When using Operant Behavior, there are two types of reinforcement schedules…continuous and partial. Continuous Reinforcement is given every time the desired behavior happens. Partial Reinforcement is only given some of the time that the desired behavior happens. There are also 4 sub-schedules of partial reinforcement, one of which is Fixed Ratio, where reinforcement is given after a specific # of responses.
This software clip shows the student receiving reinforcement after EVERY customer they help….which is a continuous schedule. It also shows a fixed ratio schedule, by giving reinforcement after they help all of the customers in line.
The Fantastic Fish Shop By: Erin Balley J’aimeHolderbaum Lisa Lam-Wilson
Drill and Practice multiplication game Found at multiplication.com http://multiplication.com/flashgames/FishShop.htm
Operant Conditioning A process of changing behavior by rewarding or punishing a subject each time an action is performed until the subject associates the action with pleasure or distress. Reinforcement Schedules Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive and Negative Punishment http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/operant%20conditioning
Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement: Given EVERY time Partial Reinforcement: Given only PART of the time. Fixed Ratio: reinforcement is given after a specific # of responses. http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/schedules.htm
Negative Reinforcement Taking something negative away in order to increase a response When a negative stimulus is eliminated, it will likely increase the chances that a student will complete the task correctly. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/reinforcement.html
Watch the video to view some examples of positive and negative reinforcement.
Webster’s Definition: pun·ish·ment Pronunciation: ˈpə-nish-mənt Function: noun Date: 15th century 1: the act of punishing2 a: suffering, pain, or loss that serves as retribution b: a penalty inflicted on an offender through judicial procedure 3: severe, rough, or disastrous treatment http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/punishment
In Skinner’s Behaviorism: Punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either: (a) the removal of a positive reinforcer, or (b) the presentation of a negative reinforcer (or aversive stimulus). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6884/is_1_6/ai_n28321088/