Michael alexander kirkwood hallidayDocument Transcript
Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday M.A.K. Halliday Born 13 April 1925 Yorkshire Residence Sydney, Australia Nationality English Fields Linguistics Known for Systemic functional linguistics Influences Wang Li, J.R. Firth Spouse Ruqaiya HasanMichael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday (often M.A.K. Halliday) (born 13 April 1925,Leeds, Yorkshire, England) is a Britishlinguist who developed an internationallyinfluential model of language, the systemic functional linguistic model. His grammaticaldescriptions go by the name of systemic functional grammar (SFG).BiographyHalliday was born and raised in England. He took a BA Honours degree in ModernChinese Language and Literature (Mandarin) at the University of London. He then livedfor three years in China, where he studied under Luo Changpei at Peking University andunderWang Li at Lingnan University, before returning to take a PhD in ChineseLinguistics at Cambridge. Having taught Mandarin for a number of years, he changedhis field of specialisation to linguistics, and developed systemic functional grammar,
elaborating on the foundations laid by his British teacher J. R. Firth and a group ofEuropean linguists of the early 20th century, the Prague School. His seminal paper onthis model was published in 1961. He became the Professor of Linguistics atthe University of London in 1965. In 1976 he moved to Australia as FoundationProfessor of Linguistics at the University of Sydney, where he remained until he retired.The impact of his work extends beyond linguistics into the study of visual andmultimodal communication, and he is considered to have founded the field of socialsemiotics. He has worked in various regions of language study, both theoretical andapplied, and has been especially concerned with applying the understanding of thebasic principles of language to the theory and practices of education. He received thestatus of emeritus professor of the University of Sydney and Macquarie University,Sydney, in 1987. With his seminal lecture "New Ways of Meaning: the Challenge toApplied Linguistics" held at the AILA conference in Saloniki (1990), he became one ofthe pioneers of eco-critical discourse analysis (a discipline of ecolinguistics).Contributions to linguisticsHalliday describes himself first and foremost as a grammarian. His first major work onthe subject of grammar was "Categories of the theory of grammar", published in thejournal Word in 1961. In this paper, he argued for four "fundamental categories" forthe theory of grammar: "unit", "structure", "class" and "system". These categories heargued were "of the highest order of abstraction", but were defended as thosenecessary to "make possible a coherent account of what grammar is and of its place inlanguage"  In articulating the category unit, Halliday proposed the notion of a rankscale. The units of grammar formed a "hierarchy", a scale from "largest" to "smallest"which he proposed as: "sentence", "clause", "group/phrase", "word" and"morpheme".Halliday defined structure as "likeness between events in successivity"and as "an arrangement of elements ordered in places. Halliday rejects a view ofstructure as "strings of classes, such as nominal group + verbalgroup + nominal group"among which there is just a kind of mechanical solidarity" describing it instead as"configurations of functions, where the solidarity is organic." Grammar as "systemic"This early paper shows that the notion of "system" has been part of Hallidays theoryfrom its origins. Halliday explains this preoccupation in the following way: "It seemed tome that explanations of linguistic phenomena needed to be sought in relationshipsamong systems rather than among structures - in what I once called "deep paradigms" -since these were essentially where speakers made their choices". Hallidays "systemicgrammar" is a semiotic account of grammar, because of this orientation to choice. Everylinguistic act involves choice, and choices are made on many scales. Systemicgrammars draw on system networks as their primary representation tool as aconsequence. For instance, a major clause must display some structure that is theformal realization of a choice from the system of "voice", i.e. it must be either "middle" or"effective", where "effective" leads to the further choice of "operative" (otherwise knownas active) or "receptive" (otherwise known as "passive").
Grammar as "functional"Hallidays grammar is not just "systemic", but "systemic functional". He argues that theexplanation of how language works "needed to be grounded in a functional analysis,since language had evolved in the process of carrying out certain critical functions ashuman beings interacted with their...eco-social environment". Hallidays earlygrammatical descriptions of English, called "Notes on Transitivity and Theme in English- Parts 1-3" include reference to "four components in the grammar of Englishrepresenting four functions that the language as a communication system is required tocarry out: the experiential, the logical the discoursal and the speech functional orinterpersonal". The "discoursal" function was re-named the "textual function". Inthis discussion of functions of language, he draws on the workof Bühler and Malinowski. Hallidays notion of language functions, or "metafunctions",became part of his general linguistic theory.But the final volume in his 10 volumes is called Language in society, reflecting histheoretical and methodological connection to language as first and foremost concernedwith "acts of meaning". This volume contains many of his early papers, in which heargues for a deep connection between language and social structure, in which languagesaid not merely to reflect social structure. For instance, he writes:“ ... if we say that linguistic structure "reflects" social structure, we are really assigning to language a role that is too passive ... Rather we should say that linguistic structure is the realization of social structure, actively symbolizing it in a process of mutual creativity. Because it stands as a metaphor for society, language has the property of not only transmitting the social order but also maintaining and potentially modifying it. (This is undoubtedly the explanation of the violent attitudes that under certain social conditions come to be held by one group towards the speech of others.) ”Studies in child language developmentIn enumerating his claims about the trajectory of childrens language development,Halliday eschews the metaphor of "acquisition", in which language is considered a staticproduct which the child takes on when sufficient exposure to natural language enables"parameter setting". By contrast, for Halliday what the child develops is a "meaningpotential". Learning language is Learning how to mean, the name of his well knownearly study of a childs language development.Halliday (1975) identifies seven functions that language has for children in their earlyyears. For Halliday, children are motivated to develop language because it servescertain purposes or functions for them. The first four functions help the child to satisfyphysical, emotional and social needs. Halliday calls them instrumental, regulatory,interactional, and personal functions.
Instrumental: This is when the child uses language to express their needs (e.g.Want juice) Regulatory: This is where language is used to tell others what to do (e.g. Go away) Interactional: Here language is used to make contact with others and form relationships (e.g. Love you, mummy) Personal: This is the use of language to express feelings, opinions, and individual identity (e.g. Me good girl)The next three functions are heuristic, imaginative, and representational, all helping thechild to come to terms with his or her environment. Heuristic: This is when language is used to gain knowledge about the environment (e.g. What the tractor doing?) Imaginative: Here language is used to tell stories and jokes, and to create an imaginary environment. Representational: The use of language to convey facts and information.According to Halliday, as the child moves into the mother tongue, these functions giveway to the generalized "metafunctions" of language. In this process, in between the twolevels of the simple protolanguage system (the "expression" and "content" pairing of theSaussures sign), an additional level of content is inserted. Instead of one level ofcontent, there are now two: lexicogrammar and semantics. The "expression" plane alsonow consists of two levels: phonetics and phonology.Hallidays work represents a competing viewpoint to the formalist approach of NoamChomsky. Hallidays concern is with "naturally occurring language in actual contexts ofuse" in a large typological range of languages whereas Chomsky is concerned only withthe formal properties of languages such as English, which he thinks are indicative of thenature of what he calls Universal Grammar. While Chomskys search for UniversalGrammar could be considered an essentially platonic endeavor (i.e. concerned withidealized forms), Hallidays orientation to the study of natural language has beencompared to Darwins method .ENCYCLOPEDIAskimming [′skim·iŋ](hydrology)Diversion of water from a stream or conduit by shallow overflow in order to avoiddiverting sand, silt, or other debris carried as bottom load.Withdrawal of fresh groundwater from a thin body or lens floating on salt water bymeans of shallow wells or infiltration galleries.DICTIONARY/ THESAURUSv. skimmed, skim·ming, skimsv.tr.1.a. To remove floating matter from (a liquid).
b. To remove (floating matter) from a liquid.c. To take away the choicest or most readily attainable contents or parts from.2. To coat or cover with or as if with a thin layer, as of scum.3.a. To throw so as to bounce or slide: skimming stones on the pond.b. To glide or pass quickly and lightly over or along (a surface). See Synonyms at brush1.4. To read or glance through (a book, for example) quickly or superficially.5. Slang To fail to declare part of (certain income, such as winnings) to avoid tax payment.v.intr.1. To move or pass swiftly and lightly over or near a surface; glide.2. To give a quick and superficial reading, scrutiny, or consideration; glance: skimmed throughthe newspaper.3. To become coated with a thin layer.4. Slang To fail to declare certain income to avoid tax payment.n.1. The act of skimming.2. Something that has been skimmed.3. A thin layer or film.4. Slang The profit gained by skimming.ENCYCLOPEDIAskinningCreating a new appearance on a graphical interface (GUI). See skin.DICTIONARY/THESAURUSv. or·gan·ized, or·gan·iz·ing, or·gan·iz·esv.tr.1. To put together into an orderly, functional, structured whole.2.a. To arrange in a coherent form; systematize: organized her thoughts before speaking.b. To arrange in a desired pattern or structure: "The painting is organized about a young reaperenjoying his noonday rest" (William Carlos Williams).3. To arrange systematically for harmonious or united action: organize a strike. See Synonymsat arrange.4.a. To establish as an organization: organize a club. See Synonyms at found1.b. To induce (employees) to form or join a labor union.c. To induce the employees of (a business or an industry) to form or join a union: organize afactory.v.intr.
1. To develop into or assume an organic structure.2. To form or join an activist group, especially a labor union.DICTIONARYout·line [out-lahyn] Show IPA noun, verb, -lined, -lin·ing.noun1.the line by which a figure or object is defined or bounded;contour.2.a drawing or sketch restricted to line without shading ormodeling of form.3.a general sketch, account, or report, indicating only themain features, as of a book, subject, or project: an outline ofmedieval history; an outline of a speech.4.outlines, the essential features or main aspects ofsomething under discussion: At the first meeting, we gave heronly the outlines of the project.5.Printing. an ornamented type in which the outside contoursof each character appear in black, with the inside left white.Graphic organizers are visual representations of knowledge, concepts, thoughts,or ideas.Graphic organizers can be used as powerful tools for probing and analyzingstudent thinking and learning. They are also a good alternative to longer.SQ3R or SQRRR is a reading comprehension method named for its five steps: survey,question, read, recite, and review. The method was introduced by Francis Pleasant Robinsonin his 1946 book Effective Study..The method was created for college students. However, it can also be used by elementaryschool students, who can practice all of the steps once they have begun to read longer andmore complex texts (around fourth grade).Similar methods developed subsequently include PQRST and KWL table.SQ3R was based on principles documented in the 1930s.The five stepsThe first step Survey or skim advises that one should resist the temptation to read the bookand instead glance through a chapter in order to identify headings, sub-headings and otheroutstanding features in the text. This is in order to identify ideas and formulate questionsabout the content of the chapter.
Question asks "What is this chapter about?" "What question is this chapter trying to answer?""How does this information help me?" "Question" also refers to the practice of turning theheadings and sub-headings themselves into questions and then looking for the answers in thetext. If one chooses to actually write down the questions then they are using a variationmethod known as "SQW3R".The first "R" stands for Read. Only, in this case, one is meant to use the background workdone with "S" and "Q" in order to engage oneself in a way similar to active listening.The second "R" refers to the part known as Recite/wRite or Recall. Using key phrases, one ismeant to identify major points and answers to questions from the "Q" step for each section.This may be done either in an oral or written format. It is important that an adherent to thismethod use her own words in order to evoke the active listening quality of this study method.The final "R" is Review. In fact, before becoming acquainted with this method a studentprobably just uses the R & R method; Read and Review. Provided the student has followed allrecommendations, he should have a study sheet and should test himself by attempting torecall the key phrases. This method instructs the diligent student to immediately review allsections pertaining to any key words forgotten. Expository Structure time order – temporal sequencing of information cause and effect – showing how something occurs because of another event problem and solution – presenting a problem along with a solution to the problem comparison – examining similarities and differences among concepts and events simple listing – registering in list form a group of facts, concepts, or events organizational pattern - being recognized increases ability to recallNarrative structure is generally described as the structural framework that underliesthe order and manner in which a narrative is presented to a reader, listener, or viewer.The narrative text structures are the plot and the setting( also known as the shenter).Generally, the narrative structure of any work (be it film, play, or novel) can be dividedinto three sections, which is referred to as the three-act structure: setup, conflict,resolution. The setup (act one) is where all of the main characters and their basicsituation are introduced, and contains the primary level of characterization (exploringthe characters backgrounds and personalities). A problem is also introduced, which iswhat drives the story forward.The second act, the conflict, is the bulk of the story, and begins when the incitingincident (or catalyst) sets things into motion. This is the part of the story where thecharacters go through major changes in their lives as a result of what is happening; thiscan be referred to as the character arc, or character development.The third act, or resolution, is when the problem in the story boils over, forcing thecharacters to confront it, allowing all elements of the story to come together andinevitably leading to the ending.
An example is the 1973 film The Exorcist: The first act of the film is when the maincharacters are introduced and their lives are explored: Father Karras (Jason Miller) isintroduced as a Catholic priest who is losing his faith. In act two, a girl named Regan(Linda Blair) becomes possessed by a demonic entity (the problem), and Karrascharacter arc is being forced to accept that there is no rational or scientific explanationfor the phenomenon except that she actually is possessed by a demon, which ties indirectly with the theme of him losing his faith. The third act of the film is the actualexorcism, which is what the entire story has been leading to.Theorists describing a texts narrative structure might refer to structural elements suchas an introduction, in which the storys founding characters and circumstances aredescribed; a chorus, which uses the voice of an onlooker to describe the events orindicate the proper emotional response to be happy or sad to what has just happened;or a coda, which falls at the end of a narrative and makes concluding remarks. Firstdescribed in ancient times by Indian philosophers and Greek philosophers (suchas Aristotle and Plato), the notion of narrative structure saw renewed popularity as acritical concept in the mid- to late-twentieth century, when structuralist literary theoristsincluding Roland Barthes, Vladimir Propp, Joseph Campbell and NorthropFrye attempted to argue that all human narratives have certain universal, deepstructural elements in common. This argument fell out of fashion when advocatesofpoststructuralism such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida asserted that suchuniversally shared deep structures were logically impossible.Northrop Frye in his Anatomy of Criticism deals extensively with what he calls myths ofSpring, Summer, Fall, and Winter.