Manure Management and Climate Change

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- Recent Climate Trends …

- Recent Climate Trends
- Basics of Manure Management
- Adaptation Strategies
- Current and Ongoing Research

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  • The work involved applying manure to the soil by hand.Other words: manufacture, manuscript, manual.
  • Net return for 300,000 gallons of liquid manure is shown based on the values indicated in the left column. It shows the differences that these factors can make in value. Fertilizer prices are $0.58 for N, $0.90 for P2O5, and $0.73 for K2O with an additional $9.00 per acre to apply nitrogen (anhydrous) and $6.25 per acre to apply dry fertilizer.
  • 12 years of data.Soil quality, Also much anecdotal evidence from farms.
  • Eghball, B., Bauer, C.J., Shapiro, C.A., Schepers, J.S. Site-Specific Manure Application Effects On Corn Yield And Nitrogen Status. Water Environment Federation. P. 1-17. 2001.
  • Not bad per se, but in large volumes in intensive systems.
  • PHS: Public Health Standard
  • “4R Nutrient Stewardship – The 4R nutrient stewardship concept defines the right source, rate, time, and place for plant nutrient application as those producing the economic, social, and environmental outcomesdesired by all stakeholders to the soil-plant ecosystem.”4R Nutrient Stewardship Style GuideNeed for a Style Guide. The 4R nutrient stewardship concept is spreading to many sectors of agriculture including farm-level practice, nutrient management education and research programs, and the development of government policy. Its utility will be enhanced if those employing it use terminology consistently and follow a common general structure. This guide is intended to encourage that consistency.Referencing the 4RsThe preferred core expression for referencing the 4Rs is “4R Nutrient Stewardship.”The term “4R Fertilizer Stewardship” comprises a subset depending on the same principles.Additional words may sometimes be added to the core expression depending on context. Examples include: framework and system.4R ComponentsDocuments on 4R nutrient stewardship should acknowledge all four components.The preferred set of terms for the components is right source-rate-time-place, in that order. The order is important only for consistency in communicating the concepts for 4R Nutrient Stewardship, since the decision sequence will interact in any order and is not linear with respect to these four components.Acceptable context-sensitive alternatives include, for source: form; for rate: amount, dose, volume; for time: timing, stage, season. Use of the preferred set of terms is strongly encouraged to avoid confusion and demonstratea unified stewardship effort by agriculture.4Rs and SustainabilityDocuments on the 4Rs should acknowledge that to be “right”, nutrient stewardship must offer balanced support of the economic, social, and environmental goals of sustainability as defined by stakeholders.Relating the 4Rs to Nutrient Best Management PracticesBest management practices (BMPs) are actions applied to resources which have been demonstrated through research to provide the best known combination of economic, social, and environmental performance. Because the resources of crop production (e.g. soil, climate, etc.) vary from one site to another, BMPs are site-specific. Every nutrient application involves all four components and all nutrient BMPs link to one or more of the 4R components.Documents on 4R nutrient stewardship should reflect the concept that the set of nutrient management practices used in any cropping system must collectively meet all four components as they are completely interconnected.This style guide is intended to improve understanding and communication related to the 4R nutrient stewardship concept. This document was prepared through cooperation of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI), Canadian Fertilizer Institute (CFI), The Fertilizer Institute (TFI), and others. June 2009 Ref. # 09068
  • “4R Nutrient Stewardship – A global framework for best management practices (BMPs) for fertilizer use. Fertilizer use BMPs—applying the right nutrient source at the right rate, time, and place—integrate with agronomic BMPs selected to achieve cropping system management objectives of productivity, profitability, durability, and health of the biophysical and social environment. A balanced complement of performance indicators can reflect the influence of fertilizer BMPs on the economic, social, and environmental goals for sustainable development.”See IPNI Concept Paper #1 at www.ipni.net/4R
  • Match fertilizer type to crop needsMatch nutrients available when crops need themKeep nutrients where crops can use themMatch amount of fertilizer to crop needs Select appropriate fertilizer and on-farm nutrient sources for the cropping system Soil testing N, P, K secondary and micronutrient Enhanced efficiency fertilizers Nutrient management planning Application timing Controlled release technologies Inhibitors Fertilizer product choice Application method Incorporation of fertilizer Buffer strips Conservation tillage Cover Cropping Soil testing Yield goal analysis Crop removal balance Nutrient management planning Plant tissue analysis Record keeping Variable rate technology Site-specific management

Transcript

  • 1. Adapting Manure Management Strategies to Climate Change
    Jose A. Hernandez, Ph.D, CPAg
    Extension Educator – Nutrient Management
  • 2. Outline
    Recent Climate Trends
    Basics of Manure Management
    Adaptation Strategies
    Current and Ongoing Research
  • 3. Part I. Courtesy of Dr. Mark Seeley, University of Minnesota
    RECENT SIGNIFICANT CLIMATE TRENDS IN MINNESOTA AND THE WESTERN GREAT LAKES
     
     
  • 4. RECENT SIGNIFICANT CLIMATE TRENDS IN MINNESOTA AND THE WESTERN GREAT LAKES
     
     
    • TEMPERATURE: WARM WINTERS AND HIGHER MINIMUM TEMPERATURES
      
     
    • DEWPOINTS: GREATER FREQUENCY OF TROPICAL-LIKE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR
     
     
    • MOISTURE: AMPLIFIED PRECIPITATION SIGNAL, THUNDERSTORM CONTRIBUTION
  • Statewide Annual Temperature History
  • 5. Trends in mean monthly temperatures at Waseca, MN 1971-2000 normalsvs 1981-2010 normals
    Month
    January
    February
    March
    April
    May
    June
    July
    August
    September
    October
    November
    December
    Change in value (deg F)
    +2.3
    +0.5
    +0.8
    +0.6
    0.0
    +0.3
    +0.4
    +0.5
    +0.8
    +1.1
    +1.2
    +1.1
  • 6. Seasonal Temperature Trends in MN
    Winter (D,J,F)
    Spring (M,A,M)
    Fall (S,O,N)
    Summer (J,J,A)
  • 7. Trends in average winter minimum temperatures Rochester, MN
    Period of Record
    1951 - 1980
    1961 - 1990
    1971 - 2000
    1981 - 2010
    1951 - 1980
    1961 - 1990
    1971 - 2000
    1981 - 2010
    1951 - 1980
    1961 - 1990
    1971 – 2000
    1981 - 2010
    Ave Min Temp in Deg. F
    Jan 3.7
    Jan 4.6
    Jan 5.3
    Jan 7.2
    Feb 7.8
    Feb 8.4
    Feb 10.8
    Feb 11.5
    Mar 19.2
    Mar 21.3
    Mar 22.6
    Mar 23.4
  • 8. Historical ranking and distribution of mean daily temperature over the past 14 winters (Nov-Mar) in MN: 1=warmest
    Winter Mean Temp (F) Ranking (since 1895)
    1997-1998 24.2 5th
    1998-1999 23.0 8th
    1999-2000 26.0 1st
    2000-2001 15.8 79th
    2001-2002 25.0 2nd
    2002-2003 19.3 41st
    2003-2004 20.3 28th
    2004-2005 21.2 20th
    2005-2006 23.2 6th
    2006-2007 22.2 11th
    2007-2008 16.7 63rd
    2008-2009 16.7 72nd
    2009-2010 21.5 17th
    2010-2011 17.1 61st
  • 9. Minnesota Statewide May Through September Mean Temperature Ranking of the past 19 Air Conditioning Seasons (1994-2011)
    1=warmest
    Year Percentile Rank for 1895-2011 (mean temp)
    1993 92(59.9 F)
    1994 43 (62.9 F)
    1995 * 32 (63.3 F)
    1996 * 63 (61.9 F)
    1997 55 (62.1 F)
    1998 6 (64.8 F)
    1999 * 33 (63.3 F)
    2000 52 (62.3 F)
    2001 * 20 (63.8 F)
    2002 * 31 (63.3 F)
    2003 * 37 (63.1 F)
    2004 88 (60.3 F)
    2005 * 26 (63.6 F)
    2006 * 17 (63.9 F)
    2007 * 9 (64.6 F)
    2008 69 (61.7 F)
    2009 75 (61.4 F)
    2010 * 28 (63.5 F)
    2011 * 5 (64.9 F)
  • 10. Trend in dewpoints of 70 F or higher in the Twin Cities
  • 11. Frequencies of July tropical dew points (70 F or higher) and associated Heat Index values for the Twin Cities since 1945.
    Year Hours with DP of Range of Heat
    70 F or greater Index Values (F)
     
    1949 223 98 - 112
    1987 223 98 - 104
    1955 206 98 - 113
    1999 192 98 – 115 (116*)
    1957 192 99 – 114
    2001 182 98 - 110
    1977 160 100 - 108
    1983 157 102 - 110
    1995 110 98 - 116
    305 98 – 109
    2004 108 98 - 105
    2011 243 98 - 118
  • 12. Historical Minnesota Heat Waves:
    Red denotes dewpoint driven
    1883, 1894, 1901, 1910, 1917,1921, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1964, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1988, 1995,1999, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010
  • 13. Long term trend in annual precipitation
  • 14. MN Annual Precipitation with 5-yr Tendencies
  • 15. Seasonality in MN Precipitation Trends
    Spring-M,A,M
    Winter-D,J,F
    Fall-S,O,N
    Summer-J,J,A
  • 16. Change in Annual Precipitation
    “Normals” at Mankato, MN
     
    PERIODAMOUNT (IN.)
    1921-1950                    27.26”
    1931-1960                    28.09”
    1941-1970                    29.31”
    1951-1980                    28.37”
    1961-1990                    28.89”
    1971-2000                    30.91”
    1981-2010 31.95”
     
    17% increase since 1921-1950 period
  • 17. Change in Annual Precipitation
    “Normals” at Willmar, MN
     
    PERIODAMOUNT (IN.)
    1921-1950                    23.01”
    1931-1960                    24.47”
    1941-1970                    27.63”
    1951-1980                    27.71”
    1961-1990                    28.21”
    1971-2000                    28.23”
    1981-2010 29.39”
     
    28% increase since 1921-1950 period
  • 18. Historical recurrence interval of 2 inch rains in MN is once per year.
     
    Observed 2 inch rainfalls for the period 1991 – 2010 and maximum single day value for various communities:
     Location No. 2 in. rains Maximum Value (date)
    Fairmont 33 6.20 (9/15/2002)
    Albert Lea 33 7.50 (6/15/78)
    Mankato 32 7.72 (8/10/48)
    Blue Earth 38 7.10 (9/15/2004)
    Lake City 42 5.60 (5/28/70)
    Waseca 38 5.40 (8/31/62)
    Winnebago 40 8.64 (9/25/2005)
    Bricelyn 38 9.22 (9/14/2004)
    Amboy 36 9.48 (9/23/2010)
    Hokah 32 15.10 (8/19/2007)
     
     
  • 19. Month exhibiting the highest annual 24-hr rainfall amount
    1978-2009 (a shift in phase to later in the year)
    JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT
  • 20. Shift in Precipitation Recurrence Intervals
  • 21. RECENT SIGNIFICANT CLIMATE TRENDS IN MINNESOTA AND THE WESTERN GREAT LAKES
     
     
    • TEMPERATURE: WARM WINTERS AND HIGHER MINIMUM TEMPERATURES
      
     
    • DEWPOINTS: GREATER FREQUENCY OF TROPICAL-LIKE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR
     
     
    • MOISTURE: AMPLIFIED PRECIPITATION SIGNAL, THUNDERSTORM CONTRIBUTION
  • Basics of manure management
    Part II.
  • 22. Livestock Production in Minnesota
    Turkeys
    Swine
    Dairy
    Equine
    Beef
    1st
    3rd
    6th
    9th
    10th
    Cash receipts from Livestock are over half of MN Ag. Sales,
    100,000 jobs state-wide
  • 23. Manure
    “manus” – Latin for “hand”
    “problem,” “issue,” “disposed of,”
    “agricultural by-product” or “waste”
    “A valuable resource if used judiciously as a soil amendment or an environmental polluter if mismanaged”
    Larney et al., (2011)
  • 24. The Upside of Manure
  • 25. Fertilizer Prices:1997 - 2011
  • 26. Net Return Per 300,000 Gallons Manure
    $18,179
    $866
    $14,171
    $7,977
    $22,267
    $5,196
  • 27. The Upside of Manure
    Field research has shown an average of 7-10 % corn yield increase to hog-liquid and dairy-liquid manure above that obtained with optimum applications of N fertilizer (Randall, Schmitt, 1999)
    Long term investment
  • 28. The Upside of Manure
    Averaged across years, the Uniform Manure and Site Specific Manure produced greater yields than the commercial fertilizer.
    The UM and SSM treatments also resulted in higher levels of N uptake than the commercial fertilizer treatment.
    Site-specific manure application is a good method of improving less productive soils or sites within a field.
  • 29. “What smells worse than a hog lagoon ?
    …A lame duck
    arm twisting politician”
  • 30. The Downside of Manure
    “Too much of a good thing”
    Environmental concerns (N, P)
    Pathogens, odors, Greenhouse Gases
    Antibiotics, hormones
  • 31. Nitrogen in the Environment
    N is an essential element for plants and animals
    Often the most limiting nutrient for crop production
    High N can be toxic to animals – especially infants
    PHS for drinking water: 10 ppm NO3-N
    Very dynamic and mobile in the soil water system
    Very difficult to keep out of the environment – even with good management
    N Behavior
    Volatilization
    Denitrification
    Crop Uptake
    N
    Runoff/Erosion
    Leaching
  • 32. Credit: Bill Jokela
  • 33. N Losses
  • 34. Credit: Bill Jokela
  • 35. N Losses
    Dairy Slurry on Corn Stubble
    Jokela and Meisinger, 2004
  • 36. Why are we concern over incorporation of manure?
    Loss of N for crops ($)
    Reduces N:P ratio in manure
    N-based: more P build-up in soil
    P-based: buy more fertilizer N
    Eutrophication of surface waters (esp. marine, estuary) via atmospheric deposition
    Air quality – fine particulates
    The key to more efficient use of manure nutrients is conserving N.
    Credit: Bill Jokela
  • 37. Source: Dr. Howard Brown, GROWMARK, Inc.
  • 38. Phosphorus in the Environment
    P is an essential element for plants and animals
    High P is generally non-toxic to plants or animals
    Relatively immobile in soil
    P causes accelerated eutrophication
    Excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants
    Limits use of water for drinking, fishing, recreation, etc.
  • 39. Phosphorus in the Environment
    P in phytate form is not bioavailable to non-ruminant animals.
    Because phytate from feed is unavailable for absorption, the unabsorbed phytate passes through the gastrointestinal tract, elevating the amount of P in the manure.
  • 40. Current ApproachN vs P
    Balance based on available N
    Excess P will be applied
    Best management practices (BMPs) to minimize loss of excess P
    Soil conservation practices!
  • 41. O
    K
    O
    P
    O
    P
    O
    K
    O
    P
    O
    K
    2
    5
    2
    5
    2
    5
    2
    2
    2
    Field Nutrient Imbalancewith Manure
    Most Common Approach “in the past in some states”
    Corn Nutrient
    Requirement
    N
    Dairy Manure
    Nutrient Content
    N
    N Based Manure Appl.
    N
    Corn/Dairy Manure
  • 42. Adaptation strategies
    Part III
  • 43. N P K
    Managing Nutrient Pollution
    Transport
    Sources
    Runoff
    Erosion
    Leaching
    Tile flow
    Subsurface
    flow
    Water Body
    Hydrology
  • 44. Critical Source Area Management
    Ex. 90% of the P comes from 10% of the area
    Identify and manage the critical source areas
    Critical Source Area
    Transport
    Source
    Nutrient Management on Landscapes
  • 45. 4R Nutrient Stewardship
    Source: www.ipni.net/4R
  • 46. 4R Nutrient Stewardship
    Biodiversity
    Resource use
    efficiencies:
    Energy, Labor, Nutrient, Water
    Nutrient loss
    Water & air quality
    Cropping System Objectives
    Healthy environment
    Soil erosion
    Adoption
    Nutrient balance
    Soil productivity
    Yield
    Ecosystems
    services
    Net profit
    Farm income
    Productivity
    Durability
    Profitability
    Working
    conditions
    Quality
    Return on
    investment
    Source: www.ipni.net/4R
    Yield stability
  • 47. The Cornerstone of Best Management Practices
    Use of Right Input (nutrients, water, labor, money, machinery, technology)
    At the Right Time
    In the Right Amount
    At the Right Place
    In the Right Manner
    With the Right Genetics
    Khosla (2010)
  • 48. Current and on-going research
    Part IV
  • 49. Time of Application and Corn Yields
    Liquid dairy or hog manure applied (sweep injection) in Sept, Oct, and April
    7 locations in southern MN
    Corn yields averaged 5% higher from April application compared to fall application (varied by site)
    Need to consider other logistical issues with spring application.
    Randall, et al 1999
  • 50. Corn Yield as affected by manure application timing in Waseca
    Vetsch and Randall, 2010
  • 51. Another Alternative: Sidedress Manure?
    Injected liquid swine manure in Ontario
    Potential Benefits
    Another window to apply manure
    May be drier conditions
    Good N availability and yields
    Can use PSNT to determine rate
    Ball-Coelho et al. 2005
  • 52. Sidedress hog manure?
    Liquid hog manure at Waseca, 3 yrs
    Yield trends: PP manure > SD manure = PP urea > SD urea >> control
    Surface banding SD manure with incorporation by row cultivation within 6 hrs was inferior to injection
    Plant stand was not affected by SD application
    •Residual soil N was consistently greater with SD, injected application indicating potential for leaching loss the following spring.
    Credit: G. Randall
  • 53. In-season Manure Application
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57. N-Credits
    Testing the response of 1st-year Corn after Alfalfa to N fertilizer with and without manure applied
    Jeff Coulter, Univ. of Minnesota
  • 58. Balzer Dairy
    Corn 2011
    Seedbed prep:Field cultivated (2x)
    Hybrid: Croplan 4338 (100-day VT3)
    Planting date: April 23
    Seeding rate: 35,000 seeds/acre
    Herbicides: 5 gal/ac starter fert. with ascend. Roundup, Status, and MaxInMB post emergence.
    Alfalfa 2010
    Cultivar: CroplanLegandary 5.0
    Seeding date:April 2008
    Seeding rate:15 lb/acre
    Manure rate: Injected liquid dairy manure at 1600 gal/ac.
    Manure N: 41 lb Total N/ 1000 gal.
    Final stand density: 4.3 plants/sq ft
    Terminated: Oct. 2010- with JD 2800 moldboard plow to depth of 10 inches.
    Southern MN Nutrient Efficiency Coalition
  • 59. Perkins Dairy
    Alfalfa 2010
    Cultivar: V.N.S.
    Seeding date: April, 2008
    Seeding rate: 15 lb/ac
    Final stand density: 7 plants/sq ft
    Fall regrowth ht.: 11 inches
    Manure: Solid pen-pack topdressed at 5.2 tons/ac on 10/7/10 and incorporated on 11/17/10 with DMI ripper (10 inches deep).
    Manure N: 18 lb total N/ton (2.4 lb/ton NH4-N)
    Corn 2011
    Seedbed prep. tillage: Field cultivator
    Hybrid: Pioneer 34A85 (109-day, RR2)
    Planting date: May 13
    Planting density: 32,000 seeds/acre
    Starter fertilizer: None
    Herbicides: Roundup and Harness
    Southern MN Nutrient Efficiency Coalition
  • 60. Instinct™
    Instinct is manufactured by Dow AgroSciences and register for corn
    Nitrapyrinor 2-chloro-6-(tirchloromethyl) pyrine –same compound as N-Serve except formulated for UAN
    Mode of action – Nitrification inhibitor
    Credit: Carl Rosen
  • 61.
  • 62. At What Soil Temperature does Nitrificationof NH4+ Completely Stop?
    50F
    36F
    32F
  • 63.
  • 64. Iowa: On-farm trials (2009)n = 12
    Instinct yield: 193.6 bu/ac
    Untreated yield: 195.3 bu/ac
    Difference: -1.75 bu/ac
  • 65. Iowa: On-farm trials (2010)n = 15
    Instinct yield: 184.8 bu/ac
    Untreated yield: 182.1 bu/ac
    Difference: 2.7 bu/ac
  • 66.
  • 67. Availability of N in swine manure as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate
    Jeff Vetsch, Univ. of Minnesota (SROC)
  • 68. Introduction
    Swine manure is applied as a nutrient source for corn. In Minnesota these applications begin in early October and usually conclude in early to mid November. Much of the nitrogen in swine finishing manure is in the ammonium form, it can rapidly nitrify if soils are warm. Univ. of MN recommends fall fertilizer N be applied after soils have cooled to ≤50° F (late October in southern MN).
  • 69. Hypotheses
    Adding the nitrification inhibitor (Instinct™) to swine manure will slow nitrification of N or “stabilize the N” in the manure.
    In the Northern Corn Belt early October applications of manure are at the greatest risk for N losses.
  • 70. Objective
    To measure corn yield, N uptake, N availability, and nitrate distribution in the soil profile as affected by swine manure application timing and rate the nitrification inhibitor Instinct™.
  • 71. Methods
    Treatments (8 x 4 reps = 32 plots)
    Two manure application timings: Oct. 5 & Nov. 5 of 2010.
    Manure rate [2,440 (Oct) & 2700 gal/ac (Nov)] was adjusted based on the manure analysis from each application timing to give 120 lb of available N/ac based on 80% availability if sweep injected.
    Three rates of Instinct (0, 35, and 70 oz./ac)
    120 lb N/ac as AA w/N-Serve on Nov. 5
    Control (zero N)
  • 72. Methods cont.
    Experimental site:
    Webster clay loam: OM=4.9%, Bray P1=22 ppm (VH), Exch. K=183 ppm (VH), pH=6.0.
    Previous crop: soybean
    Planted corn (Mycogen 2G500) at 35K seeds/ac on May 4
  • 73. Measurements
    Soil
    On Nov. 8, 2010 took 0-1’ samples from manure bands (Oct. appl only) for NO3 & NH4N
    On Jun. 1, 2011 took 0-3’ samples in one-foot increments from all treatments for NO3 & NH4N
    Plant
    SPAD chlorophyll meter at V10 and R1
    Corn stover yield and N concentration at PM
    Grain at harvest
    Yield and protein (N concentration by NIR)
  • 74. Precipitation and temperature (air and soil) departures from normal.
    Deep snowpack resulted in 3-4” of tile drainage in March.
  • 75. Soil NO3-N and NH4-N as affected by October swine manure application and Instinct™ rate.
    Nov. 8, 2010 sampling.
    0-1 ft depth sample
  • 76. Soil NH4-N on June 1, 2011 as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate.
    0-1 ft depth sample
  • 77. Soil NO3-N on June 1, 2011 as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate.
  • 78. Observations: soil data
    In November about a month after application, significantly less NO3-N and greater NH4-N were found when Instinct was added to fall-injected swine manure.
    By June, NH4-N concentrations in the manure plots were not different from the control, indicating most of the N had been nitrified.
    In June, significant movement of NO3-N in the soil profile had occurred in all treatments.
  • 79. 0-N control
    Oct. manure
    Oct. manure + 35 oz
    Oct. manure + 70 oz
  • 80. Relative leaf chlorophyll content as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate.
  • 81. Observations: chlorophyll data
    Significantly greater RLC at R1 with Nov (96.8%) application vs Oct (92.2%), when averaged across Instinct rate.
    RLC increased with increasing Instinct rate: 91.6, 94.9, and 97.0% for the 0, 35, and 70 oz/ac rates, respectively.
    These data show Instinct is an effective nitrification inhibitor for swine manure.
  • 82.
  • 83. Corn grain yield as affected by manure application timing and Instinct™ rate.
  • 84. Observations: Yield data
    Delaying application of manure from October to November increased corn grain yields 11 bu/ac in this warmer than normal year.
    The addition of Instinct to fall-applied swine manure increased yields from 10 to 12 bu/ac and decreased corn grain moisture.
    November application of swine manure with Instinct produced similar yields as fall-applied anyhdrous ammonia with N-Serve.
  • 85. Questions
    Jeffrey Vetsch
    jvetsch@umn.edu
    http://sroc.cfans.umn.edu/
    http://sroc.cfans.umn.edu/People/Staff/JeffreyVetsch/index.htm
    507-837-5654
    Univ. of Minnesota
    Southern Research and Outreach Center
  • 86. Jose A. Hernandezjahernan@umn.edu612-625-4731University of Minnesota ExtensionDepartment of Soil, Water, and Climate
    http://z.umn.edu/jahernan
    http://www.extension.umn.edu/manure/
    http://www.manure.umn.edu