Lessons from some recent ICMI studies


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Talk given in December 2011 about some conclusions for the teaching of mathematics that can be obtained from the last ICMI studies published

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Lessons from some recent ICMI studies

  1. 1. Lessons fromsome recent ICMI Studies Ja ime C a r v a lh o e S il v a S ec re ta ry-G enera l of ICM I Un iversi ty of C oi m bra, Po rt ug a l CMU C/Projec t U I 324 - 2011-2012
  2. 2. ICMI
  3. 3. ICMIFounded in 1908
  4. 4. ICMIFounded in 1908First president was Felix Klein
  5. 5. ICMIFounded in 1908First president was Felix Klein90 countries
  6. 6. Executive Committee
  7. 7. Executive Committee South Korea, China, USA, Israel, FranceNew Zealand, Italy, Costa Rica, South Africa, Australia, Portugal
  8. 8. commission of IMU
  9. 9. IMU is member of ICSU
  10. 10. ICMI activitiesICMI StudiesICME - International Congress on MathematicalEducationICMI BulletinICMI News (newsletter)ICMI website
  11. 11. ICME congress
  12. 12. ICME-12 in Korea
  13. 13. ICMI Affiliated Study GroupsHPM: The International Study Group on the Relationsbetween the History and Pedagogy of Mathematics(1976)ICTMA: The International Study Group for MathematicalModelling and Application (2003)IOWME: The International Organization of Women andMathematics Education (1987)PME: The International Group for the Psychology ofMathematics Education (1976)WFNMC: The World Federation of National MathematicsCompetitions (1994)
  14. 14. Multi-national Mathematical Education Societies affiliated to ICMICIAEM: Inter-American Committee on MathematicsEducation (2009)ERME: European Society for Research in MathematicsEducation (2010)CIEAEM: International Commission for the Study andImprovement of Mathematics Teaching (2010)
  15. 15. What is an ICMI StudyActivity created in 1985 when Jean-PierreKahane was President of ICMI.The goal is the production of a Study Book. Thefirst five were published by CambridgeUniversity Press and are now online.
  16. 16. First five ICMI Studies
  17. 17. What is an ICMI StudyEach Study focuses on a topic or issue ofprominent current interest in mathematicseducation.Each Study reflect the great variety of issuesand concerns in the field of mathematicseducationIt is intended to promote and assist discussionand action at the international, regional orinstitutional level.
  18. 18. What is an ICMI StudyStudies are of interest to educationalresearchers, curriculum developers,educational policy makers, teachers ofmathematics, and to mathematicians andeducators involved in the professionaleducation and development of teachers ofmathematics.
  19. 19. MethodologyFirst, the Executive Committee of ICMI decidesupon a theme. It then appoints the co-chairsand an International Program Committee(IPC)The IPC produces a Discussion Document inwhich a number of key issues and sub-themesrelated to the theme of the Study are identifiedand described in a preliminary manner. TheDiscussion Document is widely disseminatedinternationally to solicit papers from the field.
  20. 20. MethodologyThirdly, an international conference isorganized to bring together both experts in thefield and newcomers with interesting ideas orpromising work in progress, as well as togathering representatives with a variety ofbackgrounds from different regions, traditionsand cultures.
  21. 21. MethodologyFinally, a research volume, presents a state-of-the-art expert report.The Study volumes constitute presently the(New) ICMI Studies Series (NISS),appearing under the general editorship of thePresident and the Secretary-General of ICMI.Volumes are now published by Springer.
  22. 22. ICMI Studies
  23. 23. ICMI Studies
  24. 24. ICMI Studies15. The Professional Education and Developmentof Teachers of Mathematics.16. Challenging Mathematics in and Beyond theClassroom.17. Digital Technologies and MathematicsTeaching and Learning: Rethinking the Terrain.18. Statistics Education in School Mathematics:Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education.
  25. 25. ICMI Studies19. Proof and proving in mathematics education.20. Educational Interfaces between Mathematicsand the Industry (EIMI)21. Mathematics Education in MultilingualContexts22 Task Design
  26. 26. ICMI Study 18 ICMINew ICMI Study Series Study  New ICMI Study SeriesCarmen Batanero · Gail Burrill · Chris Reading Editors Batanero · Burrill · Reading Eds.Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challengesfor Teaching and Teacher EducationA Joint ICMI/IASE Study: The 18th ICMI StudyIn recent years, there have been an expansion and renewal of the statistics content Carmen Bataneroin the mathematics curricula in many countries through all school grade levels fromprimary to secondary levels. However, no similar attention has been paid to the prepa-ration of mathematics teacher to teach statistics at these levels. This book presents the Gail Burrillresults from the Joint ICMI/IASE Study, Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics.Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education that was intended to address the lack Chris Reading Editorsof attention to teaching statistics by promoting international collaborative researchspecifically focussed on the education and professional development of teachers to teach Teaching Statistics instatistics.The volume covers a very wide field, including examples of statistics curriculaand teacher education programmes around the world; analysis of the fundamentalsto teaching statistics; survey chapters of research related to teachers’ attitudes, beliefsand knowledge related to fundamental statistics ideas and its teaching; and analyses of 1 School Mathematics-challenges and experiences related to training teachers to teach statistics. The book isdesigned to be useful to researchers in mathematics education and statistics educationteacher educators, and people involved in curricular development in statistics with the Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challengeshope that it will foster further research in the problems related to educating teachers to for Teaching and Teacher Education Challenges forteach statistics at different school levels. It could be of interest to teachers themselves,since the basic ideas for teaching statistics and the research summarised in the bookboth in learning difficulties or teaching strategies is applicable in both the training ofstudents and teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education A Joint ICMI/IASE Study: The 18th ICMI StudyEducation ISBN 978-94-007-1130-3
  27. 27. Executive SummaryAlthough the teaching of statistics in secondaryschools has a long tradition, in recent years manycountries have also included statistics in theprimary curriculum. In addition, more attentionhas been paid to developing statistical thinkingin students across all levels of education.
  28. 28. Executive SummaryMost teachers acknowledge the practicalimportance of statistics and are willing to givemore relevance to the teaching of statistics.However many mathematics teachers, do notconsider themselves well prepared to teachstatistics nor face their students’ difficulties.
  29. 29. Executive SummaryThere is a continuing need for findingapproaches for preparing teachers that promoteteachers’ statistical literacy and reasoning, thatengage teachers with real data and statisticalinvestigations, and that connect teachereducation to their teaching practice and thereality of their classrooms.
  30. 30. Executive SummaryThe rapid development of statistics and statisticseducation implies that further research instatistics education is needed. The analyses,research, and case studies reported in the Studyprovide a rich starting point for such research.
  31. 31. Press release Press  Release  EMBARGO:  26.6.2011                      New  Book  Helps  Statistics  Teachers  Stay  Ahead       quantitative  areas  for  a  modern  information  society,  including  a  sound  understanding  of  statistics.  But  for  teachers  trying  to  help  students  to  appreciate  and  use  the  concepts  and  principles  of  statistics,  the  odds  are  often  against  them.    Authors  of  a  new  book,  Teaching  Statistics  in  School  Mathematics:  Challenges  for  Teaching  and  Teacher  Education,  advocate  that  the  key  to  successful  statistics  education  starts  with  teachers   t  consider  themselves  well  prepared  to  teach  statistics  nor      This  innovative  book  is  a  useful  guide  for  teachers,  and  those  who  educate  teachers,  seeking  to  overcome   these   challenges.   It   identifies   new   approaches   to   enhaliteracy   that   bridge   teacher   education   with   teaching   practice   in   the   classroom.   The   growing  appreciation  for  the  importance  of  an  understanding  of  statistics  means  that  in  many  countries  the   subject   is   now   taught   throughout   school   levels,   including   across   primary   school.   But   in  order  to  teach  statistics  effectively,  teachers  must  understand  the  nature  of  statistics  and  its  benefit  from  organising  initiatives  to  help  increase  statistical  literacy  of  all  citizen    Teaching  Statistics  in  School  Mathematics  is  the  product  of  a  joint  collaboration  between  the  International   Commission   on   Mathematical   Instruction   (ICMI)   and   the   International  Association  for  Statistical  Education  (IASE).  It  is  the  18th  in  a  series  of  studies  commissioned  by  the   International   Commission   on   Mathematical   Instruction   (ICMI).   The   18th   study   is   also   a  product   of   the   2008   IASE   Roundtable   Conference.   Each   ICMI   study   is   meant   to   foster  understanding   and   resolutions   of   the   challenges   that   face   multidisciplinary   and   culturally  diverse  research  and  development  in  mathematics  education  by  focusing  on  a  topic  or  issue  of  prominent   current   interest   in   mathematics   education.   Similarly   each   of   the   Roundtable  Conferences  in  Statistics  Education,  which  have  been  held  since  1968,  focuses  on  a  prominent  topic   in   statistics   education   and   produces   refereed   Proceedings.   These   Roundtable  conferences   were   organised   before   1992   by   the   International   Statistical   Institute   and   since  1992  by  the  IASE.      Thus  both  ICMI  studies  and  IASE  Roundtable  studies  are  built  around  international  conferences  with  the  goal  of  preparing  a  published  volume  that  can  promote  discussion  and  action  at  the  international,   regional   or   institutional   level.   The   result   of   this   innovative   and   exciting  collaboration   is   Teaching   Statistics   in   School   Mathematics,   which   will   be   presented   at   the  Conferencia   Interamericana   de   Educación   Matemática   (CIAEM)   conference   in   Recife,   Brazil,  June  26  -­‐  30,  2011,  published  by  Springer  and  will  be  released  in  August  2011.        For  further  information  please  contact:    Carmen  Batanero,  (Editor):  batanero@ugr.es  Lena  Koch  (ICMI  Administrator,  IMU  Secretariat)    icmi.cdc.administrator@mathunion.org      International  Commission  on  Mathematical  Instruction  (www.mathunion.org/ICMI)  International  Association  for  Statistical  Education  (www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/  International  Mathematical  Union,  Secretariat,  Markgrafenstr.32,  10117  Berlin,  Germany  Phone:  +49  30  20372-­‐432,  Fax:  +49  30  20372-­‐439  
  32. 32. ICMI Study 15 Co-chairs: Ruhama Even (Israel) Deborah Loewenberg Ball (USA)
  33. 33. ICMI Study 15 scientific committee Gilah Leder La Trobe UniversityJo Boaler Stanford University AUSTRALIAUSA Shiqi Li East China NormalChris Breen University of Cape University CHINATown SOUTH AFRICA Romulo Lins State University ofFrédéric Gourdeau Université Sao Paulo at Rio Claro BRAZILLaval CANADA João Filipe Matos UniversidadeMarja van den Heuvel-Panhuizen Lisboa PORTUGALUtrecht UniversityNETHERLANDS Jarmila Novotna Charles University CZECH REPUBLICBarbara Jaworski LoughboroughUniversity UK Aline Robert IUFM de Versailles FRANCE
  34. 34. ICMI Study 15The study was designed to investigate practicesand programs of mathematics teacher educationin different countries and to contribute to aninternational discourse about the professionaleducation of prospective and practicing teachersof mathematics
  35. 35. ICMI Study 15The premise of this study was that teachers arekey to students’ opportunities to learnmathematics.What mathematics teachers know, care about,and do is a product of their experiences andsocialization both prior to and after enteringteaching, together with the impact of theirprofessional education.
  36. 36. ICMI Study 15there is a growing need to design policy-orientedstudies according to a typology of comparativedifferences within and across regions that cangive better insights on the teacher education-teacher practice-pupil learning continuum,taking into account contextual differences.
  37. 37. ICMI Study 15The first years of teaching can be seen as atransition with many interdependentcomponents: from being a teacher student in auniversity environment, where mathematics andteaching is often considered in more theoreticalways, to a (more or less autonomous) status ofbeing a professional in a school, in charge of anumber of practical problems related to teachingand school mathematics.
  38. 38. ICMI Study 15The international perspective seems veryimportant; here, as it may help us to reject thefatalism that often results from a perspectivewhich is confined to a single system of education
  39. 39. ICMI Study 15Needless to say, systems of schooling—includingteacher education—display a surprising level ofinertia. Looking beyond them may help usrecognize that their defaults are not inevitable.This seems in particular to be the case for someof the problems faced by beginning teachers,including isolation and lack of resources forprofessional growth as a mathematics teacher.
  40. 40. ICMI Study 15It appears certain that the recruitment andretention of mathematics teacher educators willneed to be a major focus of institutions of highereducation in future years.Who becomes a teacher educator, themotivations and incentives for doing so, and thetasks and duties of teacher educators are allworthy of further discussion on an internationallevel.
  41. 41. ICMI Study 15A split between pedagogy courses and contentcourses might not be productive. It is possible toteach courses that address both at the same time.There is no agreement on what the role ofmathematicians in pedagogy courses should be.Many responses pointed to the opportunity tocapitalize on mathematicians’ knowledge ofmathematics and “how mathematics works” andtheir experiences as learners and teachers ofmathematics.
  42. 42. ICMI Study 16 Co-chairs: Edward Barbeau (Canada), Peter J. Taylor (Australia)
  43. 43. ICMI Study 16Discussion Document:“Mathematics is engaging, useful, and creative. What can we do to make itaccessible to more people?”“Recent attempts to develop students mathematical creativity include the use ofinvestigations, problems, reflective logs, and a host of other devices. These canbe seen as ways to attract students with material that challenges the mind.”“Initiatives taken around the globe have varied in quality and have met withdifferent degrees of success. New technologies have enabled us to refine ourefforts and restructure our goals. It is time to assess what has been done, studyconditions for success and determine some approaches for the future.”
  44. 44. ICMI Study 16Discussion Document:“What is a mathematical challenge?”“How do we provide challenges?”“How do challenges contribute to the learning process?”“How can challenges be used in the classroom?”
  45. 45. ICMI Study 16 conclusionsThose responsible for curriculum design andassessment need to question whether theirpolicies inhibit or promote an authentic andproductive mathematical experience in theclassroom.
  46. 46. ICMI Study 16 conclusionsThe time has come for a gathering of theavailable materials and the formulation ofresearch and field trials involving the use ofchallenges that will allow us to move forward in asound and measured way.
  47. 47. ICMI Study 16 conclusionsTeachers value and are more easily persuaded, ifsomeone involved in the development processcan actually work with their class and show howthe process they are proposing can produce gainsby their students.
  48. 48. ICMI Study 17 Co-chairs: Celia Hoyles (England), Jean-Baptiste Lagrange (France)
  49. 49. ICMI Study 17Discussion Document:“identify and analyse some of the challenges in mathematics teaching andlearning, practically and theoretically, in the light of the use of digitaltechnologies”“What new types of mathematical knowledge and practices emerge as a result ofaccess to digital technologies, particularly computational, dynamic visualisationand communication technologies?”“What role can the "mathematics laboratory" play in different educationalcontexts, including primary, secondary, tertiary and vocational education?”
  50. 50. ICMI Study 17Section 1: Design of learning environments andcurriculaSection 2 Learning and Assessing Mathematicswith and through Digital TechnologiesSection 3 Teachers and TechnologySection 4 Implementation of Curricula: Issues ofAccess and Equity
  51. 51. ICMI Study 17Section 5: Future DirectionsFuture of technology? Kindle? iPads?SmartPhones?
  52. 52. ICMI Study 17Section 5: Future DirectionsFuture of technology? Kindle? iPads?SmartPhones?
  53. 53. ICMI Study 17Seymour Papert (inventor of LOGO): “spendreasonable part of the time and energy thinkingabout possible futures, freeing our minds of thecurrent constraints.”
  54. 54. ICMI News
  55. 55. more about ICMIwww.mathunion.org/icmi/
  56. 56. Thank you for your attentionJa ime C a r v a lh o e S il v aS ec re ta ry-G enera l of ICM IUn iversi ty of C oi m bra, Po rt ug a lCMU C/Projec t U I 324 - 2011-2012
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