WRITING TYPES Presented to: Dr. Jules Pagna Disso Interamerica Education Centre (IEC) Presented By: CHARIOTS OF FIRE Rhonda Acosta, Auricia Kelly & Jaime Magana
INTRODUCTION Many graduate students enter their programs with basic writing capabilities (Buck & Hatter, 2005; Granello, 2001; Harris, 1997, 2005 as cited in Harris 2006). Some students are not familiar with the different documents and articles they can use to do their academic writing. As such, we hope to provide valuable information that will help graduate students to differentiate between the different writing types of: Annotated Bibliography. Academic Book Review, Academic Journal, Peer-Review, Literature Review, Empirical Study, White paper and Newspaper. The presentation will also discuss why Peer-reviewed Articles and Books are preferred sources for academic writing.
Annotated Bibliography Will provide specific information about each source used in an academic writing piece (University of North Carolina [UNC] Writing Center, 2007). The information presented helps the researcher to learn about their topic as they – critically and carefully read each source, identify what has been done in literature and how it fits into their research (Purdue Owl, 2011). The researcher is to provide information about the book or article used in the research process in event they were asked what the book or article was about. (Purdue Owl, 2011) ...who was spoken of through the prophet Isaiah: “A voice of one calling in the desert.... Matt 3: 3
Annotated Bibliography Annotations can be written as one sentence or an entire paragraph (Fleming, 2011; UNC Writing Center, 2007) either in the format of a summarizing , critical/evaluative or combination annotation. The University of Toledo (2007) lists the following as information that is included in annotated bibliographies: Bibliographic citation Qualification of the author Overview of the thesis, theories and major ideas Identification of intended audience Comment on relationship to other relevant or current sources Reports on findings, results if possible.
Academic Book Review A book review is a critical essay of not more than 1000 words that evaluates a book (University of Alberta, 2011). Book reviews are written for readers who are knowledgeable in a field of discipline and are not only interested in the content of the book, but more in the critical assessment of the ideas and argument presented by the books author (Australian National University [ANU], 2010) An important aspect of a book review is the formulation of a judgment that will indicate whether the book should be read, by whom and how it adds knowledge while contributing to a particular field (Belcher, n.d.).
Academic Book Review The following structure can be used in creating a book review by Belcher (n.d.): (1) Identify the title of the book and its bibliographic citation. (2) Identify the thesis and whether the author achieves the stated purpose of the book. (3) Identify the books strengths and weaknesses. (4) The assessment of the strengths and weaknesses by the reviewer. The review should be based around the books arguments before it is criticized and evaluated by the reader (5) The overall conclusion of the review will outline the general understanding received by the reviewer of the book, as well as its contribution to the development of knowledge in a particular field (ANU, 2010)
According to Jerz (2011)An academic journal is a peer-reviewed periodical which contain research work of various people specialized in different areas of academics.
Engle (2011) states that Academic Journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields and are referred to as academic, peer-reviewed, or refereed journals.
Academic Journal Examples of Academic Journals as published in Write a Writing Journal (n.d.).
American Economic Review, JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Journal of Marriage and Family, Journal of Theoretical Biology
Purpose of Academic Journal In discussing purpose of Academic Journal, Jerz (2011) States that Academic Journal contains an abstract, a descriptive summary of the article contents, graphs and charts and it cites sources in the form of footnotes and bibliography. He further argues that it reports on original research or experimentation to make information available to the rest of the scholarly world.
PEER-REVIEW Definition Peer-review is the evaluation of the performance , or quality of work, of a member of a peer group by the expert drawn from the group as defined by Business Dictionary.com It is also a process that subjects the work or ideas of a scholar/scientist to examination by other experts in the same field (the “peer” or “referees” (Thomas, n.d.) Purpose of Peer-reviews Maintain and enhance quality by detecting weakness and providing basis for making decisions about reward as a powerful incentive to achieve excellence. E.g. – prestige, publication, research grants, employment, compensation, promotion, tenure and disciplinary actions. (Linfo, n.d.)
PEER-REVIEW Use of Peer-reviews Is used in professional fields such as: Academic and scientific research, Medicine, Law, Accounting, Software computer development (Salters-Pedneault , 2009) Procedures for completing a peer-review Editor or grant-reviewing officials send manuscript to authorities (two or four) on a given subject directly by email or an internet base platform. Peer reads and comments on document. Recommendations are made. Independence and anonymity is utilized.
Literature Review Prove all things; hold fast that which is good. 1 Thessalonians 5:21 KJV A survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study. It is a concise overview of what has been studied, argued, and established about a topic, and it is usually organized chronologically or thematically (Patrick Power Library, 2011) Both a summary and explanation of the complete and current state of knowledge on a limited topic as found in academic books and journal articles. (University of Guelph, 2004)
To show where the weaknesses, gaps, or areas needing further study are.
Demonstrate to the reader why the writers research is useful, necessary, important and valid (Patrick Power Library, 2011).
It ensures that researchers do not duplicate work that has already been done (University of Guelph, 2004)
Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for future research that may be used in the area (Wikipedia, 2011).
Empirical Study A way of gaining knowledge by means of direct observation or experience. Empirical evidence can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively Principle that knowledge arises from experience gathered specifically using the senses. (Wikipedia, 2011)
White Paper The term white paper is an offshoot of the term white book, which is an official publication of a national government. Typically argues a specific position or solution to a problem. A white paper must quickly identify problems or concerns faced by its readers and lead them down the path to a solution provided by your product or service (Stelzner, 2009). An authoritative report or guide that helps solve a problem. Are used to educate readers and help people make decisions, and are often requested and used in politics, policy, business, and technical fields. (Wikipedia, 2011).
Two Ways to Write White Papers Focusing on your self-interest or Focuses exclusively on a product, service or solution by expounding on its benefits, features and implications By concentrating on the interests of your readers. Leading with the problems your solutions overcomes, rather than the actual solution itself (Stelzner, 2009)
Newspaper Newspapers are serials issued at stated, frequent intervals (usually daily, weekly, biweekly, or monthly), containing news, opinions, advertisements, and other items of current, often local, interest Newspapers are made available as primary source documents.(ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). General-interest newspapers typically publish stories on local and national political events and personalities, crime, business, entertainment, society and sports. May contain editorials written by editors and columns that express the personal opinions of writers ( Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. 2011)
Preferred Written Sources in Graduate Writing Academic writing requires that information being presented is cited from a reputable source. As such, books and peer-viewed journals are preferred sources by scholars for academic writing. The information presented in the slides that follow will outline why this is so.
Peer-Reviewed Journals A group of scientists after completing a study present an article to be to edited to determine if the article is of a high enough quality to be published. Hence, only articles that meet a scientific standard of relying on logical reasoning and well designed studies and justified claims of evidence are accepted for publication (University of California Museum of Paleontology [UCMP], 2011)
Peer-Reviewed Journals Grannon (2001) maintains that “Without such an external seal of approval, one would consider any results presented as preliminary, potentially flawed and generally of the same self-serving status as a press release”. Grannon also adds that peer-reviewed journals add weight to claims that challenge ones current understanding. Shuttle worth (2009) recognizes that peer-reviewed journals enable graduate students to: write from these research since they know that the information being presented is “theoretical and removes any personal bias”. Recognize that the information being presented is from trusted experts and scientists in a field. Feel assured that the information being presented is not of poor quality.
Using Books The use of books for academic writing allows graduate students to track references, endnotes, footnotes and bibliographies. These citations act like a tread which allows further examination and exploration of a wealth of information about a topic. (George et al., 2006) In order to become better informed, associated and develop a wider debt of knowledge on a topic the use of books will provide information that goes deeper into a concept (Isaac, 2007) Scholarly research requires that the information being has undergone a “quality control mechanism” where information being presented is written and edited by experts. (Kick holder, 2007)
Chariots of Fire It was he who gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastors and teachers... Ephesians 4:11 NIV
References Australian National University. (2010). Writing a critical book review. Retrieved on 13 September 2011 from https://academicskills.anu.edu.au/resources/handouts/writing-critical-book-review Belcher, M. (n.d.). Writing the academic book review. Retrieved on 11 September 2011 from http://www.chicano.ucla.edu/press/siteart/jlp_bookreviewguideliness.pdf Business Dictionary Peer Review Definition .Retrieved on 8 September 2011 from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/peer-revies.html Engle, M. (2011). Distinguishing Scholarly Journals from Other Periodicals. Research & Learning Services. Cornell University Library Retrieved on 8 September 2011 from: http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill20.html
Fleming, G. (2011). What’s an annotated bibliography. Retrieved on 11 September 2011 from http://homeworktips.about.com/b/2011/02/19/whats-an-annotated-bibliography.htm George, C. A., Bright, A., Hulbert, T., Linke, EC., St Clair, G. and Stein, J. (2006). Scholarly use of information: Graduate students information seeking behaviour. Library Research and Publications. Paper 21. Retrieved on 13 September 2011 from http://repostiroy.cmu.edu/lib_science/21 Grannon, F. (2001). The essential role of peer review. EMBO reports. Doi:10.10931 embo-reports/Kve188 Harris, M. (2006 ) International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Volume 17, Number 2, 136-146 Retrieved 13 September 2011 from http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/ ISSN 1812-9129
Isaac, B. (2007). The 26 major advantages to reading more books and why 3 in 4 people are being shut out of success. Retrieved on 14 September 2011 from http://www.persisteceunlimited.com/2007/12/the-26-major-advantages-to-reading-more-books-and -why-3-in-4-people-are-being-shut-out-of-success Jerz, Dennis G. (April 4th, 2011) Academic Journals: What are They? Retrieved 8th September from http://jerz.setonhill.edu/writing/academic1/journals/ Kickholder (2007). Internet vs. books for scholarly research. Retrieved on 13 September 2011 from http://www.helium.com/items/73907-internet-vs-books-for-scholarly-research LINFO, (n.d). Peer Review Definition. Retrieved on 14 September, 2011 from http://www.linfo.org/peer_review.html Patrick Power Library (2011) Writing a Literature Review, St Mary’s University Retrieved on September 2, 2011 from http://www.smu.ca/administration/library/litrev.html
Purdue Owl Writing Lab. (2011). Annotated bibliographies. Retrieved on 8 September 2011 from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01/ Salters-Pedneault, K. (2009). Peer Review - A Definition of Peer ReviewAbout.com Guide Retrieved 8September, 2011 from http://bpd.about.com/od/glossary/g/peerreview.htm Shuttleworth, M. (2009). Advantages of peer reviews. Retrieved on 13 September 2011 from http://www.experiment-resources.com/advantages-of-peer-reviews.html Stelzner. (2009). How to Write a White Paper—A White Paper on White Papers Retrieved on 7 September 2011 from http://www.stelzner.com/copy-HowTo-whitepapers.php Thomas, E. (n.d) Peer Review Definition. Retrieved on 13 September 2011 from http://www.eHow.com
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