The Pathway of Enlightenment “Our many new discoveries uncovered some of our greatest mysteries leading me down the path of enlightenment, and all the answers to my age old questions became so clear to me.” ~ Jaime Christine Brown
Zodiac SignsNo Longer Accurate If your horoscope has never made any sense to you, there may be a good reason why – it could be out of date. Astronomers have called for the zodiac signs to be overhauled because they no are no longer accurate. The ancient Babylonians based zodiac signs on the constellation the sun was in on the day a person was born.
Interesting Facts The Sixth World began on December 12, 2011 AD The Fifth World Ended December 21, 2011 BC God took 6 days to create heaven and the earth God took 1 day to rest December 21, 2011 Winter Solstice Nubruis Enters our Orbit 91 days between Solstice Seasons change every 3 months on the 1st day after is the Solstice The Mayan Calendar ends on December 21, 2012
Table of Contents: i. Why Change? Astrology p. 6 ii. The Zodiac p. 15 iii. Planet X Nibiru p. 19 iv. The Constellations p. 27 v. The Mysteries of the Number 13 p. 35 vi. Origin of Our Months The Roman Calendar p. 44 vii. The 13th Constellation Ophuchicus the snake holder p. 52 viii. Visible Constellations Sorted by Months p. 59 ix. 12 Signs of the Zodiac p. 72 x. The Signs of the Zodiac p. 81 xi. Reform Our Calendar p. 95 xii. Cycle of the Moon p. 114 xiii. The Sun p. 121 xiv. Measuring Time p. 126 xv. Where is the Truth? p. 130 xvi. My Proposed Calculation Reforms p. 137
Controversy The proposed 13th star sign, Ophiuchus, is a constellation in space and existing prints of its symbol indicate it is a heavily muscled individual holding a snake to the sky. Those born under Ophiuchus are said to have lofty ideals, enjoy longevity and are inventive. Those who are currently Scorpio or Sagittarius could make the switch. The story has sparked controversy and debate around the world and instantly became the most popular topic of conversation on micro blogging site Twitter, where some users were aghast at the change in their fortunes.
THE Earth The Earth wobbles on its axis, so the star constellations we see change over a cycle of 26,000 years So it is irrelevant that the solsticial points (tropics) have drifted from one constellation to another over time as the relationship is symbolic. Tropical astrology is mainly practiced in North America and Europe. The alternative is Sidereal astrology, which is the Hindu system and is also practiced by some western astrologers. It is based on Earths relationship with the stars, and therefore zodiac signs against the actual sky. An adjustment is made for the precession of the vernal equinox. This is the gradual shift in the orientation of Earths axis of rotation, which traces out a cone once every 26,000 years. Therefore the dates of the zodiac signs change.
Phases of the SunThe sun’s longitude: 0 at Vernal Equinox 90 at Summer Solstice 180 at Autumnal Equinox 270 at Winter SolsticeTime Span: 91 days apart
Shift in the Stars’ But during the thousands of years since, the moons gravitational pull has made the Earth shift on its axis and created a one-month shift in the stars alignment. Astronomers are now proposing to move all the star signs back one month and introduce a 13th star sign, Ophiuchus, to help readjust the zodiac calendar. The change will come as a shock to many who will discover they have been reading the wrong star sign their entire lives - and will not necessarily be happy with their new ones. Those under dominant and creative Leo could now find themselves a Cancer, which means they are moody and sensitive. A passionate Scorpio could become a more diplomatic and balanced Libra whilst if you were a Taurus, you could now find yourself a stubborn Aires.
Astrology TermsAstronomers Study space and the stars from a scientific viewpoint.Astrologers Write horoscopes and claim, that celestial bodies can give clues to personality traits.
Astrology Systems There are two major systems that control our zodiac signs: tropical astrology sidereal astrology Tropical astrology is based on Earths relationship with the Sun and the four seasons. Earths precession It preserves the seasonal associations of the star signs worked out by early astrologers by laying out new horoscopes against a first-millennium sky.
Sidereal AstrologySidereal Astrology is more closely related to the actual constellations.Precession of the equinoxes moves the astrology signs forward through the years, so in Sidereal, Aries begins in April instead of March.As an example, if you are a March Aries in Tropical Astrology, then you are a Pisces in Sidereal Astrology.A Sidereal chart is not identical to a "Real Sky" chart, but it is a whole lot closer than Tropical charts.
The Roots of the Zodiac Historically, people looked at the sky to understand the world around us. But today I dont think people who are into astrology look at the sky very much.’ The signs of the zodiac have roots in mythology and relate to the legend of how the 12 Olympian gods took animal shapes to flee the monster Typhon who was causing havoc on Earth. They date back to Roman and Babylonian times and are based on the ecliptic, which is the path of the sun over the celestial sphere, or imaginary path around the Earth for a year. In the beginning your star sign was indeed determined by the constellation in the sky that the sun lined up with at the time of your birth. Since then, however, astrologers have adopted a mathematically equal division of the sky, so the position of the constellations is no longer relevant.
Houses of the Sun As revealed in the recent and comprehensive work, "History of the Zodiac," an in -depth exploration of the origins of the Babylonian Zodiac and its location in the ecliptic, originally a Ph.D. thesis, by Dr. Robert Powell (now published in 2007), the division of the ecliptic into tropical astrological signs was originally a derivation of Euctemons tropical Calendar of Seasons (432 B.C.); "...dividing the solar year into twelve equal months commencing with the vernal equinox, in which each solar (tropical) month is named after one the twelve signs..." (Powell). The tropical calendrical system (referenced from the vernal point) was merely used as an astronomical coordinate system for measuring time in the solar year, at or just after the time of Hipparchus. Astrological qualities were later attributed to the twelve calendar months (tropical signs) through the influence of Ptolemy, and the true (sidereal) zodiac, thus faded into obscurity. Unfortunately the term "signs" had replaced "months." The tropical calendar (tropical zodiac) was based upon the suns declination above and below the earths equator, not the suns ecliptical longitude. From an astrological perspective, I suggest the tropical signs should be called "Houses of the Sun," more aptly describing their true historical origin, as eloquently revealed in Robert Powells work "History of the Zodiac" (Sophia Academic Press, San Rafael, California 2007) -- recommended reading for all astrologers and astronomers.
The Zodiac Signs The signs of the Zodiac are for the most part, the highway, or path on which the Sun takes its yearly journey across the heavens - as it would appear to Earthlings. These signs are actually star constellations occupying space in which the Sun appears to travels in an earth year. The original twelve signs/constellations: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces are quite familiar to everyone, however, the thirteenth sign and constellation, [Ophiuchus], is in fact, not well known. To acknowledge a 13th sign now would seem awkward for astrologers, who like the tidiness of 12 signs that rule over the 12 houses of the Zodiac. The heavens are alive and they do change after a few thousand years and the astrologer who wants to maintain accuracy must change along with the signs in the heavens.
NubiruSome authors believe that theobservations of ancientastronomers provide proofthat Nibiru is an actual planetor brown dwarf in our solarsystem. These claims are forthe most part dismissed asfringe science orpseudoscience by themainstream scientificcommunities of archaeologyand astronomy.
Sitchin’s Theory The work of Zecharia Sitchin has garnered much attention among ufologists, ancient astronaut theorists and conspiracy theorists. He claims to have uncovered, through his retranslations of Sumerian texts, evidence that the human race was visited by a group of extraterrestrials from a distant planet in our own Solar System. Part of his theory lies in an astronomical interpretation of the Babylonian creation myth, the Enuma Elish, in which he replaces the names of gods with hypothetical planets. However, since the principal evidence for Sitchins claims lies in his own personally derived etymologies and not on any scholarly agreed interpretations, his theories remain at most pseudoscience to the majority of academics. Sitchins theory proposes the planets Tiamat and Nibiru. Tiamat supposedly existed between Mars and Jupiter. He postulated that it was a thriving world in a much differently shaped solar system, with jungles and oceans, whose orbit was disrupted by the arrival of a large planet or very small star (less than twenty times the size of Jupiter) which passed through the solar system between 65 million and four billion years ago. The new orbits caused Tiamat to collide with one of the moons of this object, which is known as Nibiru. The debris from this collision are thought by the theorys proponents to have variously formed the asteroid belt, the Moon, and the current inclination of the planet Earth.
Origin of Nibiru To the Babylonians, Nibiru was the celestial body or region sometimes associated with the god Marduk. The word is Akkadian and the meaning is uncertain. Because of this, the planet Nibiru is sometimes also referred to as Marduk. Sitchin hypothesizes it as a planet in a highly elliptic orbit around the Sun, with a perihelion passage some 3,600 years ago and assumed orbital period of about 3,750 years. He also claims it was the home of a technologically advanced human-like alien race, the Anunnaki, who allegedly visited Earth in search of gold. These beings eventually created humanity by genetically crossing themselves with extant primates, and thus became the first gods. Beginning in 1995, websites such as ZetaTalk have identified Nibiru or "Planet X" as a brown dwarf currently within our planetary system, soon to pass relatively close to Earth affecting Earths magnetics and causing catastrophic damage. Sitchin disagrees.
History of Nibiru Nibiru, in Babylonian Astronomy translates to "Planet of Crossing" or "Point of Transition", especially of rivers, i.e. river crossings or ferry- boats, a term of the highest point of the ecliptic, i.e. the point of summer solstice, and its associated constellation. The establishment of the Nibiru point is described in tablet 5 of the Enuma Elish. Its cuneiform sign was often a cross, or various winged disc. The Sumerian culture was located in the fertile lands between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, at the southern part of todays Iraq. As the highest point in the paths of the planets, Nibiru was considered the seat of the summus deus who pastures the stars like sheep, in Babylon identified with Marduk. This interpretation of Marduk as the ruler of the cosmos was identified as an early monotheist tendency in Babylonian religion by Alfred Jeremias.
Almost 6,000 years ago,the ancient Sumerians told of planet Nibiru existing in our solar system.On the left, notice the sun with 9 planets around it.Also notice the single planet in the center of this cylinder seal.Why are the Sumerians looking at this planet?In 1993, Planet X/Nibiru/Eris was approximately 50 billion miles from Earth.
Nibiru /Planet Eris The real cause of climate changes, volcanoes activity, intensification of the seismic activity etc., is the planet Eris’s getting closer to our solar system. Intermediary named 2003 – UB – 313, and known in Antiquity under various names as: Nibiru, Marduk, Nemesis, Hercolubus, the Gods Planet, the Planet of the Empire, the Planet of the Cross or the Red Planet.
History of the Constellations Ancient Babylonians had 13 constellations, but wanted only 12, so threw out Ophuchicus, the snake holder.
The ConstellationsThe chart shows the fourteenconstellations along theecliptic. This chart shows themovement of the vernalequinox counterclockwisealong the path as seen fromEarth. Thirteen of theconstellations are on theecliptic. Only Orion is off theecliptic, and is beyond thecircle, or below the eclipticplane:
The figure above clearly shows the ecliptic passing through the 12 constellations, as wellas through Ophiuchus, and the ecliptic will also include Orion in a century or so. Clearlythere are 14 constellations one could consider, and while that is not the same thing as14 signs, having 14 signs, and starting them with Aries, and the vernal equinox, is clearlyenriching to astrology, and still tropical astrology at its finest!
The 14th Constellation What was the "curse" the Bible mentions, the curse that shall no longer be? Well, Jesus once said that "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head." (Matthew 8:20) This will not be true forever, for the constellation of the Son of Man, Orion, will eventually become part of the tree of life, the Zodiac itself! And if you ever wondered why Jesus said that the Son of Man was even "Lord of the Sabbath," (Mark 2:27-28) keep in mind that Orions position is above the Sun at the summer solstice, not below it, so the Son of Man will know on which day the true Sabbath falls, because Orion is even Lord of the Sabbath (Sun)! So you see, there are truly thirteen constellations (and signs) of the Zodiac, not twelve, and the last and fourteenth constellation is the Coming One: Orion the Hunter, the Mighty Man of all ages!
Biblical Astrology Associations While most of these pearly gates are nothing new to traditional astrologers, who probably know of them even outside their biblical astrology associations, one cannot help but notice the pearly gates associated with Orion and Ophiuchus. The Son of Man in the Gospels can be traced to the constellation Orion which represents Jesus Spirit. Daniel 7:13-14 describes Jesus quite well: I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man, and he came even to the ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. There was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. Daniels description of the Son of Man fits the pattern of stars in the constellation Orion! Orion is the most brilliant of all the constellations, and contains 78 stars. Even the Son of Man has the same dominating presence. In the book of Revelation the Lamb refers to Jesus as well, but despite the mention of the Twelve Gates of the great celestial city (the traditional pearly gates), the Lamb is not Aries as one might think, or even Capricorn, but actually Orion, while the "glory of God," also mentioned, refers to the constellation of Ophiuchus.
Revelations Revelation 22:1-3 makes a connection between Ophiuchus and Orion, just as a connection between the two exists even in Greek mythology: He showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb, in the middle of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants serve him. The "river of water of life, clear as crystal," is the Milky Way, which runs under the feet of Ophiuchus and over the outstretched arm of Orion! Orion is the sacrificed "Lamb," who will come again to sit at the right hand of the Father after he has passed through the valley of death (the Parousia or Second Coming). The connection between the sign of Orion and the coming redeemer is therefore quite strong, and Ophiuchus speaks of a much greater physician than even Jesus himself. Notice also the prophecy in the verses above, that both the throne of God (the sign of Ophiuchus) and the Lamb (the sign of Orion) shall be in it (the tree of life), shall become part of the Zodiac itself!
The 13th Constellation Ophiuchus The constellation, Ophiuchus, has been known since ancient times, and is better known as Serpentarius, the Serpent Holder. It is included in the list of 48 constellations described by Ptolemy. Ophiuchus is depicted as a man handling a serpent; his body dividing the large snake into two parts, giving way to the symbol used today as an Asclepius - the medical staff. Astrologers have not included Ophiuchus in the wheel of Astrological signs because the Sun spends only about nineteen days in this 13th sign of the Mazzaroth. Not that there wasnt a 13th sign in the Heavens, but as far as Astrologers were concerned, the Sun traveled from the constellation Scorpius and then proceeded directly into the sign of Sagittarius. In reality, this was not the case. It is believed that, the Sun, for 19 days of the year, travels through the star constellation Ophiuchus before entering Sagittarius from Scorpius. thus The sign of Ophiuchus is patterned after the original Serpent Holder, Enki, a Sumerian god.
Lucky Number 13 The moment I heard we found a 13 th planet, and astrologist presented the 13 th Zodiac sign, I started researching and begin finding the missing pieces to the great jigsaw puzzle. Once I figured out the importance of the number 13, I had a moment of clarity I knew I must share with all of you!
ThirteenThe Sun move through thirteen constellations of stars every year.The Moon orbits around the Earth thirteen times in one yearThe Moon moves thirteen times faster than the Earth.
13 Lunar Cycles In fact, there are other calendars and zodiacs that still honor the feminine nature of the lunar cycles. We are familiar with the Chinese zodiac that follows the moon cycles each year. However, some cultures (including some present day Hindus) still pay attention to the lunar cycles and the monthly constellations along the zodiac belt -- of which there are 13.
13 Months March April May June July August September October November December January February Mercedinus
13 Zodiac Signs According to the Minnesota Planetarium Society Capricorn: Jan. 20-Feb. 16. Aquarius: Feb. 16-March 11. Pisces: March 11-April 18. Aries: April 18-May 13. Taurus: May 13-June 21. Gemini: June 21-July 20. Cancer: July 20-Aug. 10. Leo: Aug. 10-Sept. 16. Virgo: Sept. 16-Oct. 30. Libra: Oct. 30-Nov. 23. Scorpio: Nov. 23-29. Ophiuchus: Nov. 29-Dec. 17. Sagittarius: Dec. 17-Jan. 20.
13 Constellations Capricorn Astrology has had Aquarius issues from its Pisces inception. Aries Ancient Babylonians Taurus had 13 Gemini constellations, but Cancer wanted only 12, so Leo threw out Virgo Ophuchicus, the snake Libra holder. Scorpio Libra didnt even enter Ophiuchus the picture, until the Sagittarius era of Julius Caesar.
13 Apostles The original twelve disciples/apostles are listed in Matthew 10:2-4, “These are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon (who is called Peter) and his brother Andrew; James son of Zebedee, and his brother John; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Him.” The Bible also lists the twelve disciples/apostles in Mark 3:16-19 and Luke 6:13-16. A comparison of the three passages shows a couple of minor differences in the names. It seems that Thaddaeus was also known as “Judas, son of James” (Luke 6:16) and Lebbaeus (Matthew 10:3). Simon the Zealot was also known as Simon the Canaanite (Mark 3:18). Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus, was replaced in the twelve apostles by Matthias (see Acts 1:20-26). Some Bible teachers view Matthias as an “invalid” apostle, and believe that Paul was Gods choice to replace Judas Iscariot as the twelfth apostle.
History of The Roman CalendarMarch (the first month) Both Ovid and Plutarch said that Martius, originally the first month, was named after Mars, the Roman god of war.April When writing about April, Ovid said "I have come to the fourth month” Plutarch said that Numa, the king who followed Romulus, made January the first month of the year and made February the last. One historian assigns that action an exact date by stating that "January and February were added to an original Roman calendar of only ten months in 713 B.C.E.”January (at the end of the year) There was also disagreement in Ovid’s day as to the sequence and time at which Januarius and Februarius were added to the original ten months.February (at the end of the year) Apparently Februarius, when adopted, had but 23 days – traditionally the 23rd day of that month was the end of the calendar year. That indicates Februarius was observed in pre- Romulan times when months had as few as twenty days. Also, adding five days at year -end (to extend February’s length to 28) is similar to the change made by many other peoples who, around the time of Rome’s founding, added five days to their own calendar, but considered them to be unlucky and not part of the normal year.
Beginning of the Roman Calendar At the time of their early kings, Roman months were of a length identical to the lunar cycle. Each month was divided into sections that ended on the day of one of the first three phases of the moon: new, first quarter or full. All days were referred to in terms of one of these three moon phase names, Kalends, Nones or Ides. At that time a pontifex (priest) was assigned to observe the sky. When he first sighted a thin lunar crescent he called out that there was a new moon and declared the next month had started. For centuries afterward, Romans referred to the first day of each month as Kalendae or Kalends from the Latin word calare (to announce solemnly, to call out). The word calendar was derived from this custom. In 45 B.C.E., Romans modified their method of marking time to keep it in phase with seasons, but not require intercalation of an extra month. They accomplished this with the Julian Calendar. Month lengths were extended to bring the calendar’s total to 365 days, making it truly solar. This change was accompanied by addition of an extra day every fourth year (after February 23rd) because of the almost six extra hours beyond 365 days in a tropical year.
What were the Roman months? Much of the knowledge we now have about early Roman calendars came from Ovid, a Roman born in 43 B.C.E., and from Plutarch, a Greek biographer who wrote between C.E. 105 and 115. Both of them had access to historical documents that are no longer extant. Ovid claimed that his information was "dug up in archaic calendars," so it was already ancient over two thousand years ago. We can assume that the Roman calendar was brought from their birthplace by Rome’s original citizens. Initially, it contained only ten months. It has been suggested that those month lengths reflected growth cycles of crops and cattle. When compared with the solar year, it had an uncounted winter period of approximately sixty days. Plutarch said that months at the time of Rome’s founding were of varying lengths, some as short as twenty days and others with thirty-five or more in what early Romans believed was a year of three hundred and sixty days. Romulus, the legendary first king, was said to have made extensive changes to those month lengths, assigning twenty-nine days to some and thirty-one to others.
Original 10 Months • The months bore the names: Martius Aprilis Maius Juniius Quintilis Sextilis September October November December • The last six names correspond to the Latin words for the numbers 5 through 10.
What is the origin of the names of the months?• Month Latin Origin• January Januarius Named after the god Janus.• February Februarius Named after Februa, the purification festival.• March Martius Named after the god Mars.• April Aprilis Named either after the goddess Aphrodite or the Latin word aperire, to open.• May Maius Probably named after the goddess Maia.• June Junius Probably named after the goddess Juno.• July Julius Named after Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.E. Prior to that time its name was Quintilis from the word quintus, fifth, because it was the 5th month in the old Roman calendar.• August Augustus Named after emperor Augustus in 8 B.C.E. Prior to that time the name was Sextilis from the word sextus, sixth, because it was the 6th month in the old Roman calendar• September From the word septem, seven, because it was the 7th month in the old Roman calendar.• October October From the word octo, eight, because it was the 8th month in the old Roman calendar.• November From the word novem, nine, because it was the 9th month in the old Roman Calendar• December December From the word decem, ten, because it was the 10th month in the old Roman calendar.
The Original Roman Calendar The original Roman calendar appears to have consisted only of 10 months and of a year of 304 days. The remaining 61¼ days were apparently ignored, resulting in a gap during the winter season. The months bore the names Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Juniius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December–the last six names correspond to the Latin words for the numbers 5 through 10. The Roman ruler Numa Pompilius is credited with adding January at the beginning and February at the end of the calendar to create the 12-month year. In 452 B.C.E., February was moved between January and March. By the 1st century B.C.E., the Roman calendar had become hopelessly confused. The year, based on cycles and phases of the moon, totaled 355 days, about 10¼ days shorter than the solar year. The occasional intercalation of an extra month of 27 or 28 days, called Mercedonius, kept the calendar in step with the seasons. The confusion was compounded by political maneuvers. The Pontifex Maximus and the College of Pontiffs had the authority to alter the calendar, and they sometimes did so to reduce or extend the term of a particular magistrate or other public official. Finally, in 46 B.C.E., Julius Caesar initiated a thorough reform that resulted in the establishment of a new dating system, the Julian calendar.
The Month Mercedinus Plutarch wrote: "Numa...added an intercalary month, to follow February, consisting of twenty-two days, and called by the Romans the month Mercedinus. This amendment, however, itself, in course of time, came to need other amendments." (When observed, that leap month always immediately followed February 23.) Others claim that it wasn’t until 452 B.C.E. that a month named Intercalaris was added to the Roman calendar in order to add those days required to bring calendar length back into phase with the solar year. This month also began after the 23rd day of Februarius. It was observed every second year and was said to have had a length of either 22 or 23 days, with the remaining five days of Februarius added after them.
The 13 th ConstellationOPHUCHICUSTHE SNAKE HOLDER
The Constellation of Ophiuchus The constellation of Ophiuchus is the only sign of the Zodiac, which is linked to a real man. This man lived in ancient Egypt around the 27th century BCE, and his name was Imhotep [again patterned after Enki]. Many of the same attributes of Imhotep can also be found in the Biblical Hebrew man Joseph, son of Jacob. Imhotep is credited with many accomplishments including the knowledge and use of medicine. It is said of Imhotep that he brought the art of healing to mankind. The symbol of a serpent [or snake], which is still widely used today to represent the medical profession, was used to represent Imhotep. Imhotep was also known as Aesclepius to the ancient Greeks, but by any name the attributes are still all the same.
OPHIUCHUS traits interpreter of dreams, vivid premonitions attracts good luck and fruitful blessings serpent holder, lofty ideals a seeker of peace and harmony doctor of medicine or science, natural-pathic adds, increases, joins, or gathers together poetical, inventive nature, expanding qualities seeks higher education and wisdom overseer, supervisor of work
OPHIUCHUS traits (continued 2) the number twelve holds great significance foresight and good fortune to benefit from hard times has secret enemies in family or close associations many jealous of this subject notable father, apple of fathers eye when young high position in life expected [depending on aspects] highest fame and legend comes after death feelings of granular, wise, genius mentality likes to wear clothing of vibrant colors, and plaids in particular
OPHIUCHUS traits (continued 3) architect, builder reaches for the stars, figuratively and literally tax assessor, or tax collector astrological talents, intuitive large family indicated, but apt to be separated when young longevity, aspirations of healing the ills of man fame - either grand, or completely misunderstood receives the favor of those in authority
Other Facts Compatible With: Pisces, Libra, Cancer, Capricorn and other Ophiuchus Lucky Number: 12 Lucky Color: Purple, and patterns including plaid Lucky Stone: Apatite
12 Zodiac Sun Signs • The Zodiac was made up of 12 different sun signs. Aries - March 21 - April 20 Taurus - April 21 - May 21 Gemini - May 22 - June 21 Cancer - June 22 - July 22 Leo - July 23 -August 21 Virgo - August 22 - September 23 Libra - September 24 - October 23 Scorpio - October 24 - November 22 Sagittarius - November 23 - December 22 Capricorn - December 23 - January 20 Aquarius - January 21 - February 19 Pisces - February 20- March 20
Astrological Cusps If you were born between certain days in the month, you are on the cusp. You could attribute both signs. Capricorn/Aquarius Cancer/Leo between 17-22 January between 19-24 July Aquarius/Pisces Leo/Virgo between 16-22 February between 18-25 August Pisces/Aries Virgo/Libra between 19-23 March between 18-23 September Aries/Taurus Libra/Scorpio between 18-26 April between 19-23 Taurus/Gemini Scorpio/Sagittarius between 18-22 May 19-24 November Gemini/Cancer Sagittarius/Capricorn between 19-24 June between 19-23 December
Mayan Zodiac Mayan worship spread the 260-day-Tzolken-sacred-year amongst polytheism. Numbered day signs from 1 to 13 associate with animal god names in the Maya glyph language. The ecliptic marks the double-headed serpent path of the Mayan zodiac. According to the Paris codex, Mayan god animals were in position at the time of the vernal equinox in 3113 B.C.E. or the presumed starting date of the Mayan Calendar. Of course, not all 13 constellations in the zodiac were visible together. Only four constellations were viewable while the other nine were below the horizon in the nether underworld. Known parts of the zodiac appear in a manner that compare with other zodiacs. Scorpio equates with the scorpion. Gemini appears related to a pig. Mayan turtle stars form sections of the Gemini and Orion constellations. The ecliptic ends with the rattlesnake tail we call the Pleiades. The Pleiades rest midway between Aries and Taurus. Aries is the Jaguar god, Leo is a frog and finally Scorpion. Dual Mayan Calendar years worked like meshed gears to perform one 52-year Calendar Round that has 18,980-days. Counterpart to the 360-day-Tun-year was the 260-day-Tzolken-sacred-year. Continuation of religious festivals has preserved beliefs surrounding the zodiacal Tzolken. The ancient Mesoamerican Tzolken zodiac includes the constellation Ophiuchus according to many archeo-astrologists. Obscure ties with Sumerian or Babylonian zodiacs entwine Ophiuchus with Creation tales of Tiamut, Enki and Marduk - Jupiter. Ophiuchus is the hidden constellation.
Sumerian Zodiac The Sumerian zodiac had only six houses or star groups. The first house is rising when the seventh house is setting in the west, so six houses are visible at night. Sumerians spaced their houses some 60-degrees apart or about 60- days during the course of a year instead of today’s 30-day monthly division. Sumerians cast the first spiritual underpinnings that relate astrological positions to governing events in the future. National affairs such as war, drought and a plentiful harvest were the concerns of original astrology. Priests advised the king and other ruling authorities when and how to act in order to appease the gods. The sky heaven “An” had a masculine nature. Earth “Ki” had a feminine nature and together An and Ki bore “Enlil.” Enlil was the god of the air, who ruled over the “lil” wind or atmosphere.
Babylonian Zodiac Babylonian astrology-astronomy provides clues we need to study 360-day-Tun-years in more detail and bridge the gap between Mayan and Jewish Calendars. Consider looking at the zodiac on the vernal equinox. Babylonian astronomer priests established a standard set of 18 constellations along and around the ecliptic as early as 2,000 B.C.E. Stars outside the zodiac belt were useful for orientation purposes. Babylonian astronomer priests later divided the year into 12 star constellations. Dawn heliacal risings for each sign were separate by about 30- days. Precision involved erecting fixed sacred pillars called Baals in the Old Testament for observation purposes. Egyptian and early Babylonian zodiacs had 36 Decans or star groups, which were separated by about 10- days during the year. Babylonian worship divided the starry sky into three different bands around 3,000 B.C.E. The northern band was the Path of Anu. Winter constellations correspond primarily with the Path of Anu. Our latitude limits the stars we see with respect to the Tropic of Capricorn. Extending the equator into space creates a mathematical plane that aligns with the celestial equator. Babylonians replaced the earth-mother Sumerian “Ki” with “Ea.” From eastern to western horizons, the central Path of Ea identifies our modern celestial equator. To the south is the Path of Enlil band. Latitude position again limits the stars seen in the summer sky with respect to the Tropic of Cancer. Calendar months reckon 30-days according to the rule of “three stars each.” Each Decan star was from a different band in the sky. Carved figures often represent sprits for each of the 36 Decan stars. A new Decan star rose about every 10-days. The Decans were mighty, great gods. Decan stars were companions and guides to help the deceased. Some stars bestowed blessings while others were hostile or adverse.
Mesoamerican Zodiac Mesoamerican Calendars distinguish a visible nighttime sky that divides the 260 -day-Tzolken-sacred-year zodiac into 13 animal constellations. The ecliptic or celestial equator subsequently determines the Tzolken part of the Mayan Calendar. Half of 36 Decan stars are the visible 18 Decan stars during 6-months of either winter or summer. The other 18 Decan stars belong to the opposing 6-months and are below the horizon. By 1,200 B.C.E., Mesoamerican Olmecs concerned themselves with 13 visible astrological signs of a 260 - day-Tzolken-sacred-year. The 360-day-Tun-year and 365-day-Haab-years are later additions to the Mesoamerican Calendars. The ecliptic pathway eventually replaced the central Path of Ea as reference to divide the Semitic sky by a factor of three. Reducing the Sumerian-Babylonian numbering system from sexagesimal (base 60) to the later Mesoamerican vigesimal (base 20), infers that Mesoamerica 360 -day- Tun-years were using 20-degree houses for their astrological signs. Each astrological Uinal continued to have three Decan stars in the tribal Tun schema of 18 Uinals. The Mesoamerican zodiac supplants the 12 - house Sumerian-Babylonian zodiac that had three Decan stars each. The Mayan Calendar 360-day-Tun-year answers for 18 Uinals multiplied by 20-days each. Compared with Semitic cosmology, the Mayan moon goddess seems like the Venus Ishtar goddess of rebirth and fertility. As the moon goddess moved through 13 sacred signs and 18 star groups coincident with 18 tribes, she held the fertility profile of a “Rabbit in the Moon.” Mesoamerican cultures may have alternatively adapted the Babylonian Eighteen Stars Path of the Moon to the ecliptic that marks apparent motions of the sun and moon.
The Greek Zodiac The Greek zodiac 2,000-years ago borrowed 12 astrological sign names from 12 astronomical constellations. Greco-Roman zodiacs consistently lay along the ecliptic. Concordance with the Egyptian zodiac has shown the ecliptic was a focus for astral worship. Today, there are several different permutations of the zodiac and personal horoscopes are an outgrowth resource once reserved for kings and leaders.
Aries (March 21 - April 19) At the two equinoxes, the sun crosses the celestial equator in the spring and fall. Mars was the Roman god of war, and equates to the Greek god Ares. Spelled Aries by modern English, the sun rises in Aries for a month beginning at the spring equinox. The Pleiades are seven stars that once marked the New Year by advancing the zodiac to the next sign of Taurus. Greek architecture featured the seven sisters facing east. The Porch of the Seven Maidens honors the feminine deities that appeared on the cusp separating Aries and Taurus. The Porch of the Seven Sisters attaches to the famed Parthenon Temple of Athena. Located high atop the Acropolis hill outside of Athens, the Greek home of the gods served tribute to the stars.
Taurus (April 20 - May 20)Taurus is the zodiacal constellation that includes the star Aldebaran as the right eye of the bull.Taurus is charging Orion in the night sky.Aldebaran was one of the four "royal stars" said to rule over the heavenly quarters of the year. The Book of Enoch I alleges the four royal stars preside over all of creation. Aldebaran presided over the first quarter.The face of Taurus, horns, and shoulders are visible amongst the other stars in heaven. A cloud cuts off the body of Taurus to allow space for other figures.
Gemini (May 21 - June 20) Gemini is named for the twin stars of Castor and Pollux. Cardinal points of the year were the two equinoxes and the two solstices. The summer solstice near June 21 earmarks the end of the zodiacal constellation Gemini. Describing the duality of the solstices, Gemini twins often face opposite directions. Gemini twins and the two faces of Janus look opposite to symbolize facing the past and future. The month of June comes to us from the Latin Junii or gens. Several families of a house or clan sharing a common ancestor provide the meaning behind the sixth month.
Cancer (June 21 - July 22) Cancer the mythical Crab Nebula, was easily visible some 2,500 years ago when it was farthest north and marking the solar rising position at the beginning of summer. Located between Gemini and Leo, the Crab Nebula was equal to Jupiter in brightness about the year 1,000 A.D. Due to calendar changes and the procession of the equinoxes, the sun does not pass near this beehive cluster until around 1 August. From Cancer, the Tropic of Cancer marks the imaginary maximum latitudinal solstice line of 23.5 degrees to the North above the Equator. The Tropic of Capricorn is the latitudinal solstice line of 23.5 degrees to the South of the Equator.
Leo (July 23 - August 22) Leo is the zodiacal sign and constellation for the lion. Both the bull and the lion had significance in Babylonian mythology. Six stars form the sickle of Leo. The brightest star, Regulus, is at one end of the handle. Regulus was a royal star that ruled over the second quarter of the ancient year. The lion probably represented summertime heat in Mesopotamia and the kingly qualities found in leaders. Julius and Augustus chose to insert their named months under the sign of Leo.
Virgo (August 23 - September 22) Virgo, the virgin goddess, denotes the sign and constellation of Astraea. Mans increasing complexity caused the Greek virgin goddess of justice to leave the Earth when she felt no longer needed. Linked to Phoenician Astarte, she represented the Earth - mother fertility issue by announcing the fall harvest. The last four months of the old Roman Calendar had numerical names. Sept is the Latin prefix for the seventh month, in September of the former Roman year.
Libra (September 23 - October 23) Libra opposes the spring equinox in the center of the zodiac. The balance scales show the distinction of the autumnal equinox. From the Latin, Libra means balance and symmetry. During the equinox 2,000-years ago, the sun crossed the celestial equator, or ecliptic near to Libra. The beginning of autumn has drifted westward into Virgo. Libra depicts scales for the goddess of justice, Virgo. Libra has been the claws of Scorpio. Libra owes its importance to the position held in the zodiacal circle. Octo is the Latin prefix that describes October as the eighth month.
Scorpio (October 23 - November 21) Scorpio is the constellation for the scorpion and the first of the watery signs. Probably, the watery signs once marked the rainy season of Mesopotamia. Scorpio is the eighth constellation of the zodiac belt. Scorpio lies between Libra and Sagittarius and contains the brilliant red star Antares. Antares is the royal star that once marked the fourth quarter of the year. Novem resulted in the ninth month, November.
Sagittarius (November 22 - December 21) Sagittarius is the celestial archer in the heavens. Pictured as a centaur, Sagitta translates from the Latin phrase to represent an arrow. Sagittarius is also a traveler, or an explorer, whose arrow aims at the scorpion. Deca provided December for the tenth and last 36-day month in the former year.
Capricorn (December 22 - January 20) Capricorn is related to the festival Saturnalia of the Romans. The goat constellation is named from the Latin Caper or goat, plus the Cornu, which means horn. The mythological animal has the body of a horse, or goat, with usually a single horn pointing outward from the forehead. The sun enters Capricorn on the winter solstice, or about December 22 in our Gregorian Calendar. Saturnalia attached Capricorn to Saturday in the early Roman Calendar of 10-months. Saturday ends the week and Saturnalia once ended the year. In the Julian 12-month calendar, Capricorn began the New Year after 360-days by adding the last 5-days. A year of 365-days in the original Julian system completes on December 31.
Aquarius (January 21 - February 19) Aquarius is the famed water bearer sign that pours the water upon the ground so that the crops will grow. The named watery constellations of the zodiac include Capricornus, the sea goat, followed by Aquarius, the careless water carrier and dominant figure of the watery zodiacal scene. Aquarius spills the water urn to mark an irregular stream of dim stars. The waters of life descend into the mouth of the Southern Fish or Pisces.
Pisces (February 20 - March 20) Pisces is the last watery sign and the last constellation in the annual zodiac. Two imaginary fish tie together with a long ribbon, knotted at either end or center. The bright Pisces Austrinus star is a first magnitude star and the brightest in the watery constellations. Called Fomalhaut and pronounced Fo-mal-hut, the name is corruptive of the Arabic Fum al Hut, meaning the mouth of the fish. The cord ties together one fish before the upcoming equinox and the other for the dual end of the equinox that leads into Aries and the new zodiacal year.
Why Change Our Calendar?The Gregorian calendar, as used for civil purposes, is an international standard. It is a solar calendar, meaning that it is designed to maintain synchrony with the tropical year. It has a cycle of 400 years (146,097 days). Each cycle repeats the months, dates, and weekdays. The average year length is 146,097/400 = 365+97/400 = 365.2425 days per year, a close approximation to the tropical year. (Seidelmann, 1992, pp. 576–81)The Gregorian calendar is a reformed version of the Julian calendar. By the time of the reform in 1582, the date of the vernal equinox had shifted about 10 days, from about March 21 at the time of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, to about March 11. According to North, the real motivation for reform was not primarily a matter of getting agricultural cycles back to where they had once been in the seasonal cycle; the primary concern of Christians was the correct observance of Easter. The rules used to compute the date of Easter used a conventional date for the vernal equinox (March 21), and it was considered important to keep March 21 close to the actual equinox. (North, 1983, pp. 75–76)If society in the future still attaches importance to the synchronization between the civil calendar and the seasons, another reform of the calendar will eventually be necessary. According to Holford -Strevens (who used Newcombs value for the tropical year) if the tropical year remained at its 1900 value of 365.24219878125 days the Gregorian calendar would be 3 days, 17 min, 33 s behind the Sun after 10,000 years. Aggravating this error, the length of the tropical days (measured in Terrestrial Time) is decreasing at a rate of approximately 53 s per 100 tropical years. Also, the mean solar day is getting longer at a rate of about 1.5 ms per 100 tropical years. These effects will cause the calendar to be nearly a day behind in 3200. A possible reform would be to omit the leap day in 3200, keep 3600 and 4000 as leap years, and thereafter make all centennial years common except 4500, 5000, 5500, 6000, etc. The effects are not sufficiently predictable to form more precise proposals. (Blackburn & Holford-Strevens, 2003, p. 692)Borkowski (1991, p. 121) states "because of high uncertainty in the Earths rotation it is premature at present to suggest any reform that would reach further than a few thousand years into the future." He estimates that in 4000 the Gregorian year (which counts actual solar days) will be behind the tropical year by 0.8 to 1.1 days. (p. 126)
The Romans Calends• The Romans divided the month according to the Calends on the first day of each month, the Nones for the ninth day proceeding the Ides, and the Ides.• The Nones of March, May, July and October were on the seventh of the month, and on the fifth day during the other months.• Months of March, May, July, and October had the Ides on the fifteenth, and the other months held the Ides on the thirteenth.• The first day, Calends, of April, is now on March 21 due to leap adjustments via the Gregorian Calendar.• The 10-month Roman Calendar began the new year following the end of December on April 1.• The expression "April Fools Day" is a modern remnant of the 2,000- year old calendar.
July and August July and August continue the namesake months inserted by Julius and Augustus Caesars. The Julian calendar reform shortened 10-months from 36 days to 30 days each. Two months we call July and August account for some 60-days in the 12-month calendar. The former Roman Calendar, like Egyptian, had 360-days with an extra intercalary 5-days being added to the end of the year. The Julian Calendar spread the 5-days amongst January, March, May, July and October. February was supposed to have 30-days in leap years to alternate with the 31-days of January and March. Augustus Caesar shortened February to 29 days in leap years, making the month of August 31 days long.
Calendar Influences Early church fathers combined the Julian Calendar with Jewish Calendar influence. Declaring Sunday, rather than Saturday, as the persistent Christian Sabbath Day served the Roman definition of changing the days at midnight. Subtracting 5-days from December 31 results in the older Roman year ending on December 26 of the later Julian dating scheme. To maintain the Roman purification festival on February 15, the Romans observed the same 50 -day interval between the day after the New Years Day and Februarius by reducing January from 36 days to 31 days. Reducing December from 36 days to 31 days accomplished the same omission of 5-days as returning to the former 360-day Roman year. Augustus Caesar modified the calendar by 354 C.E, which spread the last 5-days prior to December 26. Christs Mas observation on December 25 instead of December 26 maintained Jewish tradition of counting days at twilight on December 25. Another way of figuring the winter solstice or the New Year of the Julian Calendar, is to use the modern solstice approximation on December 22. Since the Gregorian Calendar rule concerning centennial leap days was not yet effective, 3-days would have to be added to slip the winter solstice for each 100-years of the total 300-years. Three days added to December 22 places the winter solstice on December 25 of the year 354 A.D. The intentions of the founding church fathers were to place Christmas Day on New Years Day and the Roman festival Februarius on February 15 every year. Gregorian Calendar changes in 1,582 C.E. dealt only with the days between New Years Day and the spring equinox. The other days fell into place.
Tropical Year Current Value This means a tropical year, as of January 1, 2000 was 365.2421897 or 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45.19 seconds. This changes slowly; an expression suitable for calculating the length in days for the distant past is 365.2421896698 − 6.15359 10−6T − 7.29 10−10T2 + 2.64 10−10T3 Where T is in Julian centuries of 36,525 days measured from noon January 1, 2000 TT (in negative numbers for dates in the past). (McCarthy & Seidelmann, 2009, p. 18.; Laskar, 1986) Modern astronomers define the tropical year as time for the Suns mean longitude to increase by 360 . The process for finding an expression for the length of the tropical year is to first find an expression for the Suns mean longitude (with respect to ), such as Newcombs expression given above, or Laskars expression (1986, p. 64). When viewed over a 1 year period, the mean longitude is very nearly a linear function of Terrestrial Time. To find the length of the tropical year, the mean longitude is differentiated, to give the angular speed of the Sun as a function of Terrestrial Time, and this angular speed is used to compute how long it would take for the Sun to move 360 . (Meeus & Savoie, 1992, p. 42).
Calendar RevisionsCurrent Julian Revised Roman Roman Original RomanCalendar Calendar Calendar Calendar Calendar January Januarius Januarius Martius Martius February Februarius Martius Aprilis Aprilis March Martius Aprilis Maius Maius Aprilis Maius Junius Junius April Junius Quintilis May Maius Quintilis Quintilis Sextilis June Junius Augustus Augustus September July Julius September September October August Augustus October October November September September November November December October October December December November November Februarius Januarius December December Mercedinus Februarius Intercalaris Mercedinus 1582 325 46 B.C. 452 B.C.E 45 B.C.E.
The Jewish CalendarNoahs Flood commenced on the 17th of Cheshvan in the year 1656 from creation, and ended on Cheshvan 27 of the following year.The biblical commentaries explain that the Flood lasted exactly one year, and that the 11 -day discrepancy in the dates represents the 11-day difference between the solar and lunar years.This reflects the fact that different components of the calendar are based on a variety of natural cycles which do not easily lend themselves to synchronization. The month derives from the moons 29.5 day orbit of the earth; the year, from the 365-day solar cycle. The problem is that 12 lunar months add up to 354 days -- eleven days short of the solar year.Most calendars deal with this discrepancy by simply ignoring one or the other of the celestial timekeepers. For example, the Gregorian Calendar (which has attained near-universal status) is completely solar based. Its 365 days are divided into 12 segments of 30 or 31 days, but these "months" have lost all connection with their original association with the moon. There are also calendars (such as the Moslem Calendar) which are exclusively lunar-based, with months that are faithfully attuned to the phases of the moon. Twelve such months are regarded as a year, but these "years" bear no relation to the solar cycle (a given date in such a calendar will, in certain years, fall in the midst of summer and, in other years, in the dead of winter).The Jewish calendar is unique in that it endeavors to reconcile the solar and lunar time -streams. By employing a complex 19-year cycle in which months alternate between 29 and 30 days and years alternate between 12 and 13 months, the Jewish calendar sets its months by the moon, its years by the sun, combining lunar time and solar time into a single system while preserving the integrity of each.For the sun and the moon represent the two sides of a dichotomy which bisects virtually every aspect of our existence -- a dichotomy whose differences we must respect and preserve even as we incorporate them in a cohesive approach to life.
Western Liturgical calendarOrdinary Time "Ordinary" comes from the same root as our word "ordinal", and in this sense means "the counted weeks". In the Roman Catholic Church and in some Protestant traditions, these are the common weeks which do not belong to a proper season. In Latin, these seasons are called the weeks per annum, or "through the year". In the current form of the Roman Rite adopted following the Second Vatican Council, Ordinary Time consists of 33 or 34 Sundays and is divided into two sections. The first portion extends from the day following the Feast of the Baptism of Christ until the day before Ash Wednesday (the beginning of Lent). It contains anywhere from three to eight Sundays, depending on how early or late Easter falls. The main focus in the readings of the Mass is Christs earthly ministry, rather than any one particular event. The counting of the Sundays resumes following Eastertide, however, two Sundays are replaced by Pentecost and Trinity Sunday, and depending on whether the year has 52 or 53 weeks, one may be omitted.
The Mayan CalendarDid the Mayas Think a Year Was 365 Days?Although there were only 365 days in the Haab year, the Mayas were aware that a year is slightly longer than 365 days, and in fact, many of the month-names are associated with the seasons; Yaxkin, for example, means "new or strong sun" and, at the beginning of the Long Count, 1 Yaxkin was the day after the winter solstice, when the sun starts to shine for a longer period of time and higher in the sky. When the Long Count was put into motion, it was started at 18.104.22.168.0, and 0 Yaxkin corresponded with Midwinter Day, as it did at 22.214.171.124.0 back in 3114 B.C.E. The available evidence indicates that the Mayas estimated that a 365-day year processed through all the seasons twice in 126.96.36.199.0 or 1,101,600 days.We can therefore derive a value for the Mayan estimate of the year by dividing 1,101,600 by 365, subtracting 2, and taking that number and dividing 1,101,600 by the result, which gives us an answer of 365.242036 days, which is slightly more accurate than the 365.2425 days of the Gregorian calendar.(This apparent accuracy could, however, be a simple coincidence. The Mayas estimated that a 365-day year processed through all the seasons twice in 188.8.131.52.0 days. These numbers are only accurate to 2-3 digits. Suppose the 184.108.40.206.0 days had corresponded to 2.001 cycles rather than 2 cycles of the 365-day year, would the Mayas have noticed?)In ancient times, the Mayans had a tradition of a 360-day year. But by the 4th century B.C.E. they took a different approach than either Europeans or Asians. They maintained three different calendars at the same time. In one of them, they divided a 365-day year into eighteen 20-day months followed by a five-day period that was part of no month. The five-day period was considered to be unlucky.
The Egyptian Calendar The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 360 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus five extra days (epagomenae, from Greek ἐπαγόμεναι) at the end of the year. The months were divided into three weeks of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events therefore "wandered" through the calendar, it has been referred to as the annus vagus, or "wandering year". Based on his understanding of the Palermo Stone, Alexander Scharff believed that the Old Kingdom period observed a year with 320 days.
Babylonian Calendar Babylonian 360-day-Tun-years in more detail may bridge the gap between Mayan and Jewish Calendars. Prior to the Roman Julian Calendar, the Romans were using a 10-month calendar with 36-day-months. Eventually 12-months stabilized more or less in their current configuration. Lunar months having 29-days or 30-days became the norm for nomadic people and expanding Greco-Roman culture into larger geographic areas. Mesoamerican Calendars are the exception to strict lunar observation. Fixed ceremonial centers encourage dividing 360-day-Tun- years into 18 Uinals of 20-days each. The Mayan lunar series or supplementary series evidences that moon glyphs tracked phases and cycles. However, the majority of lunar scripts are still unknown. Calendar months reckon 30-days according to the rule of “three stars each.” Each Decan star was from a different band in the sky. Carved figures often represent sprits for each of the 36 Decan stars. A new Decan star rose about every 10-days.
The Chinese CalendarCombined solar/lunar calendar in that it strives to have its years coincide with the tropical year and its monthscoincide with the synodic months. A few similarities exist between the Chinese and the Hebrew calendar:An ordinary year has 12 months, a leap year has 13 months.An ordinary year has 353, 354, or 355 days, a leap year has 383, 384, or 385 days.When determining what a Chinese year looks like, one must make a number of astronomical calculations:First, determine the dates for the new moons. Here, a new moon is the completely "black" moon (that is, when the moon is in conjunction with the sun), not the first visible crescent used in the Islamic and Hebrew calendars. The date of a new moon is the first day of a new month.Second, determine the dates when the sun’s longitude is a multiple of 30 degrees. (The sun’s longitude is 0 at Vernal Equinox, 90 at Summer Solstice, 180 at Autumnal Equinox, and 270 at Winter Solstice.) These dates are called the Principal Terms and are used to determine the number of each month:Principal Term 1 occurs when the sun’s longitude is 330 degrees.Principal Term 2 occurs when the sun’s longitude is 0 degrees.Principal Term 3 occurs when the sun’s longitude is 30 degrees. (etc.)Principal Term 11 occurs when the sun’s longitude is 270 degrees.Principal Term 12 occurs when the sun’s longitude is 300 degrees.Each month carries the number of the Principal Term that occurs in that month.In rare cases, a month may contain two Principal Terms; in this case the months numbers may have to be shifted. Principal Term 11 (Winter Solstice) must always fall in the 11th month .
The Islamic Calendar The Islamic calendar is not to be confused with a lunar calendar that is based on astronomical calculations. The latter is based on a year of 12 months adding up to 354.37 days. Each lunar month begins at the time of the monthly "conjunction", when the Moon is located on a straight line between the Earth and the Sun. The month is defined as the average duration of a rotation of the Moon around the Earth (29.53 days). By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days. This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 mn to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours in 2.73 years. To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar, every four years. The technical details of the adjustment are described in Tabular Islamic Calendar. Each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries. Each Islamic state proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon (or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days) before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory. But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 15–18 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favorable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters.
Lunar Calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phase. The only widely used purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar, whose year always consists of 12 lunar months. A feature of a purely lunar year, on the Islamic calendar model, is that the calendar ceases to be linked to the seasons, and drifts each solar year by 11 to 12 days, and comes back to the position it had in relation to the solar year approximately every 33 Islamic years. It is used predominantly for religious purposes. In Saudi Arabia it is also used for commercial purposes. Most lunar calendars, except the Hijri, are in fact lunisolar calendars. That is, months are kept on a lunar cycle, but then intercalary months are added to bring the lunar cycles into synchronization with the solar year. Because there are about twelve lunations (synodic months) in a solar year, this period (354.37 days) is sometimes referred to as a lunar year.
Biblical calendarsScholars are not in agreement about whether the calendars used by the Jews before the Babylonian captivity were solar (based on the return of the same relative position between the sun and the earth) or lunisolar (based on months that corresponded to the cycle of the moon, with periodic additional months to bring the calendar back into agreement with the solar cycle) like the present-day Hebrew calendar. The first month of the year was called (Aviv), meaning the month of green ears of grain. It thus occurred in the spring.At about the time of the Babylonian captivity, the Jews adopted as the name for the month the term (Nisan), based on the Babylonian name Nisanu. Thomas J Talley says that the adoption of the Babylonian term occurred even before the captivity.In the earlier calendar, most of the months were simply called by a number (such as "the fifth month"). The Babylonian-derived names of the months currently used by Jews are: Nisan (March–April) Tishrei (September–October) Iyar (April–May) Cheshvan (October–November) Sivan (May–June) Kislev (November–December) Tammuz (June–July) Tevet (December–January) Av (July–August) Shevat (January–February) Elul (August–September) Adar (February–March)
Zodiac Calendar History of the zodiac covers calendar science, astronomy and culture. The zodiac circle has 360-degrees. Calendar reckoning purposes translate the zodiac circle to the basic 360-day-calendar-year. The equator is an imaginary line that circumscribes Earth at 0-degrees latitude. Extending the equatorial circle into space creates a mathematical plane between the equator on the surface and the corresponding circle in space called the ecliptic. The equator and the ecliptic are in perfect alignment only at two distinct equinox times during the year. The zodiac typically refers to the stars and star groups or constellations near the ecliptic band throughout the year. Modern astrology recognizes 12 different sign constellations spaced roughly 30-days or 30-degrees apart. The sun and moon travel along the ecliptic and the zodiacal stars vary up to about 8-degrees either side of the ecliptic. Spiritual concerns span nearly every culture and anchor most world religions. Astrology here includes the ancient branch of calendar science, that mixes beliefs in astrology with early astronomy.
The Antediluvian Calendar The Antediluvian Calendar in Genesis 5 establishes original counting techniques that carry forward to variations of Jewish and Mesoamerican calendar systems. Significant 364-day-Ethiopic-years and the matching corollary term, 364-year-Ethiopic-cycles manifest similar traits. Annual procedures leading to New Year’s Day on the vernal, spring equinox divide a Judaic 360 -day midpoint length of year into four equal quarters having 90-days each. The vernal equinox occurs in springtime when the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator. One single day each quarter aligns with each Royal day-star. The four archangel stars conclusively identify as Regulus, Aldebaran, Antares and Fomalhaut. These four archangel stars once signified four cardinal points in the ancient year. Descriptions in the Books of Enoch and elsewhere add these 4-day stars to 360-days every year to create the 364-day-Ethiopic-year. One Royal day-star adds with each of four quarters. Early astronomy and astrology combine long ago. Regulus introduces the summer solstice. Regulus is the heart of the constellation Leo the lion and leader of the four royal stars. Aldebaran is a red giant star and the Eye of Taurus the Bull. Antares is the heart of the Scorpion. Fomalhaut belongs to the Southern Fish, Pisces. According to Enoch, the four day-stars are isolated and especially “not included in the regular computation of the year.” Many Old Testament researchers relate the famous 12 tribes of Israel to 12 astrological signs of the ancient Mesopotamian zodiac.Genesis 1:14-15 “And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth. And it was so.”
Sumerian Calendar Sumerian cosmology is responsible for an early set of core beliefs found in the Holy Bible. Sumerians have the distinction of being the earliest inhabitants of the Fertile Crescent region. Beginning 8,000-years B.C.E., Sumerian culture realized a priest-astronomer class, improved agrarian techniques and developed the first sexagesimal (base 60) numbering system. Sumerian language bears affinity to vocabulary and similar concepts found in the ancient tongues of India and Africa. They referred to themselves as “Black Heads.” The name Sudan traces the “Land of the Blacks.” Biblical references may include the famous Kingdom of Kush from Northern Sudan eastward to the Nile River. One other point is worth mentioning. Etymology for the name Adam shows derivation from the Assyrian Adami or man. Some references also indicate Adami was particularly the black headed man. In light of the Ethiopic 364-day-calendar-year and full knowledge that cultural exchanges took place between Northern Africa and Egypt, there is reasonable assurance that Sumerian astrology and astronomy predicates later Babylonian and Egyptian zodiacs. Astrological signs are the ancient mathematical interpretations that measure time. Entire pictures decorated minds and artwork long ago. Astronomical constellations are the modern approach that purely references scientific observation. Many star charts contain line diagrams that signify astrological sign shapes. The Sumerian year had 12-lunar-months, based upon phases of the moon and just two seasons. Summer began on the vernal spring equinox, lasting 6-months through until the autumnal equinox. Winter was the harvest season and outlined by monthly written characters for hand, seed, grain and cutting. Sighting new moon crescents determined the length of month and intercalary lunar months were necessary to keep the lunar year on track with the solar year. Sumerian, ancient Hindu and later Semitic days began at sundown.
Each Full MoonEach full Moon of the year has its own name, most of which are associated withthe weather or agriculture. The most common names used in North Americainclude:January -- Moon after YuleFebruary -- Snow MoonMarch -- Sap MoonApril -- Grass MoonMay -- Planting MoonJune -- Honey MoonJuly -- Thunder MoonAugust -- Grain MoonSeptember -- Fruit Moon (or Harvest Moon)October -- Hunters Moon (or Harvest Moon)November -- Frosty MoonDecember -- Moon before Yule
Cycle of the MoonGenerally, only once in a month do we have a full moon.The cycle of moon phases takes 28 days, while some months are 31 days. It will occasionally happen if the first quarter moon happens on the 1st or 2nd of the month.The next 1st quarter will occur within that same month.
Moon Phases The Moon has phases because it orbits Earth, which causes the portion we see illuminated to change. The Moon takes 27.3 days to orbit Earth, but the lunar phase cycle (from new Moon to new Moon) is 29.5 days. The Moon spends the extra 2.2 days "catching up" because Earth travels about 45 million miles around the Sun during the time the Moon completes one orbit around Earth. At the new Moon phase, the Moon is so close to the Sun in the sky that none of the side facing Earth is illuminated. In other words, the Moon is between Earth and Sun. At first quarter, the half-lit Moon is highest in the sky at sunset, then sets about six hours later. At full Moon, the Moon is behind Earth in space with respect to the Sun. As the Sun sets, the Moon rises with the side that faces Earth fully exposed to sunlight.
The Harvest Moon The full Moon that occurs closest to the autumnal equinox is commonly referred to as the "Harvest Moon," since its bright presence in the night sky allows farmers to work longer into the fall night, reaping the rewards of their spring and summer labors. Because the equinox always falls in late September, it is generally a full Moon in September which is given this name, although in some years the full Moon of early October earns the "harvest" designation.
Blue Moon Because the time between two full Moons doesnt quite equal a whole month, approximately every three years there are two full Moons in one calendar month. Over the past few decades, the second full Moon has come to be known as a "blue Moon." The next time two full Moons occur in the same month (as seen from the United States) will be August 2012. The most recent "blue Moon" occurred in December 2009. On average, theres a Blue Moon about every 33 months. Blue Moons are rare because the Moon is full every 29 and a half days, so the timing has to be just right to squeeze two full Moons into a calendar month. The timing has to be really precise to fit two Blue Moons into a single year. It can only happen on either side of February, whose 28-day span is short enough time span to have NO full Moons during the month. The term "blue Moon" has not always been used this way, however. While the exact origin of the phrase remains unclear, it does in fact refer to a rare blue coloring of the Moon caused by high-altitude dust particles. Most sources credit this unusual event, occurring only "once in a blue moon," as the true progenitor of the colorful phrase.
A Lunar Year A lunar year or lunar calendar is one that is based on the cycles of the moon phases. The problem with a lunar calendar is that it drifts away from the seasons. Each year, the start and end dates of each month drift by 11 days. In order to stay correct, every lunar calendar has to deal with this drift away from the calendar year. Let’s examine a year. A lunar month lasts 29.53 days. So after 12 lunar months, you’re about about 354 days. This is short of the 365 days that it takes the Earth to orbit the Sun. This is a problem since after about 3 years, the lunar months are out of cycle with the solar year by about a month. And this problem would just continue. Usually there is one full moon in every solar calendar month, but sometimes there are two depending on when in the month they occur. This is because months are based roughly, but not precisely, on the lunar cycle. The 30-day and 31-day months can sometimes have 2 full moons, snuggly fit at both ends of the month.
Solstice Solstice can be defined, is by the astronomical phenomenon for which it is named, which is readily observable by anyone on Earth: a "sun-standing." This modern scientific word descends from a Latin scientific word in use in the late Roman republic of the 1st century BCE: solstitium. Pliny uses it a number of times in his Natural History with the same meaning that it has today. It contains two Latin-language segments, sol, "sun", and - stitium, "stoppage.” The Romans used "standing" to refer to a component of the relative velocity of the Sun as it is observed in the sky. Relative velocity is the motion of an object from the point of view of an observer in a frame of reference. From a fixed position on the ground, the sun appears to orbit around the Earth. The component of the Suns motion seen by an earthbound observer caused by the revolution of the tilted axis – which, keeping the same angle in space, is oriented toward or away from the Sun – is an observed daily increment (and lateral offset) of the elevation of the Sun at noon for approximately six months and observed daily decrement for the remaining six months. At maximum or minimum elevation, the relative yearly motion of the Sun perpendicular to the horizon stops and reverses direction. The maximum elevation occurs at the summer solstice and the minimum at the winter solstice. The path of the Sun, or ecliptic, sweeps north and south between the northern and southern hemispheres. The days are longer around the summer solstice and shorter around the winter solstice.
Equinox An equinox occurs twice a year, when the tilt of the Earths axis is inclined neither away from nor towards the Sun, the center of the Sun being in the same plane as the Earths equator. The term equinox can also be used in a broader sense, meaning the date when such a passage happens. The name "equinox" is derived from the Latin aequus (equal) and nox (night), because around the equinox, the night and day have approximately equal length. At an equinox, the Sun is at one of two opposite points on the celestial sphere where the celestial equator (i.e. declination 0) and ecliptic intersect. These points of intersection are called equinoctial points: classically, the vernal point and the autumnal point. By extension, the term equinox may denote an equinoctial point. An equinox happens each year at two specific moments in time (rather than two whole days), when there is a location (the subsolar point) on the Earths equator, where the center of the Sun can be observed to be vertically overhead, occurring around March 20/21 and September 22/23 each year. Although the word equinox is often understood to mean "equal [day and] night," this is not strictly true. For most locations on earth, there are two distinct identifiable days per year when the length of day and night are closest to being equal; those days are referred to as the "equiluxes" to distinguish them from the equinoxes. Equinoxes are points in time, but equiluxes are days. By convention, equiluxes are the days where sunrise and sunset are closest to being exactly 12 hours apart.
Calculating Equinox and Solstice When the Suns path crosses the equator, the length of the nights at latitudes +L and -L are of equal length. This is known as an equinox. There are two solstices and two equinoxes in a tropical year. Equinox and solstice times are calculated to better by minutes. The length of time from one to the next has nothing to do with leap days. It is a physical thing (example: 264,227.6 minutes), no matter what sort of calendar you use.
A Tropical Year A tropical year (also known as a solar year), for general purposes, is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice. Since antiquity, astronomers have progressively refined the definition of the tropical year, and currently define it as the time required for the mean Suns tropical longitude (longitudinal position along the ecliptic relative to its position at the vernal equinox) to increase by 360 degrees (that is, to complete one full seasonal circuit). (Meeus & Savoie, 1992, p. 40)
Terrestrial Time Terrestrial Time (TT) is a modern astronomical time standard defined by the International Astronomical Union, primarily for time- measurements of astronomical observations made from the surface of the Earth. For example, the Astronomical Almanac uses TT for its tables of positions (ephemerides) of the Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the Earth. In this role, TT continues Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT),which in turn succeeded ephemeris time (ET). The unit of TT is the SI second, the definition of which is currently based on the cesium atomic clock, but TT is not itself defined by atomic clocks. It is a theoretical ideal, which real clocks can only approximate. TT is distinct from the time scale often used as a basis for civil purposes, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). TT indirectly underlies UTC, via International Atomic Time (TAI).
Astronomical Almanac Authorized by Congress in 1849, the American Nautical Almanac Office was founded and attached to the Department of the Navy. The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac was first published in 1852, containing data for the year 1855. Its data was originally calculated by human "computers", such as Chauncey Wright and Joseph Winlock. Between 1855 and 1881 it had two parts, the first for the meridian of Greenwich contained data on the Sun, Moon, lunar distances, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, which was published separately as The American Nautical Almanac. The second part contained data for the meridian of Washington on the Sun, Moon, planets, principal stars, eclipses, occultations, and other phenomena. Beginning in 1882, data for Mercury, Uranus, and Neptune was added to the first part, with eclipses, occultations, and other phenomena forming a separate third part. In 1916, The American Nautical Almanac ceased to be a reprint of the first part of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, becoming a separately prepared volume for the navigator. In 1937, the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac was divided into seven parts, with data for the meridian of Washington substantially reduced, then eliminated beginning in 1951. Data for Pluto was added in 1950. Beginning in 1960, all parts except for a few introductory pages were jointly calculated and typeset by the American Nautical Almanac Office and Her Majestys Nautical Almanac Office but published separately within The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac and The Astronomical Ephemeris, a new name for the old British title The Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris. Beginning in 1981, the title The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac and the British title The Astronomical Ephemeris were completely merged under the single title The Astronomical Almanac.
Ephemeris An ephemeris (plural: ephemerides; from the Greek word ἐφημέριος ephemerios "daily") is a table of values that gives the positions of astronomical objects in the sky at a given time or times. Different kinds of ephemerides are used for astronomy and astrology. Even though this was also one of the first applications of mechanical computers, an ephemeris will still often be a simple printed table. The position is given to astronomers in a spherical polar coordinate system of right ascension and declination or to astrologers in longitude along the zodiacal ecliptic, and sometimes declination. Astrological positions may be given for either noon or midnight. An astronomical ephemeris may also provide data on astronomical phenomena of interest to astrologers and astronomers such as eclipses, Apparent retrograde motion/planetary stations, planetary ingresses, sidereal time, positions for the mean and true nodes of the moon, the phases of the Moon, and sometimes even the position(s) of Chiron, and other minor celestial bodies. Astrologers also use other ephemerides that include tables of imaginary celestial bodies , such as Lilith, a term they use variously for the apogee of the Moon or the second focus of the Moons orbit. Some ephemerides also contain a monthly aspectarian, while others often include the declination of the planets as well as their longitudes, right ascensions, or Cartesian coordinates.
The YearHow do we really know what Year it Is?With all the changes and different Calendars, who is right?How can predictions or years be right, when we don’t really know what day it really is?How can you determine what sign you are according to the year you were born, when our years are off?
The DateHow do we really know what Day it Is?With all the changes and different Calendars, who is right?How can predictions or dates be right, when we don’t really know what day it really is?How can you determine what sign you are according to the day you were born, when our dates are off?
The TimeHow do we really know what Time it Is?Each day is shorter or longer depending on our season, who is right?How can predictions or time be right, when we don’t really know what time it really is?How can you determine what time it is according to the sun, the season, or the hours in a day when our times off?
The ZodiacHow do we really know what sign we really are?With all the changes and different types of Zodiac Calendars, who is right?How can predictions or our signs be right, when we don’t really know what sign we really are?How can you determine what sign you are according to the day, the year, or the time you were born, when our dates, years, and times are off?
Why don’t Scorpios Accept the New 13th Sign? The main reason is that we use base our Zodiac sign on the Tropical Zodiac. The second reason is that it is misplaced, and should be placed between Sagittarius and Capricorn. Our dates are off, and we need to create balance in our calendar and add an additional month with the additional sign. No one is really on a cusp due to the fact that, we added dates and moved dates around. We must correct the Zodiac Calendar. The sidereal Zodiac is way off as well, the constellations are almost opposite of what they should be.
ConstellationsThe chart shows the fourteenconstellations along theecliptic. This chart shows themovement of the vernalequinox counterclockwisealong the path as seen fromEarth. Thirteen of theconstellations are on theecliptic. Only Orion is off theecliptic, and is beyond thecircle, or below the eclipticplane.
13 Zodiac Signs According to the Minnesota Planetarium Society Capricorn: Jan. 20-Feb. 16. Aquarius: Feb. 16-March 11. Pisces: March 11-April 18. Aries: April 18-May 13. Taurus: May 13-June 21. Gemini: June 21-July 20. Cancer: July 20-Aug. 10. Leo: Aug. 10-Sept. 16. Virgo: Sept. 16-Oct. 30. Libra: Oct. 30-Nov. 23. Scorpio: Nov. 23-29. Ophiuchus: Nov. 29-Dec. 17. Sagittarius: Dec. 17-Jan. 20.
The figure above clearly shows the ecliptic passing through the 12 constellations, as wellas through Ophiuchus, and the ecliptic will also include Orion in a century or so. Clearlythere are 14 constellations one could consider, and while that is not the same thing as14 signs, having 14 signs, and starting them with Aries, and the vernal equinox, is clearlyenriching to astrology, and still tropical astrology at its finest!
True Calendar Calculations December 21, 2011 New Year’s Day Winter Solstice Nubruis Enters our Orbit 364 days in a year plus New Year’s Day 0 52 weeks in a year 13 months per year 91 days between Solstice Seasons change every 3 months on the 1st day after is the Solstice 13 Moon Cycles 28 days per month 4 weeks per month 7 days per week
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