Trends in mean monthly temperatures at Waseca, MN 1971-2000 normalsvs 1981-2010 normals Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Change in value (deg F) +2.3 +0.5 +0.8 +0.6 0.0 +0.3 +0.4 +0.5 +0.8 +1.1 +1.2 +1.1
Seasonal Temperature Trends in MN Winter (D,J,F) Spring (M,A,M) Fall (S,O,N) Summer (J,J,A)
Trends in average winter minimum temperatures Rochester, MN Period of Record 1951 - 1980 1961 - 1990 1971 - 2000 1981 - 2010 1951 - 1980 1961 - 1990 1971 - 2000 1981 - 2010 1951 - 1980 1961 - 1990 1971 – 2000 1981 - 2010 Ave Min Temp in Deg. F Jan 3.7 Jan 4.6 Jan 5.3 Jan 7.2 Feb 7.8 Feb 8.4 Feb 10.8 Feb 11.5 Mar 19.2 Mar 21.3 Mar 22.6 Mar 23.4
Historical ranking and distribution of mean daily temperature over the past 14 winters (Nov-Mar) in MN: 1=warmest Winter Mean Temp (F) Ranking (since 1895) 1997-1998 24.2 5th 1998-1999 23.0 8th 1999-2000 26.0 1st 2000-2001 15.8 79th 2001-2002 25.0 2nd 2002-2003 19.3 41st 2003-2004 20.3 28th 2004-2005 21.2 20th 2005-2006 23.2 6th 2006-2007 22.2 11th 2007-2008 16.7 63rd 2008-2009 16.7 72nd 2009-2010 21.5 17th 2010-2011 17.1 61st
Historical recurrence interval of 2 inch rains in MN is once per year.
Observed 2 inch rainfalls for the period 1991 – 2010 and maximum single day value for various communities: Location No. 2 in. rains Maximum Value (date) Fairmont 33 6.20 (9/15/2002) Albert Lea 33 7.50 (6/15/78) Mankato 32 7.72 (8/10/48) Blue Earth 38 7.10 (9/15/2004) Lake City 42 5.60 (5/28/70) Waseca 38 5.40 (8/31/62) Winnebago 40 8.64 (9/25/2005) Bricelyn 38 9.22 (9/14/2004) Amboy 36 9.48 (9/23/2010) Hokah 32 15.10 (8/19/2007)
Month exhibiting the highest annual 24-hr rainfall amount 1978-2009 (a shift in phase to later in the year) JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT
Livestock Production in Minnesota Turkeys Swine Dairy Equine Beef 1st 3rd 6th 9th 10th Cash receipts from Livestock are over half of MN Ag. Sales, 100,000 jobs state-wide
Manure “manus” – Latin for “hand” “problem,” “issue,” “disposed of,” “agricultural by-product” or “waste” “A valuable resource if used judiciously as a soil amendment or an environmental polluter if mismanaged” Larney et al., (2011)
Net Return Per 300,000 Gallons Manure $18,179 $866 $14,171 $7,977 $22,267 $5,196
The Upside of Manure Field research has shown an average of 7-10 % corn yield increase to hog-liquid and dairy-liquid manure above that obtained with optimum applications of N fertilizer (Randall, Schmitt, 1999) Long term investment
The Upside of Manure Averaged across years, the Uniform Manure and Site Specific Manure produced greater yields than the commercial fertilizer. The UM and SSM treatments also resulted in higher levels of N uptake than the commercial fertilizer treatment. Site-specific manure application is a good method of improving less productive soils or sites within a field.
“What smells worse than a hog lagoon ? …A lame duck arm twisting politician”
The Downside of Manure “Too much of a good thing” Environmental concerns (N, P) Pathogens, odors, Greenhouse Gases Antibiotics, hormones
Nitrogen in the Environment N is an essential element for plants and animals Often the most limiting nutrient for crop production High N can be toxic to animals – especially infants PHS for drinking water: 10 ppm NO3-N Very dynamic and mobile in the soil water system Very difficult to keep out of the environment – even with good management N Behavior Volatilization Denitrification Crop Uptake N Runoff/Erosion Leaching
N Losses Dairy Slurry on Corn Stubble Jokela and Meisinger, 2004
Why are we concern over incorporation of manure? Loss of N for crops ($) Reduces N:P ratio in manure N-based: more P build-up in soil P-based: buy more fertilizer N Eutrophication of surface waters (esp. marine, estuary) via atmospheric deposition Air quality – fine particulates The key to more efficient use of manure nutrients is conserving N. Credit: Bill Jokela
Phosphorus in the Environment P is an essential element for plants and animals High P is generally non-toxic to plants or animals Relatively immobile in soil P causes accelerated eutrophication Excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants Limits use of water for drinking, fishing, recreation, etc.
Phosphorus in the Environment P in phytate form is not bioavailable to non-ruminant animals. Because phytate from feed is unavailable for absorption, the unabsorbed phytate passes through the gastrointestinal tract, elevating the amount of P in the manure.
Current ApproachN vs P Balance based on available N Excess P will be applied Best management practices (BMPs) to minimize loss of excess P Soil conservation practices!
O K O P O P O K O P O K 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 2 2 Field Nutrient Imbalancewith Manure Most Common Approach “in the past in some states” Corn Nutrient Requirement N Dairy Manure Nutrient Content N N Based Manure Appl. N Corn/Dairy Manure
4R Nutrient Stewardship Biodiversity Resource use efficiencies: Energy, Labor, Nutrient, Water Nutrient loss Water & air quality Cropping System Objectives Healthy environment Soil erosion Adoption Nutrient balance Soil productivity Yield Ecosystems services Net profit Farm income Productivity Durability Profitability Working conditions Quality Return on investment Source: www.ipni.net/4R Yield stability
The Cornerstone of Best Management Practices Use of Right Input (nutrients, water, labor, money, machinery, technology) At the Right Time In the Right Amount At the Right Place In the Right Manner With the Right Genetics Khosla (2010)
Time of Application and Corn Yields Liquid dairy or hog manure applied (sweep injection) in Sept, Oct, and April 7 locations in southern MN Corn yields averaged 5% higher from April application compared to fall application (varied by site) Need to consider other logistical issues with spring application. Randall, et al 1999
Corn Yield as affected by manure application timing in Waseca Vetsch and Randall, 2010
Another Alternative: Sidedress Manure? Injected liquid swine manure in Ontario Potential Benefits Another window to apply manure May be drier conditions Good N availability and yields Can use PSNT to determine rate Ball-Coelho et al. 2005
Sidedress hog manure? Liquid hog manure at Waseca, 3 yrs Yield trends: PP manure > SD manure = PP urea > SD urea >> control Surface banding SD manure with incorporation by row cultivation within 6 hrs was inferior to injection Plant stand was not affected by SD application •Residual soil N was consistently greater with SD, injected application indicating potential for leaching loss the following spring. Credit: G. Randall
N-Credits Testing the response of 1st-year Corn after Alfalfa to N fertilizer with and without manure applied Jeff Coulter, Univ. of Minnesota
Balzer Dairy Corn 2011 Seedbed prep:Field cultivated (2x) Hybrid: Croplan 4338 (100-day VT3) Planting date: April 23 Seeding rate: 35,000 seeds/acre Herbicides: 5 gal/ac starter fert. with ascend. Roundup, Status, and MaxInMB post emergence. Alfalfa 2010 Cultivar: CroplanLegandary 5.0 Seeding date:April 2008 Seeding rate:15 lb/acre Manure rate: Injected liquid dairy manure at 1600 gal/ac. Manure N: 41 lb Total N/ 1000 gal. Final stand density: 4.3 plants/sq ft Terminated: Oct. 2010- with JD 2800 moldboard plow to depth of 10 inches. Southern MN Nutrient Efficiency Coalition
Perkins Dairy Alfalfa 2010 Cultivar: V.N.S. Seeding date: April, 2008 Seeding rate: 15 lb/ac Final stand density: 7 plants/sq ft Fall regrowth ht.: 11 inches Manure: Solid pen-pack topdressed at 5.2 tons/ac on 10/7/10 and incorporated on 11/17/10 with DMI ripper (10 inches deep). Manure N: 18 lb total N/ton (2.4 lb/ton NH4-N) Corn 2011 Seedbed prep. tillage: Field cultivator Hybrid: Pioneer 34A85 (109-day, RR2) Planting date: May 13 Planting density: 32,000 seeds/acre Starter fertilizer: None Herbicides: Roundup and Harness Southern MN Nutrient Efficiency Coalition
Instinct™ Instinct is manufactured by Dow AgroSciences and register for corn Nitrapyrinor 2-chloro-6-(tirchloromethyl) pyrine –same compound as N-Serve except formulated for UAN Mode of action – Nitrification inhibitor Credit: Carl Rosen
Availability of N in swine manure as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate Jeff Vetsch, Univ. of Minnesota (SROC)
Introduction Swine manure is applied as a nutrient source for corn. In Minnesota these applications begin in early October and usually conclude in early to mid November. Much of the nitrogen in swine finishing manure is in the ammonium form, it can rapidly nitrify if soils are warm. Univ. of MN recommends fall fertilizer N be applied after soils have cooled to ≤50° F (late October in southern MN).
Hypotheses Adding the nitrification inhibitor (Instinct™) to swine manure will slow nitrification of N or “stabilize the N” in the manure. In the Northern Corn Belt early October applications of manure are at the greatest risk for N losses.
Objective To measure corn yield, N uptake, N availability, and nitrate distribution in the soil profile as affected by swine manure application timing and rate the nitrification inhibitor Instinct™.
Methods Treatments (8 x 4 reps = 32 plots) Two manure application timings: Oct. 5 & Nov. 5 of 2010. Manure rate [2,440 (Oct) & 2700 gal/ac (Nov)] was adjusted based on the manure analysis from each application timing to give 120 lb of available N/ac based on 80% availability if sweep injected. Three rates of Instinct (0, 35, and 70 oz./ac) 120 lb N/ac as AA w/N-Serve on Nov. 5 Control (zero N)
Measurements Soil On Nov. 8, 2010 took 0-1’ samples from manure bands (Oct. appl only) for NO3 & NH4N On Jun. 1, 2011 took 0-3’ samples in one-foot increments from all treatments for NO3 & NH4N Plant SPAD chlorophyll meter at V10 and R1 Corn stover yield and N concentration at PM Grain at harvest Yield and protein (N concentration by NIR)
Precipitation and temperature (air and soil) departures from normal. Deep snowpack resulted in 3-4” of tile drainage in March.
Soil NO3-N and NH4-N as affected by October swine manure application and Instinct™ rate. Nov. 8, 2010 sampling. 0-1 ft depth sample
Soil NH4-N on June 1, 2011 as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate. 0-1 ft depth sample
Soil NO3-N on June 1, 2011 as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate.
Observations: soil data In November about a month after application, significantly less NO3-N and greater NH4-N were found when Instinct was added to fall-injected swine manure. By June, NH4-N concentrations in the manure plots were not different from the control, indicating most of the N had been nitrified. In June, significant movement of NO3-N in the soil profile had occurred in all treatments.
0-N control Oct. manure Oct. manure + 35 oz Oct. manure + 70 oz
Relative leaf chlorophyll content as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate.
Observations: chlorophyll data Significantly greater RLC at R1 with Nov (96.8%) application vs Oct (92.2%), when averaged across Instinct rate. RLC increased with increasing Instinct rate: 91.6, 94.9, and 97.0% for the 0, 35, and 70 oz/ac rates, respectively. These data show Instinct is an effective nitrification inhibitor for swine manure.
Corn grain yield as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate.
Observations: Yield data Delaying application of manure from October to November increased corn grain yields 11 bu/ac in this warmer than normal year. The addition of Instinct to fall-applied swine manure increased yields from 10 to 12 bu/ac and decreased corn grain moisture. November application of swine manure with Instinct produced similar yields as fall-applied anyhdrous ammonia with N-Serve.
Questions Jeffrey Vetsch email@example.com http://sroc.cfans.umn.edu/ http://sroc.cfans.umn.edu/People/Staff/JeffreyVetsch/index.htm 507-837-5654 Univ. of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center
Jose A. Hernandezjahernan@umn.edu612-625-4731University of Minnesota ExtensionDepartment of Soil, Water, and Climate http://z.umn.edu/jahernan http://www.extension.umn.edu/manure/ http://www.manure.umn.edu