingthem to repeat these successful things they do when the problem is not there or less severe, the therapists helps theclient move towards the preferred future they have identified.Solution focused work can be seen as a way of working that focuses exclusively or predominantly at two things. 1)Supporting people to explore their preferred futures. 2) Exploring when, where, with whom and how pieces of thatpreferred future are already happening. While this is often done using a social constructionist perspective theapproach is practical and can be achieved with no specific theoretical framework beyond the intention to keep asclose as possible to these two things.Contents • 1 Basic Principles • 2 Questions • 3 Resources • 4 History of Solution Focused Brief Therapy • 5 Solution-Focused counselling • 6 Solution-Focused consulting • 7 ReferencesBasic Principles:Clients have resources and strengths to resolve complaints — It is therapist’s task to access these abilities and helpclients put them to use.Change is constant — Therapists can do a great deal to influence client’s perceptions regarding the inevitability ofchange and what is supposed to happen during the therapy session.24
  25. 25. The therapist’s job is to identify and amplify change — He/She accomplishes this through choice of questions,topics focused on or ignored. “Focus on what seems to be working however small, to label it as worthwhile, and towork toward amplifying it.” If [the change] is in a crucial area, it can change the whole system.It is usually unnecessary to know a great deal about the complaint in order to resolve it — What is significant iswhat the clients are doing that is working. Learn from clients’ identifying when the problem is not troublesome.Clients can learn to function that way again to solve the problem.It is not necessary to know the cause or function of a complaint to resolve it — Even the most creative hypothesesabout the possible function of a symptom will not offer therapists a clue about how people can change. It simplysuggests how people’s lives have become static. Ask those who want to know why they have a symptom: “Would itbe enough if the problem were to disappear and you never understood why had it?”A small change is all that is necessary: A change in one part of the system can affect change in another part of thesystem — “We have the sense that positive changes will at least continue and may expand and have beneficialeffects in other areas of the person’s life.Clients define the goal — Do not assume that therapists are better equipped to decide how their clients should livetheir lives; ask people to establish their own goals for treatment.Rapid change or resolution of problems is possible — “We believe that, as a result of our interaction during the firstsession, our clients will gain a more productive and optimistic view of their situations.” Therapists expect them togo home and do what is necessary to make their lives more satisfying (p. 45). Average length of treatment is lessthan 10 sessions, usually 4 to 5, occasionally only 1.There is no one “right” way to view things; Different views may be just as valid and may fit the facts just as well —Views that keep people stuck are simply not useful. Sometimes all that is necessary to initiate significant change is ashift in the person’s perception of the situation.”Focus on what is possible and changeable rather than what is impossible and intractable — Focus on aspects of aperson’s situation that seem most changeable. This imparts a sense of hope and powerQuestionsThe miracle question The miracle question is a method of questioning that a coach, therapist, or counsellor uses toaid the client to envision how the future will be different when the problem is no longer present. Also, this may helpto establish goals.A traditional version of the miracle question would go like this: "Suppose our meeting is over, you go home, do whatever you planned to do for the rest of the day. And then, some time in the evening, you get tired and go to sleep. And in the middle of the night, when you are fast asleep, a miracle happens and all the problems that brought you here today are solved just like that. But since the miracle happened overnight nobody is telling you that the miracle happened. When you wake up the next morning, how are you going to start discovering that the miracle happened? ... What else are you going to notice? What else?"Whilst relatively easy to state the miracle question requires considerable skill to ask well. The question must beasked slowly with close attention to the persons non-verbal communication to ensure that the pace matches thepersons ability to follow the question. Initial responses frequently include a sense of "I dont know." To ask thequestion well this should be met with respectful silence to give the person time to fully absorb the question. 25
  26. 26. Once the miracle day has been thoroughly explored the worker can follow this with scales, on a scale where 0 =worst things have ever been and 10 = the miracle day where are you now? Where would it need to be for you toknow that you didnt need to see me any more? What will be the first things that will let you know you are 1 pointhigher. In this way the miracle question is not so much a question as a series of questions.There are many different versions of the miracle question depending on the context and the client.In a specific situation, the counsellor may ask, "If you woke up tomorrow, and a miracle happened so that you no longer easily lost your temper, what would you see differently?" What would the first signs be that the miracle occurred?"The client (a child) may respond by saying, "I would not get upset when somebody calls me names."The counsellor wants the client to develop positive goals, or what they will do, rather than what they will not do--tobetter ensure success. So, the counsellor may ask the client, "What will you be doing instead when someone callsyou names?"Scaling Questions Scaling questions are tools that are used to identify useful differences for the client and may helpto establish goals as well. The poles of a scale can be defined in a bespoke way each time the question is asked, buttypically range from "the worst the problem has ever been" (zero or one) to "the best things could ever possibly be"(ten). The client is asked to rate their current position on the scale, and questions are then used to help the clientidentify resources (e.g. "whats stopping you from slipping one point lower down the scale?"), exceptions (e.g. "on aday when you are one point higher on the scale, what would tell you that it was a one point higher day?") and todescribe a preferred future (e.g. "where on the scale would be good enough? What would a day at that point on thescale look like?")Exception Seeking Questions Proponents of SFBT insist that there are always times when the problem is lesssevere or absent for the client. The counsellor seeks to encourage the client to describe what different circumstancesexist in that case, or what the client did differently. The goal is for the client to repeat what has worked in the past,and to help them gain confidence in making improvements for the future.Coping questions Coping questions are designed to elicit information about client resources that will have goneunnoticed by them. Even the most hopeless story has within it examples of coping that can be drawn out: "I can seethat things have been really difficult for you, yet I am struck by the fact that, even so, you manage to get up eachmorning and do everything necessary to get the kids off to school. How do you do that?" Genuine curiosity andadmiration can help to highlight strengths without appearing to contradict the clients view of reality. The initialsummary "I can see that things have been really difficult for you" is for them true and validates their story. Thesecond part "you manage to get up each morning etc.", is also a truism, but one that counters the problem focusednarrative. Undeniably, they cope and coping questions start to gently and supportively challenge the problem-focused narrative.Problem-free talk In solution-focused therapy, problem-free talk can be a useful technique for identifyingresources to help the person relax, or be more assertive, for example. Solution focused therapists will talk aboutseemingly irrelevant life experiences such as leisure activities, meeting with friends, relaxing and managingconflict. The therapist can also gather information on the clients values and beliefs and their strengths. From thisdiscussion the therapist can use these strengths and resources to move the therapy forward. For example; if a clientwants to be more assertive it may be that under certain life situations they are assertive. This strength from one partof their life can then be transferred to the area with the current problem. Or if a client is struggling with their childbecause the child gets aggressive and calls the parent names and the parent continually retaliates and also getsangry, then perhaps they have an area of their life where they remain calm even under pressure; or maybe they have26
  27. 27. trained a dog successfully that now behaves and can identify that it was the way they spoke to the dog that made thedifference and if they put boundaries in place using the same firm tonality the child might listen.Dan Jones, in his Becoming a Brief Therapist book is in the problem free areas you find most of the resources to help the client. It also relaxes them and helps buildrapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. Thesemight be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you somethingto work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can beutilised as resources [1]ResourcesA key task in SFBT is to help clients identify and attend to their skills, abilities, and external resources (e.g. socialnetworks). This process not only helps to construct a narrative of the client as a competent individual, but also aimsto help the client identify new ways of bringing these resources to bear upon the problem. Resources can beidentified by the client and the worker will achieve this by empowering the client to identify their own resourcesthrough use of scaling questions, problem-free talk, or during exception-seeking.Resources can be Internal: the clients skills, strengths, qualities, beliefs that are useful to them and their capacities.Or, External: Supportive relationships such as, partners, family, friends, faith or religious groups and also supportgroups.History of Solution Focused Brief TherapySolution Focused Brief Therapy is one of a family of approaches, known as systems therapies, that have beendeveloped over the past 50 years or so, first in the USA, and eventually evolving around the world, includingEurope. The title SFBT, and the specific steps involved in its practice, are attributed to husband and wife Steve deShazer and Insoo Kim Berg and their team at the Brief Family Therapy Center in Milwaukee, USA. Core membersof this team were Eve Lipchik, Wallace Gingerich, Elam Nunnally, Alex Molnar, and Michele Weiner-Davis. Theirwork in the early 1980s built on that of a number of other innovators, among them Milton Erickson, and the groupat the Mental Research Institute at Palo Alto – Gregory Bateson, Donald deAvila Jackson, Paul Watzlawick, JohnWeakland, Virginia Satir, Jay Haley, Richard Fisch, Janet Beavin Bavelas and others.The concept of brief therapy was independently discovered by several therapists in their own practices over severaldecades (notably Milton Erickson), was described by authors such as Haley in the 1950s, and became popularized inthe 1960s and 1970s. Richard Bandler, John Grinder and Stephen R Lankton have also been credited, at least inpart, with the inspiration for and popularization of brief therapy, particularly through their work with MiltonErickson.[2] While Jay Hayley and the team at the Mental Research Institute at Palo Alto aimed to uncover theprinciples that underpinned Ericksons approach to brief therapy, John Grinder and Richard Bandler providedpractical guidelines for the application of some of the hypnotic techniques of Erickson.[3][4]Solution Focused Brief Therapy has branched out in numerous spectrums - indeed, the approach is now known inother fields as simply Solution Focus or Solutions Focus. Most notably, the field of Addiction Counselling hasbegun to utilize SFBT as an effective means to treat problem drinking. The Center for Solutions in Cando, ND hasimplemented SFBT as part of their program, wherein they utilize this therapy as part of a partial hospitalization andresidential treatment facility for both adolescents and adults. 27
  28. 28. Solution-Focused counsellingSolution-Focused counselling is a solution focused brief therapy model. Various similar, yet distinct, models havebeen referred to as solution-focused counselling. For example, Jeffrey Guterman developed a solution-focusedapproach to counselling in the 1990s. This model is an integration of solution-focused principles and techniques,postmodern theories, and a strategic approach to eclecticism.Solution-Focused consultingSolution-Focused consulting is an approach to organizational change management that is built upon the principlesand practices of Solution-Focused therapy. While therapy is for individuals and families, Solution-Focusedconsulting is being used as a change process for organizational groups of every size, from small teams to largebusiness units.References• ^ Jones, Dan Becoming a Brief Therapist: Special Edition The Complete Works,, 2008, page 451, ISBN 1-409- 23031-7• ^ See page 671 in Steenbarger (2002) "Single-session therapy: Theoretical underpinnings" In Elsevier Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy• ^ (Shazer 1982 p.22)• ^ Shazer, SD. (1982) Patterns of brief family therapy: an ecosystemic approach. Guilford Press.• I.K.Berg and S.deShazer: Making numbers talk: Language in therapy. In S. Friedman (Ed.), "The new language of change:• Constructive collaboration in psychotherapy." New York:Guilford, 1993.• I.K.Berg, "Family based services: A solution-focused approach." New York:Norton. 1994.• I.K.Berg; "Solution-Focused Therapy: An Interview with Insoo Kim Berg.", 2003.• B.Cade and W.H. O’Hanlon: A Brief Guide to Brief Therapy. W.W. Norton & Co 1993.• D. Denborough; Family Therapy: Exploring the Fields Past, Present and Possible Futures. Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications, 2001.• Shazer: Clues; Investigating Solutions in Brief Therapy. W.W. Norton & Co 1988• E.George, C.Iveson, H. Ratner; Problem to solution; brief therapy with individuals and families. BT Press, 1990.• M.A. Hubble, B.L. Duncan, S.D. Miller; The Heart and Soul of Change; what works in therapy. American Psychological Association, 1999.• S.D. Miller, M.A. Hubble, B.L. Duncan; Handbook of Solution-focused brief therapy. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996.• B.O’Connell; Solution Focused Therapy. Sage, 1998.• B.O’Hanlon and S. Beadle; A Field Guide to PossibilityLand: possibility therapy methods. BT Press 1996.• B. OHanlon and M. Weiner-Davis: "In Search of Solutions: A New Direction in Psychotherapy." WW Norton & CO. New York 1989• J.T. Guterman; Mastering the Art of Solution-Focused Counselling. American Counselling Association 2006.• M.Talmon; Single Session Therapy; maximizing the effect of the first (and often only) therapeutic encounter. Jossey-Bass• Publishers, 1990.• Peter De Jong, Insoo Kim Berg Interviewing for Solutions Brooks Cole Publishers, 2nd edition 2002• P.Ziegler and T. Hiller: Recreating Partnership: A Solution-Oriented, Collaborative Approach to Couples Therapy. W.W.• Norton 2001.• Guterman, J.T. (2006). Mastering the Art of Solution-Focused Counselling. Alexandria, VA: American Counselling• Association. ISBN 1-55620-267-9• Guterman, J.T., Mecias, A., Ainbinder, D.L. (2005). Solution-focused treatment of migraine headache. The Family28