Final Project Jaicom Luese Q. Mojica Psychology 101 Mike Dulay
6 Schools of Psychology
Psychology is a branch of science that deals with the study of human behavior. They use scientific methods to prove their theories. They use naturalistic observation to see what is the behavior of the subject in its natural state. They can also use correlational approach which relates everything that happens is connected. They connect the behavior of the subject through the things that happened to him years or days before his behavior change. Also the most use in science is experimental, they experiment on a subject to test what is his reaction to things that affects his behavior. Psychology is the study of behavior which is part of the brain, how can the naturalistic and correlational method provide evidence that the brain has been change when the behavior changed. Psychology is a branch of science that is why it should be studied In a systematize way.
Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud Assumption Subject matter Research Method School Idea Treatment
He is one of the greatest scientist
He investigated the unconscious mind for 50 years.
“ He called the area of the mind that lies outside of the personal awareness the unconscious”
“ He was fascinated by patients whose problems seemed to be more emotional than physical.”
Psychoanalytic theory is the best-known approach which he developed.
He theorized that we form our personality through a series of psychosexual stages.
Assumption of Psychoanalytical
“Freud believed that all thoughts, emotions, and actions are determined. In other words, nothing is an accident: if we probe deeply enough we will find the causes of everything you think and do.”
Subject matter of Psychoanalytical
Three mental structures :
ID : The primitive part of personality that remains unconscious, supplies, energy, and demands pleasure.
EGO : The executive part of personality that directs rational behavior.
SUPEREGO : A judge or sensor for thoughts and actions.
Oral Stage (ages 0-1)
ID : creative : Eros :: destructive: Thanatos
Adults who exploit others; argue to other
Gullible, passive, needs lots of attention
May cause aggression in the form of biting.
2. Anal Stage ( ages 1-3)
Anal- retentive (holding- on)
Obstinate, stingy, orderly, and compulsively clean
Anal- expulsive (letting- go)
Disorderly, destructive, cruel, or messy .
3. Phallic Stage (ages 3-6)
4. Latency Stage (ages 6- 12)
5. Genital stage (ages 12- onwards)
Research method of Psychoanalytical
The effects of improper psychosexual development to the behavior of a person.
“ Behavior is directed by forces within one’s personality that are often hidden or unconscious.”
Psychoanalytic can be treat by psychoanalysis.
“ Saying whatever comes to mind”
Interpretations of dream
Analysis of Resistance
When the patient is resisting to interpret or share his feelings they need to bring him to his awareness.
Analysis of Transference
“ The tendency of patients to transfer feelings to a therapist that correspond to those the patient had for important persons in his past.
Behaviorism Founders Assumption Research Method Subject Matter Idea Therapy
Pavlov was studying digestion when he discovered classical conditioning
“ He simply observed the relationship between stimuli and response .”
“ He believed that our actions are controlled by rewards, or positive reinforces .”
“ He also believed that, misguarded rewards lead us into destructive actions and create problem such as over population, pollution, and war.”
Assumption of Behaviorist
They assume that our behavior can be control or learn
Research method of behaviorist
They use stimulus and response to check the behavior that we will react
Suppressing an undesirable response by associating it with painful or uncomfortable stimuli
Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Assumption Subject Matter/ School Idea Research Method Treatment
“ He is the founder of Humanistic Psychology.”
“He was interested in studying people with exceptional mental health.”
Assumption of Humanists
The Humanists assume that we have the ability to make voluntary choices or freewill.
Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs Self- Actualization Belonging and Love needs Safety Needs Esteem Needs
The positive and negative correlation of the hierarchy of needs if they are met or not.
Client- centered therapy
“ A non- directive therapy based on insights gained from conscious thoughts and feelings; emphasizes accepting one’s true self”
“ An insight therapy that focuses on the elemental problems of existence, such as death, meaning, and responsibility; emphasizes making courageous life choices.”
“ An approach that focuses on immediate experience and awareness to help clients rebuild thinking, feeling, and acting into connected wholes ; emphasizes the integration of fragmented experiences.”
Cognitive Psychology Jean Piaget Assumption Subject Matter/ Idea Research Method Therapy
“He is known as ‘the great pioneer of the constructive theory of knowing.’”
“He turned the cognitive development theory and put them into stages, expanding on the works of James Mark Baldwin.”
Assumption of Cognitive Psychology
Humans develop their behavior when they learn how to do things.
Stage 1: Sensory motor (0-2)
Stage 2: Preoperational Stage (2-6)
Mental routine for separating, combining and otherwise transforming in a logical matter
Irreversibility and orientation
Stage 3: Operation (6-11)
Stage 4: Formal Operation
Hypothetical, ideal logical thinking
Research Method of Cognitive Psychology
They do experiment to measure what level is your intelligence
Treatment of Cognitive Psychology
“ A therapy directed at changing the maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and feelings that underlie emotional and behavioral problems.
A therapeutic program in which desirable behaviors are reinforced with tokens that can be exchanged for goods, services, activities, and privileges.
Biological Psychology Assumption Subject matter School Idea Research Method Therapy
Assumption of Biological Psychology
Humans are made up of millions of neuron that work for the behavior of a person.
Subject matter of biological psychology
Research method of Biological Psychology
They do experiment to know how the neurons will synapse and the reaction of the neurotransmitters that it emit.
They give medicine to the patient by knowing what neuron or part of the body they need to target
Sociocultural Psychology Assumption
sociocultural perspective maintains that behavior and mental processes are shaped not only by prior learning experiences (the behavioral perspective) or intrapsychic forces (for instance, the unconscious) but also by the social or cultural context.